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more numbers of which are positively known to have been issued, are completely lost. This list includes all of the labour papers published at Boston, Baltimore, and Washington. It includes, moreover, papers published in all parts of the country, from New York to Cincinnati and from Portland, Maine, to Charleston, South Carolina.

A helpful source of information was a collection of scrapbooks of newspaper clippings made between 1828 and 1839 by Mathew Carey, the father of the economist and the first American investigator and ardent champion of working women. This collection is preserved in the Ridgway Branch of the Library Company in Philadelphia under the general title Carey's Excerpta, Select Excerpta or Scraps. Unfortunately these clippings are undated and are not even labelled with the names of the papers from which they were taken.


Address of the Association of Mechanics and Other Working Men of the City of Washington to the Operatives throughout the United States (Washington, printed at the office of the National Journal by Wm. Duncan, 1830).

Address of the General Executive Committee of the Mechanics and Other Working Men of the City of New York, read at a General Meeting of Working Men held at West Chester House, Bowery (New York, 1830).

Address of the Majority of the General Executive Committee of the Mechanics and Other Working Men of the City of New York (New York, 1830).

Beard, C. A. Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (New York, 1915).

Bourne, W. O. History of the Public School Society of the City of New York (New York, 1879).

Bradford, Alden. Biographical Notices of Distinguished Men in New England (Boston, 1842).

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Commons, J. R. Junior Republic," American Journal of Sociology, November, 1897, and January, 1898.

Evans, F. W. Autobiography of a Shaker (Mount Lebanon, New York, 1869).

Gilbert, Amos. Memoirs of Frances Wright (Cincinnati, 1855). Greeley, H. Recollections of a Busy Life (New York, 1868).

Luther, Seth. An Address to the Working Men of New England (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1832).

McMaster, J. B. The Acquisition of Political, Social and Industrial Rights of Man in America (Cleveland, 1903). Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, Eleventh Annual Report, "Strikes in Massachusetts" (Boston, 1880). Montgomery, James A. Practical Detail of the Cotton Manufacture of the United States of America (New York, 1840). Owen, Robert Dale. Threading My Way (New York, 1874). Paine, Thomas. Agrarian Justice as Opposed to Agrarian Law and to Agrarian Monopoly (London, 1797).

Pennsylvania Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth, "Militia Law of 1822," (Harrisburg, 1822).

Pierce, F. C. Foster Genealogy (Chicago, 1899).

Political Essays, October 1, 1831, by the New York Association for
Gratuitous Distribution of Discussions on Political Economy.
Prison Discipline Society. Reports, 1829-1835 (Boston).
Public School Society of New York, Twenty-seventh and Twenty-
eighth Annual Reports of the Trustees (1832-1833).

Proceedings of a Meeting of Mechanics and Other Working
Men Held at New York on December 29, 1829 (New York,
Proceedings of the Working Men's Convention (Boston, 1833).
Proceedings of the Working Men's State Convention at Salina,
New York (Auburn, New York, 1830).

Report on the Production and Manufacture of Cotton, by the Convention of the Friends of Domestic Industry (New York, 1832).

Richardson, James D. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897 (Vols. II and III, Washington, 1896).

Secrist, H." The Anti-Auction Movement of 1828," Annals of Wisconsin Academy, Vol. XVII, No. 2.

Sharpless, Isaac. Two Centuries of Pennsylvania History (Philadelphia, 1909).

Skidmore, Thomas. The Rights of Man to Property (New York, 1829).

Sumner, H. L. "History of Women in Industry in the United States," Sen. Doc., 61st Cong. 2d sess. No. 645 (Washington, 1910).

Thorpe, F. N. The Federal and State Constitutions (Washington, 1909).

To the Working Men of New England (Boston, Aug. 11, 1832). Trumbull, Levi R. A History of Industrial Paterson (Paterson, New Jersey, 1882).

United States Bureau of Labor. Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage Earners, Vol. IX.

United States Census, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1910.

Whitcomb, Samuel, Jr. Address Before the Working Men's Society of Dedham (Boston, 1831).

Wright, Frances. Views of Society and Manners in America (London, 1821).

Young, John R. Memorial History of the City of Philadelphia (2 vols., New York, 1895, 1898).


The history of the movement contained in these chapters is based almost entirely upon the labour papers that sprang up with it. The New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore trades' unions established papers of their own; the Boston Trades' Union chose the New England Artisan, the organ of the New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics, and Other Working Men, as its official paper; and the Washington Trades' Union published its minutes in the Washingtonian. The National Trades' Union had its official organ in the National Trades' Union, a weekly, established in New York City in 1834, and published during this and the following year by Ely Moore, president of the organisation, and the first labour member of Congress.

