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Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections (2d ser. Boston,
Marx, Karl. Capital. (3 vols., Kerr edition, Chicago, 1909). A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (translated by N. I. Stone, New York, 1904).
Marx and Engels. Manifesto of the Communist Party.
Mease, James. The Picture of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1811).
Annals of the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York, from 1785 to 1880 (New York, 1882). Morgan, Forrest (editor-in-chief). Connecticut as a Colony and as a State (Vol. II, Hartford, 1902).
Morgan, Lewis H. Ancient Society (New York, 1877).
New York Typographical Society. MS. Minutes (1809-1818, in Johns Hopkins University Library).
Nystrom, P. H. The Economics of Retailing (New York, 1913). O'Callaghan, E. B. Calendar of Historical Manuscripts in the office of the Secretary of State, Albany, N. Y. (English Manuscripts, Pt. II, Albany, 1866).
Pasko, W. W. American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking (New York, 1894).
Philadelphia Typographical Society. MS. Minutes, (1802-1811, in Johns Hopkins University Library).
A Historical Sketch of the Philadelphia Typographical Society, in Printers' Circular (Philadelphia, 1867).
Schmoller, Gustav. Grundriss der Allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre, Vol. II (Leipzig, 1904).
The Mercantile System and Its Historical Significance (New York, 1896).
Seligman, E. R. A. The Economic Interpretation of History (New York, 1912).
Simons, A. M. Social Forces in American History (New York, 1911).
Smith, Thomas E. V. The City of New York in the Year of Washington's Inauguration, 1789 (New York, 1899).
Stewart, Ethelbert. Two Forgotten Decades in the History of Labor Organizations, 1820-1840, in American Federationist, XX, 518.
Sumner, William G. A History of American Currency (New York, 1876).
Taussig, F. W. The Tariff History of the United States (6th ed., New York, 1914).
Turner, F. J. Rise of the New West (New York, 1906, Vol. XIV of the American Nation Series).
Unwin, George. Industrial Organization in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Oxford, 1904).
Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler. History of the City of New York in the Seventeenth Century (2 vols., New York, 1909). Vandervelde, Emile. Collectivism and Industrial Evolution (translated by C. H. Kerr, Chicago, 1901).
Waltershausen, A. Sartorius Freih. v. Die nordamerikanischen Gewerkschaften, unter dem Einfluss der fortschreitenden Productionstechnik (Berlin, 1886).
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice. The History of Trade Unionism (new ed., New York, 1902).
Weeden, William B. Economic and Social History of New England (Vols. I and II, New York, 1890).
Wilson, James Grant. The Memorial History of the City of New York (Vol. III, New York, 1893).
The American Museum (Philadelphia), printed by Mathew Carey, Vol. III.
Aurora and General Advertiser (Philadelphia), 1803, 1805, 1806. Charleston City (North Carolina) Gazette, 1825.
Columbian Centinel (Boston), 1825.
Dunlap's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), 1791.
Federal Intelligencer and Baltimore Gazette (Baltimore), 1795.
The General Advertiser (Philadelphia), 1791.
Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore), 1812.
PART II. CITIZENSHIP - 1827-1833
The secondary sources for this period are very meagre. A history of the Working Men's party in New York was written by one of its most prominent leaders, George Henry Evans, and published in a monthly magazine (The Radical, 18411843, "History of the Working Men's Party"). Another by Hobart Berrian is entitled The Origin and Rise of the Working Men's Party (Washington, n. d., ca. 1841). John B. McMaster treats of the workingmen's movement in his History of the People of the United States (New York, 1900), volume V, 84-108, but he attaches too much significance to the "intellectuals" in the movement. George E. McNeill in his The
Labor Movement: The Problem of To-day (Boston, 1887) and Professor R. T. Ely in his The Labor Movement in America (New York, 1886) also treat at some length of the workingmen's parties of 1827 to 1833.
A brief summary of this period entitled "Labor Organizations and Labor Politics, 1827-1837," based in part on the material used by the writer, was published by Professor John R. Commons in the Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1907, XXI, 323–329. A discussion of the working class origins of the public school system in America, also based in part upon this material, is contained in Frank Tracy Carlton, Economic Influences upon Educational Progress in the United States, 1820-1850, University of Wisconsin, Bulletin, Economics and Political Science Series, Vol. IV, No. 1 (Madison, 1908). The Webbs' History of Trade Unionism (London, 1911) Chap. II, 102-161, deals with the contemporary movement in England, and offers a valuable historical perspective.
