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Eight-Hour League, I, 92; Na-
tional Labor Party, II, 209;
National Labor Union, II, 113;
New York Assembly, II, 95;
New York convention, II, 330;
Pittsburgh convention, II, 238,
324; Rochester convention, II,
165; Social Party, II, 208; so-
cialists, II, 276; Workingmen's
Party of California, II, 258.
Legislation: congress, II, 104,

105; government employés, II,
124; Massachusetts, II, 105-
107;
President Johnson, II,
104; state, II, 105, 107-109.
Status: adoption, first instance
of, II, 87; bricklayers, II, 476,
478, 479n; brotherhoods win,-
II, 528; cabinet makers, II,
225; carpenters, II, 424n, 477n;
failure, causes for, II, 109, 110;
gains, II, 378, 384; Haymarket
bomb, II, 386; in 1878, II, 177;,
soldiers, return of, II, 94;
strikes, II, 385, 418, 475, 476,
477.

Theories: employers' associations,
II, 30, 31; greenbackism versus,
II, 139, 140; make work, II,
479; Stewardism," II, 89–91,

66

303.
Emancipator, Milwaukee, socialist
organ, II, 275.

Emerson, Ralph W., individualism,
I, 494.

Employers' Associations, Attitude:

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66

apprenticeship, II, 51; black-
list, I, 403; closed shop, I, 404;
conspiracy, I, 406-410; eight-
hour movement, II, 30, 31; ex-
clusive agreements, II, 32;
Knights of Labor, II, 414; ma-
chinists, II, 56, 57; merchants'
associations, I, 132, 133; mould-
ers, II, 49;
trade agreements,
II, 33; unionism, I, 133, 134;
II, 26, 27, 28, 44.
Organisation: central bodies, I,
403, 404; Boston Master Me-
chanics, II, 30; builders, II,
424; disintegration, II, 55; in
Michigan, II, 26-29; New York
Master Builders' Association,
II, 29, 30; Northwestern Pub-
lishers' Association, II, 61;
packers, II, 418; spread, I, 401,
402; stove manufacturers, II,
50-55.

English, William, I, 196n, 425, 426,
461.

Engineers, Machinists and Mill-

wrights, Amalgamated Society
of, Cleveland convention, II,
326; Pittsburgh convention, II,
321.
England, conspiracy laws, I, 125;
feudalism, I, 142; International
Workingmen's Association, II,
213, 215; textile workers, I,
111; trade unionists, II, 205.
Erie, Pennsylvania, People's Party,
I, 207.
Europe, co-operation, I, 99, 100;
guilds, I, 36; International
Workingmen's Associations, II,
215; socialists of, I, 18; social-
ists from, II, 196.

Evans, Chris, II, 403, 426.
Evans, George Henry, I, 5, 234, 237,
242, 243, 461, 522-524, 525,
527-531, 537, 559.

F

Factory Inspection, plank in state
labour party platform in New
York, II, 242.

Factory System, Brownson, I, 495;
condition, I, 320, 544; in New
England, I, 305, 306; in Pater-
son, I, 420, 421; opposition, I,
320, 321, 331, 428, 429; shoe
makers, II, 37; strikes, I, 418,
419, 420, 422, 423; trades'
union, I, 374, 418; women, I,

422.
Farmers' Alliance, Northern: activi-
ties, II, 489; Southern: co-op-
eration for legislative reform,
II, 490, 491; join Knights of
Labor, II, 491; organised, II,
488-490; programme, II, 492.
Farmers' and Laborers' Union of
America, organised, II, 488.
Farmer-consumer,
favours protec-

tion, I, 41.

Faustus Association, fosters inven-
tions, I, 77.

Federalists, conspiracy laws, I, 139,

141.

Federation of Labor of New York,
organised, II, 517.

Federation of Organised Trades and
Labor Unions, conventions, II,
321-328, 376, 403; Knights

of Labor, II, 397; organised,
II, 309, 318; political action,
II, 463, 464; trade unions, II,
327.

Fehrenbatch, John, II, 157, 159, 175,
176.

