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California Laws, 1865-1866, 1868.

Commonwealth v. John Kehoe et al. (Pottsville, 1876).
Connecticut Laws, 1867.

First Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Columbus,
Ohio, 1878).

House Journal, 29th Cong., 1st sess.; 39th Cong., 1st sess.

Illinois Public Laws, 1867.

Industrial Commission Report (Washington, 1901), VII and XVII. In Matter Jacobs, 98 New York 98 (1895).

Massachusetts Acts and Resolves, 1866.

Massachusetts House Documents, 1865, No. 259; 1866, No. 98; 1867, No. 44.

Missouri Laws, 1867.

Ninetieth General Assembly of the State of New Jersey, Minutes of Votes and Proceedings (1866).

New York Laws, 1867.

Ohio House Journal, 1866.

Pennsylvania Report (Harrisburg, 1878), of the Joint Special Committee of the Legislature of Pennsylvania on Contract Convict Labor, with accompanying Testimony. January 16, 1878.

Pennsylvania House Journal, 1866.

Report (Harrisburg, 1878) of Committee appointed by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to investigate the Railroad Riots in July, 1877.

Senate Committee on Education and Labor, Report on Relations between Capital and Labor (Washington, 1885), I.

United States Bureau of Education Circulars of Information (Washington, 1872), "Relation of Education to Labor." United States Session Laws, 38th Cong., 1st sess.; 41st Cong., 1st


United States Session Laws, 41st Cong., 1st sess., Appendix.
United States Statutes at Large, 37th Cong., 2d sess.
United States Statutes at Large, 38th Cong., 1st sess.
United States Statutes at Large, 40th Cong., 2d sess.

United States Statutes at Large, 42d Cong., 2d sess., Appendix.
Wisconsin Laws, 1867.

Wholesale Prices, 1890-1912, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin,
No. 114 (Washington, 1913).

Wright, Carroll D. Apprenticeship System in its Relation to Industrial Education, United States Bulletin of Education, No. 6 (Washington, 1908).

Young, Edward. Labor in Europe and America: a special report on the Rates of Wages, the Cost of Subsistence, and the Condition of the Working Classes (Washington, 1875). United States Treasury Department, Bureau of Statistics.


Archcroft's Railway Directory (New York, 1865).

Bemis, E. W. "Co-operation in New England," in American Economic Association, Publications (Baltimore, 1886-1887), I, 335-464. Also in Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1888), VI.

Campbell, Alexander C. The True American System of Finance (Chicago, 1864).

The True Greenback, or the Way to Pay the National Debt without Taxes and Emancipate Labor (Chicago, 1868). Chamberlain, E. M. Sovereigns of Industry (Boston, 1875). Cigar Makers' International Union, Proceedings, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867. Typewritten Record at Johns Hopkins University Library.

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ten des Vereins für Socialpolitik (Leipzig, 1879), XVIII. Fitch, J. A. "Unionism in the Iron and Steel Industry," in Political Science Quarterly, 1909, XXIV, 57–79.

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McCabe, James. History of the Grange Movement (Chicago, 1874).

National Union of Machinists and Blacksmiths of the United States of America, Proceedings (New York, 1868), Baltimore, November, 1860.

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Martin, E. W. History of the Great Riots (Philadelphia, 1877). Mitchell, W. C. "Gold, Prices and Wages under the Greenback Standard," in University of California Publications (Berkeley, 1908).

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Penny, Virginia. Five hundred Employments adapted to Women, Married or Single with the Average Rate of Pay in each (Philadelphia, n. d.).

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Pinkerton, A. Strikes, Communists, Tramps and Detectives (New York, 1900).

Rhodes, J. F. History of the United States (New York, 1895), III.

"Molly Maguires in the Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania," in American Historical Review, 1909-1910, XV, 547– 561.

Rogers, Edward H. Autobiography. Manuscript in possession of the American Bureau of Industrial Research, Madison, Wis. Eight Hours a Day's Work (Boston, 1872).

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History of the Coal Miners of the United States (Columbus, Ohio, 1902).

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also in Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1888),
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Poverty (Boston, 1873).

Sylvis, J. C. The Life, Speeches, Labors and Essays of William H. Sylvis (Philadelphia, 1872).

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of the tenth, eleventh and twelfth sessions, held at New York, Cleveland, and Louisville, Kentucky, May 5, 1862, May 4, 1863, and May 2, 1864, respectively.

National Typographical Union, Proceedings (Detroit, 1865), Philadelphia, June, 1865.

National Typographical Union, Proceedings (Boston, 1866), fourteenth session, Chicago, June, 1866.


Washington Daily Chronicle, 1869.
Philadelphia Enquirer, daily, 1861-1862.
New York Herald, daily, 1865-1869.
New York Times, daily, 1874-1876.
Chicago Tribune, daily, 1876-1879.
Detroit Tribune, daily, 1864.

New York Tribune, daily, 1861-1866.


American Workman (Boston), 1868-1872.

Cooper's Monthly Journal (Cleveland, Ohio), 1870-1874.

Daily Evening Voice (Boston), 1864-1867.

Fincher's Trades' Review, (Philadelphia), 1863-1866,

Engineer's Journal (Cleveland), 1869–1871.

Equity (Boston), 1874-1875.

Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Monthly Journal (Cleveland), 1872.
Miners' National Record (Cleveland), 1875-1876.
National Labor Tribune (Pittsburgh), 1875-1877.
Pomeroy's Democrat (Chicago), 1877.
The Printer (New York), 1864.

Printers' Circular (Philadelphia), 1866.
Welcome Workman (Philadelphia), 1867-1868.
Workingman's Advocate (Chicago), 1864-1877.


The secondary sources for this period naturally are more abundant than for previous periods. Dr. Ely's Labor Movement in America, published in 1886, during the climax of the upheaval, gives a contemporary appraisal by a trained eye of the social forces then at work. Waltershausen's Die nordamerikanischen Gewerkschaften, etc., and his Der moderne Sozialismus in den Vereinigten Staaten von America (Berlin, 1890) are also exceedingly helpful. Although he was clearly wrong in his conclusion that as a result of the growth of factory system of production, the mixed organisation of labour as typified by the Knights of Labor will come to prevail over separate organisation by trades, he none the less deserves to be classed among the keenest observers of American industrial life. His treatment of the subject is comprehensive and objective, although the book on socialism might benefit by a closer organisation of the material. A valuable cross-section description of the American labour movement during a period for which the then existing material is most meagre, namely, the later seventies, is found in Professor Henry W. Farnam's "Die Amerikanischen Gewerkvereine," in Schriften des Vereins fur Sozialpolitik (Leipzig, 1879), 1–39.

Sorge's contribution is particularly valuable for this period. He published one series of articles in the Stuttgart Neue Zeit (1891-1892, I, 206, 388; II, 197, 239, 268, 324, 453, and 495; 1894-1895, II, 196, 234, 272, 304, and 330; 1895-1896, II, 101, 132, 236, 262), as a connected history of the labour movement in America from 1877 to 1896, and another series in the same publication (1891-1892, II, 740 and 782; 18921893, I, 236 and 270, II, 326; 1894-1895, I, 14, 43, 71, 111,

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