By far the most valuable sources of information for this period have been the few existing files of papers published during these years. The newspapers and periodicals may be roughly divided into two classes, those which were sympathetic and those which were hostile towards the labour movement. Among the sympathetic papers the most important were the Baltimore Republican, the Morning Herald1 and the Evening Post of New York, the Pennsylvanian and the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, the Boston Transcript, and the Washingtonian of Washington, D. C. The chief papers opposed to the labour movement during this period were the New York Journal of Commerce, the Philadelphia National Gazette, the Boston Courier, the Albany Argus, and the United States Telegraph of Washington. Other general papers which from time to time printed labour news were Niles' Weekly Register, of Baltimore; the American Sentinel, the Freeman's Journal, the Democratic Press, the Free Trade Advocate, Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, the Pennsylvania Inquirer, the Philadelphia Gazette, the United States Gazette, and the Banner of
1 This was a predecessor, published in 1830, of the Herald, started by James Gordon Bennett in 1835.
2 The Boston Transcript was favourable
to the labour movement until 1864, when it changed its attitude as the result of a printers' strike,
the Constitution, of Philadelphia; the American, the Commercial Advertiser, the Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, and the Mercury, of New York; the Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, the Chronicle, the Columbian Centinel, the Daily Advertiser and Patriot, the People's Magazine, and the New England Weekly Review, of Boston; the Mercury and Journal, of Lowell; the Troy Farmer's Register; and the Rochester Craftsman and Examiner. The amount of attention given to the movement by the contemporary press proves that it loomed large in the everyday life of the times.
More or less complete files of ten labour papers which appeared during this period have been located and examined. Of these six belong exclusively to the years of political activity before 1832; one was published during these years and also during the later trade union movement; and three of lesser importance The Co-operator, of Utica, 1832-1833, the State Herald; the Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Advocate, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1831-1833, and the Working Men's Shield of Cincinnati, 1832-1833,- belong to the period just after the political movement had disappeared. The New York Anti-Auctioneer, 1828, was a campaign sheet published by a political organisation of master mechanics.
The first distinctly labour paper ever published in the United States, and perhaps the first in the world, was the Journeyman Mechanics' Advocate, started in Philadelphia in June or July, 1827.3 It appears, however, to have been short lived, and the first labour paper of which any numbers are now in existence is the Mechanics' Free Press, which was first published on January 12, 1828, in Philadelphia. Even this antedated by two years the first issue of a similar journal in England. The earliest number preserved is dated April 12, 1828, and the latest April 3, 1831, when a change of management was announced. The paper was still in existence as late as October, 1831,5 but it was then said to have "become degenerate."
The most important of the labour papers published during the political movement, of which files have been preserved, was
June 20, 1827.
4 Webb, History of Trade Unionism in
5 New York Working Man's Advocate, Oct. 8, 1831.
The Working Man's Advocate, of New York, the first number of which was issued on October 31, 1829, and which was edited from that date until 1836 by George H. Evans, the prominent land reformer. During 1830 a daily edition was published under the title New York Daily Sentinel, and a semi-weekly, a few numbers of which are preserved, under the title New York Daily Sentinel and Working Man's Advocate.
The Delaware Free Press, published at Wilmington, Delaware, during 1830 and perhaps later, was in part a free-thought publication and in part an organ of the workingmen's political movement of that State. It quoted from labour papers in other sections and was in turn quoted by them.
The other four labour papers published during the political period of which copies have been found are the Working Man's Gazette of Woodstock, Vermont, 1830-1831, a small weekly; the Mechanics' Press of Utica, 1829-1830; the Farmers', Mechanics' and Workingmen's Advocate of Albany, 1830-1831, and the New York Free Enquirer, 1828-1835, The latter, though primarily a free-thought publication, also distinctly championed the workingmen's party, as did both of its chief editors during its early years, Frances Wright and Robert Dale Owen.
Echoes of the Citizenship Period are also found in the labour press of the succeeding trade union period, in The Man, 1834 1835, and the National Trades' Union, 1834-1836, of New York; the National Laborer, 1836-1837, and the Radical Reformer and Working Man's Advocate, 1835, of Philadelphia.
But the labour papers of this period which have been preserved are few in comparison with those which have been lost. From various sources a list has been secured of seventy-four labour or professedly labour papers supposed to have been issued between 1827 and 1837, i.e., during the political period and the ensuing trade union period. Of these, twenty-two may be considered as doubtful, that is, either as established papers which took up the workingmen's cause only by way of temporary protest or as mere imposters designed to divide the workingmen. Fifty-two true labour papers, however, one or
6 The Free Enquirer contained labour news only during 1829-1832.