Fellenberg, Emmanuel von, school at
Hofwyl, I, 247, 328.

Ferral, John, I, 312n, 390-392, 427,
429, 430, 531.

Ferrell, Frank, United Labor Party,
II, 459.

Fielden, Samuel, Chicago anarchist,
Haymarket Square, II, 393,

394.

Financial System, Conditions:

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con-

traction of currency, II, 151;
co-operation, I, 97, 98, 510; II,
112; extension, I, 7, 91, 92, 101,
102; failures of banks, I, 454;
Andrew Jackson, I, 347, 348;
legal tender acts, II, 14, 15;
politics, II, 142; rag money,
I, 349.
Opinions : Junior Sons of '76, II,
201, 202; labour, I, 180, 181,
296, 297, 298, 318-320, 330,
459; opposition, I, 220, 276,
277; Trades' Union, I, 435.
Reforms: abolition of national

banks, II, 209, 236; Beck's
ticket exchange, I, 511; Kel-
logg's, I, 519; Muhlenberg, I,
460; Proudhonism, II, 139;
Weitling's bank of exchange, I,
514.

Finch, John, organises trades'
union, I, 358.

Fincher, Jonathan C., II, 7, 8, 15,
24, 25, 39, 56, 93, 97, 126, 128.
Fincher's Trades' Review, circula-
tion, II, 16; established, II, 15;
on co-operation, II, 110, 111; on
local unions, II, 17-21;
moulder's organisation, II, 49;
on Rochdale plan, II, 40.
Fischer, Adolph, Chicago anarchist,
II, 393.

on

Fitzpatrick, P. F., II, 320, 412.
Foran, Martin A., cooper, I, 19; II,

75, 75n, 152, 157, 159, 176, 389,
463.

Ford, Ebenezer, and Working Men's
Party, I, 242, 255.
Foster, Frank, II, 327, 331.
Foster, W. A., II, 322, 324, 325,

328, 403, 406.

Fourierism, American, II, 204;

principles, I, 496, 497; produc-
tion, I, 498, 499.

See also, Brisbane; Association.
Fourier, Charles, co-operative an-
archist, I, 17, 18; principles, I,
496, 497.

France, solidarisme, I, 17.
Franklin, Benjamin, establishes loan
fund for mechanics, I, 79, 80;
organised printers, I, 87.
Franklin Institute, industrial edu-
cation, I, 78.

French Revolution, effect on indus-
try, I, 134.

Frick, H. C., Homestead strike, II,
496, 497.

Furniture Workers' National Union,
established, II, 226, 313;
Knights of Labor, II, 398.

G

Gag law, threatened, II, 257, 258.
Garment Cutters' Union, opposed
Knights of Labor, II, 197.
Garrison, William Lloyd, slavery, I,
525.

Gary, Joseph E., Judge, trial of
anarchists, II, 393, 394.
George, Henry, I, 563; II, 446–454,
457-461, 469.

Georgia, legal day, I, 544; regulates
profits, I, 51.

German Social Democratic Work-
ingmen's Union, joins Interna-
tional, II, 209, 210.
German Workingmen's

Alliance,

programme, II, 204.
German Workingmen's Union, Gen-
eral, Lassallean programme, II,
207, 208; Social Party, II, 208,
209; Union in Germany, II, 208.
Germany, Franco-Prussian War and
socialism, II, 225; Interna-
tional Workingmen's Associa-
tion, II, 215.

Gibson, C. William, II, 102, 112, 115,
116, 126.

Gilchrist, Robert P., II, 10, 34, 145.
Gleicheit, Die, Austrian socialist's

organ, II, 221.

Gilmore, William, Trades' union
leader, I, 470.
Gold, discovery, I, 12.
Gompers, Samuel, II, 176, 306, 307,
321-329, 331, 347, 402, 409,
412, 458, 473, 478, 479, 485, 499,

500, 501, 510, 510n, 512, 512n,
514, 517, 531, 531n.

