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Trades' Union during a part of this time. The Baltimore Trades' Union was probably not started until 1836, but the record of the organisation it represented is partly preserved in a friendly paper, the Baltimore Republican and Commercial Advertiser.

Other labour papers, not necessarily trades' union papers, published during the time were the Radical Reformer and Working Man's Advocate in Philadelphia in 1835, the Working Man's Advocate in New York from 1829 to 1836, and The Man in the same city during 1834 and 1835. The Man was a daily penny paper and together with the Working Man's Advocate was published by George Henry Evans.

Valuable sources of information are also the papers friendly to labour at this time. These were the Baltimore Republican and Commercial Advertiser, already mentioned, the Pennsylvanian, and the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, and the Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, the Evening Post, the Plaindealer and the New Era of New York.

The hostile papers also throw some light on the movement, particularly the Boston Courier, the New York Journal of Commerce, the Albany Argus, the Philadelphia National Gazette and Literary Register, and the Washington United States Telegraph.

Other papers consulted, of a more general character were the Essex Tribune, the Lynn Record, the Boston Transcript, the Evening Transcript, American, Commercial Advertiser, and Daily Advertiser of New York, Hazard's Register of Philadelphia, Niles' Weekly Register of Baltimore, and the Commercial Bulletin and Missouri Literary Register of St. Louis.

Papers which properly belong to the political period, 18271833, were also referred to. These are the Delaware Free Press, published in Wilmington, Delaware, during 1830, the New York Daily Sentinel and Working Man's Advocate, a semi-weekly edition of the Working Man's Advocate published during the same year, and particularly the Mechanics' Free Press published in Philadelphia from 1828 to 1831.1

In addition to volumes V and VI of the Documentary History of American Industrial Society, edited by Professor Com

1 For a fuller account of these papers, see Bibliography: Citizenship, 1827-1833, 455 et seq.

mons and Helen L. Sumner, the only other collection of original sources is Ethelbert Stewart's Documentary History of Early Organizations of Printers.2 The principal secondary source is Barnett's exhaustive treatise, The Printers, A Study in American Trade Unionism.3 Evans Woollen, in Labor Troubles Between 1834 and 1837 discusses the labour problems of the time, but hardly mentions the organisations described here.


Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States, House Document, 22 Cong., I sess., No. 3081 (1803).

Laws of Pennsylvania, 1828-1829.

Manual of Councils of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1907-1908).
Messages and Papers of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1907-1908).
Messages and Papers of Presidents, 1789-1897, III. Miscellan-
eous Documents of the House of Representatives (1895).
Revised Statutes of New York, 1829.

Stewart, Ethelbert. A Documentary History of the Early Organizations of the Printers, in Bulletin of the United States Department of Labor, XI, 857-1033 (1905).

Report of the Commissioners Appointed by the Governor under the "Act Concerning State Prisons," Assembly Document (New York, 1835), No. 135.

Report of the Commissioners on the Penal Code of Pennsylvania, in Senate Journal, 1827-1828.

Report of Gershom Powers, Agent and Keeper of the State Prison at Auburn to the Legislature, Assembly Document (Albany, 1828), No. 135.

United States Bureau of Labor, Sixteenth Annual Report, "Strikes and Lockouts" (1887).

United States Census, 1880. History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States. United States Census, 1880. Report on the Agencies of Transportation in the United States.

United States House Journal, 24 Cong. 1st sess. (1835).

United States Immigration Commission. Report, Sen. Doc., 61 Cong., 3d sess., No. 750, IX, XXXIX.

United States Secretary of the Treasury on the State of Finances. Report, 1827-1838, 1863.

United States Senate Document, 24 Cong. 2d sess., No. 5, "Immigration" (Washington, 1836).

2 United States Department of Labor, Bulletin, 1905, Vol. XI.

8 American Economic Association Quarterly, 1909, 3rd ser., Vol. X.

4 Yale Review, 1892, pp. 87-100.

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Wright, Carroll D. Report on the Factory System in the United States, United States Census, 1880, II.


Abbott, Edith. Women in Industry (New York and London, 1910).

Bogart, E. L. The Economic History of the United States (New York, 1907).

Byrdsall, F. The History of the Loco-Foco or Equal Rights Party (New York, 1842).

Commonwealth v. Hunt, Thacher's Criminal Cases; 4 Metcalf III.
Carey, M. Appeal to the Wealthy of the Land (Philadelphia,
Coggeshall, William T. An Essay on Newspapers, Historical and
Statistical, read before the Ohio Historical Association at
Zanesville, January 17, 1855 (Columbus, Ohio, 1855).

Coman, Katharine. The Industrial History of the United States (New York, 1905).

Derby, J. C. Fifty Years among Authors, Books and Publishers (New York, 1884).