Unfortunately the New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore trades' union papers are among the twenty-one or more labour papers published from 1833 to 1839 that have not been located. Their loss is partly compensated, however, in the possession of other trades' union papers, some of which begin where others ended, thus making the story more or less complete. The New York Union did not appear until 1836, but before that time the Trades' Union published its proceedings in the National Trades' Union, which has been preserved by Ely Moore, of Lawrence, Kansas, a son of the editor, and which constitutes an invaluable source of information not only for the Trades' Union of New York City, but for the National Trades' Union and the trade union movement at large. The Philadelphia Trades' Union was started in 1834 and probably ran until 1836, when the National Laborer appeared. The latter paper was published from March, 1836, to March, 1837, by the National Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and edited by Thomas Hogan, president of the

Trades' Union during a part of this time. The Baltimore Trades' Union was probably not started until 1836, but the record of the organisation it represented is partly preserved in a friendly paper, the Baltimore Republican and Commercial Advertiser.

Other labour papers, not necessarily trades' union papers, published during the time were the Radical Reformer and Working Man's Advocate in Philadelphia in 1835, the Working Man's Advocate in New York from 1829 to 1836, and The Man in the same city during 1834 and 1835. The Man was a daily penny paper and together with the Working Man's Advocate was published by George Henry Evans.

Valuable sources of information are also the papers friendly to labour at this time. These were the Baltimore Republican and Commercial Advertiser, already mentioned, the Pennsylvanian, and the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, and the Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, the Evening Post, the Plaindealer and the New Era of New York.

The hostile papers also throw some light on the movement, particularly the Boston Courier, the New York Journal of Commerce, the Albany Argus, the Philadelphia National Gazette and Literary Register, and the Washington United States Telegraph.

Other papers consulted, of a more general character were the Essex Tribune, the Lynn Record, the Boston Transcript, the Evening Transcript, American, Commercial Advertiser, and Daily Advertiser of New York, Hazard's Register of Philadelphia, Niles' Weekly Register of Baltimore, and the Commercial Bulletin and Missouri Literary Register of St. Louis.

Papers which properly belong to the political period, 18271833, were also referred to. These are the Delaware Free Press, published in Wilmington, Delaware, during 1830, the New York Daily Sentinel and Working Man's Advocate, a semi-weekly edition of the Working Man's Advocate published during the same year, and particularly the Mechanics' Free Press published in Philadelphia from 1828 to 1831.1

In addition to volumes V and VI of the Documentary History of American Industrial Society, edited by Professor Com

1 For a fuller account of these papers, see Bibliography: Citizenship, 1827-1833, 455 et seq.

mons and Helen L. Sumner, the only other collection of original sources is Ethelbert Stewart's Documentary History of Early Organizations of Printers.2 The principal secondary source is Barnett's exhaustive treatise, The Printers, A Study in American Trade Unionism.3 Evans Woollen, in Labor Troubles Between 1834 and 1837 discusses the labour problems of the time, but hardly mentions the organisations described here.



Documents Relative to the Manufactures in the United States, House Document, 22 Cong., I sess., No. 3081 (1803).

Laws of Pennsylvania, 1828-1829.

Manual of Councils of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1907-1908).
Messages and Papers of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1907-1908).
Messages and Papers of Presidents, 1789-1897, III. Miscellan-
eous Documents of the House of Representatives (1895).
Revised Statutes of New York, 1829.

Stewart, Ethelbert. A Documentary History of the Early Organizations of the Printers, in Bulletin of the United States Department of Labor, XI, 857-1033 (1905).

Report of the Commissioners Appointed by the Governor under the "Act Concerning State Prisons," Assembly Document (New York, 1835), No. 135.

Report of the Commissioners on the Penal Code of Pennsylvania, in Senate Journal, 1827-1828.

Report of Gershom Powers, Agent and Keeper of the State Prison at Auburn to the Legislature, Assembly Document (Albany, 1828), No. 135.

United States Bureau of Labor, Sixteenth Annual Report, "Strikes and Lockouts" (1887).

United States Census, 1880. History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States. United States Census, 1880. Report on the Agencies of Transportation in the United States.

United States House Journal, 24 Cong. 1st sess. (1835).

United States Immigration Commission. Report, Sen. Doc., 61 Cong., 3d sess., No. 750, IX, XXXIX.

United States Secretary of the Treasury on the State of Finances. Report, 1827-1838, 1863.

United States Senate Document, 24 Cong. 2d sess., No. 5, "Immigration" (Washington, 1836).

2 United States Department of Labor, Bulletin, 1905, Vol. XI.

8 American Economic Association Quarterly, 1909, 3rd ser., Vol. X.

4 Yale Review, 1892, pp. 87-100.

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