Gould, Jay, II, 369, 370, 384.
Government ownership, and Ameri-
can Federation of Labor, II,
509-511; of railroads advo-
cated, II, 228, 231, 276.
Granite Cutters' National Union,
Cleveland convention, 1882, II,
326; established, II, 313;
Pittsburgh convention, 1881, II,
321.
Greeley, Horace, I, 17, 170, 171, 500,
507, 533, 538, 544, 544n, 548,
570, 576, 577, 588, 604.
Green, General Duff, I, 342, 445,
448, 449.

Greenbackism, Conditions: depres-

sion, II, 122, 123, 170; prosper-
ity, II, 249.

In Labour Congresses: II, 119-
124, 128, 165, 245.

In Politics: California, II, 263;
congressional election of 1878,
II, 245, 246; democrats, II,
249; "Greenback and Labor "
combination, II, 243; National
Nominating Convention, II,
250; New York, II, 242; Ohio,
II, 248; Pennsylvania, II, 247;
Pomeroy clubs, II, 246; West,
II, 244.

Theories: anarchism versus, II,
121; Douai, II, 224; Kellogg-
ism, II, 120; Proudhonism, II,
139; socialism versus, II, 196,
237-239, 285-290; trade union-
ism versus, II, 223.
Greenback Labor Party, National,

Butler campaign, II, 440; fail-
ure, II, 251; in 1882, II, 439,
440; in Pennsylvania, II, 242,
243; national convention, II,
285; organised, II, 241-247.
Greenback Party, 1874-1877, con-
ventions, II, 168-170; Peter
Cooper, II, 171; depression, II,
170; power, II, 196, 197.
Grottkau, Paul, II, 281, 287, 296,
387, 516.

Guilds, breaking up, I, 8; char-
ters, I, 46, 48; European, I, 77;
organisation, I, 7; revival of
principle, I, 492.

Gunton, George, II, 302n, 304.

H

Hague, The, Congress of Interna-

tional Workingmen's Associa-
tion, II, 213, 215.

Hales, John, London General Coun-
cil, II, 212, 213.

Hanna, Mark, trade agreement, II,
180.

Harding, William, II, 96, 99, 116,

119.

Hardy, Thomas, common law, I, 148.
Haskell, Burnette G., II, 298, 299.
Hat Finishers Union, established, II,
313.

Hatters of the City of Philadelphia,
I, 157.
Haymarket

bomb, II, 392-394;
eight-hour strike, II, 386.
Hebrew Trades, United, and Knights
of Labor, II, 519; organised in
New York, II, 518.

Heighton, William, education, I,

226.

Hennebery, Thomas, at Pittsburgh
convention, II, 321, 323.
Herttell, Thomas, abolition of im-
prisonment for debt, I, 328, 329.
Hewitt, Abram S., campaign, II,

450-452.

Heywood, Ezra A., anarchist, II,
126, 138, 138n.

Hinchcliffe, John, II, 17, 97, 99, 103,
115, 126, 152, 170.

Hine, Lucius A., I, 533; II, 128.
Hinton, Richard, II, 314n, 455.
Historical periods, characterised, I,
11-13; philosophies, I, 13, 14.
Hobson, J. A., production theory, I,
28.

Hogan. Thomas, I, 360, 425, 434,
461.

Horseshoers' Union, established, II,
313.

Homestead movement, see Land Pol-
icy.
Homework,

Bücher's use of the
term, I, 33; merchant-capitalist
stage, I, 103.

Hours of Labour, bakers', I, 162;
Boston ship carpenters, I, 311,
312, 325; building trades, I,
188; carpenters, I, 69; in 1839,
I, 172; labour parties, I, 331;
National Trades' Union, I, 433,
536; New England Working
Men's Association, I, 537, 539;
printers, I, 118; public employ-
ment, I, 192, 393-395; public
opinion, I, 174, 175; strikes for
shorter, I, 158-162, 183, 186-

602

189, 386-392; II, 367; sunrise
to sunset system, I, 158, 171,
174, 186, 189n, 544; ten-hour
movement, I, 110, 159n, 235,
303, 307, 324, 366n, 384.
Legislation, legislative investiga-

tion, I, 436, 437, 540; ten-hour
law in New Hampshire, I, 541,
542; in New York, I, 542, 543;
in Pennsylvania, I, 543; in
other states, I, 543-545.
Theories: citizenship, I, 170-172,
384, 385; make-work, I, 545,
546.