Desmond, H. J. The Know-Nothing Party (Washington, 1905). Dewey, D. R. Financial History of the United States (New York, 1905).

Finch, John. Rise and Progress of the General Trades' Union of the City of New York and its Vicinity, with an Address to the Mechanics of the City of New York and Throughout the United States (New York, 1833, Pamphlet).

Harper, Henry J. The House of Harper (New York and London, 1912).

Hudson, Frederick. Journalism in the United States, from 1690 to 1872 (New York, 1873).

Journeymen Cabinet-Makers of the City of Philadelphia. Constitution (Philadelphia, 1829).

Kerr, R. W. Government Printing Office with a Brief Record of the Public Printing for a Century, 1789–1881 (Lancaster, Pa., 1881).

Knox, John J. History of Banking in the United States (New York, 1900).

Laws of the State of New York, 1785, 1795, 1805, 1815, 1825, 1835, 1836.

Luther, Seth. Address to the Working Men of New England (Boston, 1832).

Myers, Gustavus. The History of Tammany Hall (New York, 1901).

National Typographical Society. Proceedings, together with the Constitution for a National Typographical Society (Washington, 1836).

On the Prisons of Philadelphia, by An European (Philadelphia, 1796).

One Hundred Years of Publishing, 1785–1885 (Philadelphia, 1885).

People v. Fisher et al., 14 Wendell 10 (1835).

Poor, Henry V. Manual of Railroads of the United States (New York, 1881).

Prison Discipline Society, Board of Managers, Annual Report, 1827-1835 (Boston).

Proceedings of the Government and Citizens of Philadelphia on the Reduction of the Hours of Labor and Increase of Wages (Boston, 1835, Pamphlet).

Putnam, G. H. George Palmer Putnam, A Memoir (New York and London, 1912).

Report on the Production and Manufacture of Cotton, 1832, New York Convention of the Friends of Domestic Industry.

Scharf, J. T. Chronicles of Baltimore (Baltimore, 1874). Schouler, James S. History of the United States of America (New York, 1908-1913).

Tanner, H. S. A Description of the Canals and Rail Roads of the United States (New York, 1840).

United States. Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury, 18291844.

White, George S. Memoirs of Samuel Slater, the Father of American Manufactures, connected with a History of the Rise and Progress of the Cotton Manufacture in England and America (Philadelphia, 1836).

Winsor, Justin. Memorial History of Boston (Boston, 1881), III.


Albany Argus, semi-weekly, 1833-1837.

American (New York), daily, 1836.

American Sentinel (Philadelphia), daily, 1833-1835.

Baltimore Republican and Commercial Advertiser, daily, 1833


Banner of the Constitution (Washington, New York, Philadelphia), weekly, 1829-1832.

Columbian Centinel (Boston), 1829.

Commercial Bulletin and Missouri Literary Register (St. Louis), weekly, 1835.

Courier (Boston), daily, 1833-1839.

Daily Evening Transcript (Boston), 1833-1836.

Democratic Press (Philadelphia), daily, 1829.

Evening Post (New York), daily, 1835-1839.

Evening Transcript (New York), daily, 1834-1836.
Lynn Record, daily, 1834.

Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, daily, 1833-1836. National Gazette and Literary Register (Philadelphia), semiweekly, 1838-1839.

New Era (New York), weekly, 1837.

New York Journal of Commerce, daily, 1833-1839.
Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore), 1835-1838.
Pennsylvanian (Philadelphia), daily, 1835-1838.
Plaindealer (New York), weekly, 1836.

Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), 1828-1833.
Public Ledger (Philadelphia), daily, 1836-1838.

Register of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), daily, 1833-1839.

United States Telegraph (Washington), semi-weekly, 1834-1835. Washingtonian, daily, 1836.

The following labour papers have been preserved: (See the Bibliography for the preceding period for a fuller statement on the labour papers during the thirties.)

Delaware Free Press, weekly, 1830.

Co-operator (Utica, N. Y.), weekly, 1832-1833.

Mechanics Free Press (Philadelphia), weekly, 1828-1831.

The Man (New York), weekly, 1834-1835.

National Laborer (Philadelphia), weekly, 1836-1837.

National Trades' Union (New York), weekly, 1836-1837.

Radical Reformer and Working Man's Advocate (Philadelphia), weekly, 1836.

Working Man's Advocate (New York), weekly, 1829–1836.


The bibliography of this period consists chiefly of contemporary sources, many of which are quoted in the Documentary History of American Industrial Society. These contemporary sources may be roughly divided into three classes: the newspaper press, the reform press, and public documents.

The newspaper press, then as now, contained current news items which, taken together, afford a fairly definite picture of the economic conditions of the time and of the labour and reform movements which were initiated for the purpose of chang

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