See also, Eight-Hour Day.
Housewrights of Boston, promote
inventions, I, 76.

Howard, Robert, II, 321, 322, 328,
331, 463.
Humanitarianism, anti-Chinise agi-
tation, II, 267; apprenticeship,
I, 595; co-operation, I, 565;
high-water mark, I, 564; hours
of labour, I, 536, 541; in 1837,
I, 12; in forties, I, 14; union-
ism, I, 576.

See also, Agrarianism; Associa-
tion; Co-operation; Land Pol-
icy; Transcendentalism.

Hungary, Bureau for

recruiting
contract labourers, II, 372.

I

Illinois, eight hour day, II, 108;
Knights of Labor, II, 381, 382;
unions, 1863, 1864, II, 19.
Immigration, decrease, 1855, 1856,
I, 616; increase, I, 413, 488,
489.

Character: change, I, 489, 490;
Chinese, II, 149, 150; contract,
II, 117, 118, 131, 324, 372, 373,
413, 414; German forty-eight-
ers, II, 204; in eighties, II,
360, 523.

Effects: competition, I, 9, 10; II,
86, 149, 150; hours of labour, I,
544; riots, I, 412, 415; strikes,
I, 597; II, 117, 179; trade union
membership, II, 315.
Imprisonment for Debt, abolition,
I, 221, 281, 296-298, 318;
wage-earner, I, 177-180, 221n.
Incorporation of unions, before Con-
gress, II, 328; early attitude
toward, II, 314; Farmers' Alli-
ance, II, 489n; law, II, 409;

labour conventions, II, 165, 324,
325, 330; Charles Wilson's plan,
II, 66, 67.

Industrialism, first move, II, 312;
forms, II, 534, 535.

Industrialists, in Columbia Typo-
graphical Society, I, 137.
Industrial Brotherhood, beginning,
II, 196.

Industrial Congresses, 1845-1856,
aims, I, 558; bargain for votes,
I, 559; city, I, 551, 552, 557;
land reformers control, I, 550,
551; organised, I, 548; Owen's
world convention, I, 549.
Cleveland, 1873: call, II, 159;
constitution, II, 160; co-opera-
tion, II, 161; panic, II, 161;
political action, II, 161; trade
unionism, II, 160; representa-
tion, II, 159.
Indianapolis:

II,

constitution,
167; trade unions, II, 166.
New York, 1850: bargain for
votes, I, 559; control, I, 555,
561, 562; organised, I, 552;
purpose, I, 554; representation,
I, 553; trade unionism, I, 557.
Rochester, 1874: arbitration, II,
165; constitution,
greenbackism, II, 164, 165; In-
II, 162;
dustrial Brotherhood, II, 163,
164; political action, II, 166;
representation, II, 162.
Industrial Cycles, Depression: ap-
prenticeship, II, 84; bank fail-
ures, 1837, I, 454, 455; causes,
II, 283; food riots, 1837, I, 12,
463, 464; greenbackism, II, 122,
168, 170, 245, 248, 249; in Cali-
fornia, II, 147, 148, 253, 267;
in 1829, I, 170; in 1833, I, 351;
in 1837-1852, I, 488, 489, 492;
in 1847, I, 564; in 1854, 1855,
I, 613-615; in 1857, II, 5; in
1861, II, 9, 10; in 1866-1868,
II, 115, 123, 124; in 1873-1879,
II, 195, 219, 220; in 1877, II,
185; in 1883-1885, II, 361, 362;
in 1893, II, 501; influence, I,
10; II, 472; Lassalleanism, II,
227, 228; prison labour, I, 369;
Sovereigns of Industry, II, 175;
strikes, I, 381, 382; unionism, I,
134-138, 456, 469, 614, 615; II,
46, 47, 161, 166, 175.
Prosperity: apprenticeship, II, 84;
in 1835, I, 348, 351; in 1862, II,

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II, 521; influence, I, 10; II,
472; political action, I, 326; II,
143; socialism, II, 284; strikes,
I, 381, 382.

Industrial Education, apprentice-
ship, I, 77, 78; demand, I, 284,
300, 301, 322; funds, I, 84, 85;
labour, I, 226, 228, 328.
Industrial Workers of the World, I,

17; industrialism, II, 533, 534;
organised, II, 523; trade agree-
ment, II, 527.

Infidelity, workingman accused, I,
211-213, 254, 272, 273, 290, 293.
Ingersoll, Jared, in Philadelphia
conspiracy case, I, 139.
Injunctions, see Conspiracy.
Intellectuals, term explained, I, 19,
20; welcome International, II,
210.

See also, Andrews, Stephen Pearl;
Brisbane; Cooper, Peter; Day,
H. H.; Foran, Martin
A.;
George, Henry; Greeley, H.;
Hinchcliffe; Kellogg, Edward;
Lloyd, Henry
McNeill,

D.;
George E.; Moore, Ely; Owen,
Robert; Owen, Robert Dale;
Sorge, F. A.; Steward, Ira;
Swinton, John; Warren, Josiah;
Wright, Frances.

International, Black, Central Labor
Union, II, 387; Chicago, II,
390; collapse, II, 394; Haymar-
ket Square bomb, II, 393, 394;
information bureau, II, 296; or-
ganised, II, 291; Pittsburgh
Convention, II, 293–296.
International, Bohemian Section,
formed, II, 209, 390.
International,

French Section,

formed, II, 209.
International, Red, established, II,
298-299; Socialist Labor Party,
II, 300n.

International Working People's As-
sociation, see International,
Black.

Interstate Commerce Act, injunc-
tions, II, 505.
International Labor Union, conven-

tion, II, 305; failure, II, 306;
organised, II, 302; programme,
II, 303, 304; textile workers,
II, 304; unskilled, II, 280.
International Workingmen's Associ-
ation, Organisation: American

Confederation, II, 213; Ameri-
can forerunners, II, 206, 207;
Bakunin and Marx, II, 214, 215;
central committee, II, 210, 211;
councils, II, 212, 213, 215; Euro-
pean federations, II, 216, 269,
270, 271; nationalisation, II,
231, 269-271; National Labor
Union, II, 131; North American
Federation, II, 214; organs, II,
221, 222, 230, 390n; sections, II,
209, 210, 216, 217; secessionists,
II, 217, 233; unemployed, II,
219, 220; Union Congress, II,
270; United Workers of Amer-
ica affiliate, II, 222.
Theories: II, 86, 87, 302, 303;
immigration, II, 131, 132; Las-
salleanisation, II, 228, 229; po-
litical action, II, 205, 218, 219;
trade unionism, II, 205, 223-
226, 233, 234.

See also, Bakunin, Michael; Carl,
Conrad; Claflin, Tennessee;
Hales, John; Marx, Karl;
Sorge, F. A.; Stiebling, George
C.; Woodhull, Victoria; Work-
ingmen's Party of United States.
Iowa, Greenbackism, II, 244, 248.
Irish World, The, supports Henry
George, II, 451.

Iron and Steel Workers, Amalga-

mated Association of, and A.
F. of L., II, 329; established, II,
313; Homestead strike, II, 495,
497; long strike, II, 181, 184,
185; organised, II, 179; trade
agreement, II, 179–181.

Iron Moulders, see Molders Interna-
tional Union.

Irons, Martin, Southwest strike, II,
383.

Italy, contract labourers, II, 372.
Itinerancy, Bücher's use of the term,
I, 33; competition, I, 45, 48, 49,
67; wages, I, 51, 52.
Inventions, encouraged, I, 76, 77.

J

Jackson, Alexander, J. W., I, 430,
434.

Jackson, Andrew, I, 269, 270, 347,
348.

Jarrett, John, II, 321-325, 329, 468.
Jessup, William J., II, 108, 113, 115,
116, 123, 124, 126, 133, 211.

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