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mere business intelligence. He possesses a heart,- he possesses a soul,- and encouraged by the gratifying progress that has been made in the prevention of accidents in industrial plants, he is in many communities putting his organizing ability, and his intelligence, into a laudable effort to reduce accidents in the streets and public places. Success in the prevention of accidents in the industries of the country, in other words, pointed the way to probable successful achievement of safety educational work in the city streets and public places. I think I can demonstrate in no better way the value of a public safety campaign than to recite the experiences of one or two of our leading American cities.
To St. Louis belongs the credit of being one of the pioneer cities in public safety work. The first so-called “Safety Week” held in any city was held in St. Louis in 1918, with the result that during that week there was only one person killed in an accident, compared with 24 killed in the corresponding week of the previous year. This startling achievement was the thing that electrified the city of St. Louis, awakening its citizens, and spurring them to action. A permanent organization was formed and after four years' continuous effort, the accidental deaths in that city were reduced from 510 persons killed in 1917 to only 330 killed in 1921.
Of course, it is always more convincing to measure accident reductions on a basis which takes into consideration the hazard involved; in other words, if the number of automobiles in the city increases, then naturally the hazard increases, and a noteworthy thing about the achievement of St. Louis is the fact that accidents were reduced from 37 persons killed per 10,000 vehicles in 1917, to only 14 killed in 1921 per 10,000 vehicles, in other words, a decrease of 60 per cent in deaths per 10,000 vehicles in service.
But of all these wonderful accomplishments there is none so inspiring as that the number of deaths of school children was reduced from 45 in 1917 to only 18 in 1921, a decrease of 60 per cent in the number of school children killed.
I think, perhaps, you would also be interested in knowing the effect a safety campaign will have on industrial accidents.
Let me say that in the year 1917 there were 110 persons killed in the industries of the city of St. Louis, and that in 1921 only 37 were killed, a decrease of 73 persons killed in the industries of that city. The city of St. Louis had been carrying on systematic safety work in the industries of the city for a number of years prior to the beginning of public safety work, but after public safety work in the streets and schools and homes of that city had been inaugurated and an atmosphere of safety created in the entire community, the industrial plants began to feel the warmth of its influence, and industrial accidents were thereby greatly further reduced.
One or two other cities have had most remarkable results in accident prevention work, and their achievements stand out like a beacon light, dispelling every last vestige of doubt and uncertainty as to the proposition that a safety campaign will prevent accidents.
The city of Milwaukee, by continuous effort, has reduced the number of fatal accidents in that city from 320 in 1919 to only 263 in 1921, and it reduced the number of fatalities for 10,000 automobiles in use from 25 in 1919 to only 12 in 1921, actually cut in half in the short space of three years' time.
The city of Detroit, the home of the automobile, and where there is, perhaps, a traffic congestion not equalled in the length and breadth of this land, cut deaths caused by accident in that city from 240 in 1919 to only 134 in 1920, a decrease of fifty per cent, during a year when there was an increase of 25 per cent in the number of automobiles in service in that city.
I do not pretend to know very much about the safety problems of you street railway men. I am connected with a great steam railroad system, the New York Central Lines, but I do not believe that your problem, after all, is so much different from ours.
On the New York Central Lines we have in nine years cut the number of deaths and serious injuries to our employes completely half, there being approximately a fifty per cent reduction of the number of men killed, per billion ton miles in 1921 as compared with 1913, when our safety organization was put into effect. We accomplished this by putting trained safety agents in charge in certain divisions, and they were instructed how to promote the spirit of safety among officers and men on those divisions. By organizing safety committees, by giving the employes a chance to bring suggestions to the meeting of such committee which were in turn presented to the management and carried out wherever practicable. By holding safety mass meetings for the men and their families where unsafe practice were brought forcefully to their attention.
We posted each week illustrated safety bulletins, which we procured largely from the National Safety Council, which pointed out in a comprehensive and effective way, the principal causes of accidents, and warned the employes how to guard themselves from these accidents. We also advanced the work by the use of safety films, which pointed out the unfortunate consequences of carelessness, and we inspired the rank and file out on the firing line to think and talk safety every day of their lives, thus creating a safety atmosphere, and building up a great safety morale among the rank and file of employes.
The problem of safety of electric railway operation is surely not much different than the problem of a steam railroad. It can be solved in much the same way, by keeping the subject of safety before your men, and the people who patronize your cars.
I stopped at the office of the National Safety Council here in Chicago this morning and procured from the Managing Director just a few illustrations of reductions in accidents made by electric railway members of the Council and the results with regard to accident prevention show what can be done where a systematic plan of accident prevention is adopted by street car companies.
Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company — 75 per cent reduction in fatalities, 57 per cent reduction in collisions between cars and 20 per cent reduction in all accidents.
Interstate Public Service Company — reduced accidents 75 per cent and claims expense 60 per cent.
Chattanooga Street Railway Lines reduced claims cost 6623 per cent - I believe Mr. Haskins of that company will tell you that that saving amounted to more than $100,000.
Chicago and Interurban Traction Company — boarding and alighting accidents reduced 49 per cent — employes accidents reduced 71 per cent - all accidents reduced 24 per cent.
Montreal Tramways Company — reduced claims costs to .97 per cent of gross revenue.
Quebec Railway, Light, Heat and Power Company (Street Railway Lines) — reduced claims costs to .7 per cent of gross revenue.
Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad (an electric interurban railway) – reduced fatal accidents 84 per cent in two years and claims costs reduced to 1.18 per cent of gross revenue.
That is the dollars and cents side of it, but there is another side. There is no movement in the history of mankind that has made so great an appeal to the human heart as the saving of life and limbs, and in closing I want to ask each of you to place yourself, if you can, for a moment, in the position of a man who one day stood on the bank of a river, and who saw another human being struggling in the water, and who heard the agonized cries of that person for help, and at once all the instincts of bravery and chivalry and sympathy for human kind that lies in human heart spurred him to action and before he knew it he had his coat off and he was in the water, and after a hard desperate struggle he succeeded in bringing an unconscious form to shore, and he laid it on the bank, and he saw it revive and breathe and live again, and he thanked God that he was there and that he had been given the enviable privilege of saving a human life.
This safety work, my friends, gives you the same great privilege it gave the man on the river bank, who heard the cry for help. Safety work gives you the opportunity to save human life and at the same time it is a practical, sound business proposition.
PRESIDENT TODD :- I desire, on behalf of the members of the Association to thank Mr. Dow for his address.
We have a telegram from Mr. C. M. Schwab, which will be read by Mr. Emmons.
New York, N. Y., October 3, 1922. C. D. Emmons President American Railways and Electric Company,
Hotel Drake, Chicago, Ill.
“Regret exceedingly my inability to be with you today but want you to know that I appreciate your courtesy in inviting me and wish you would convey to the members of your Association my very best wishes. We have great reason to be optimistic today over the future economic condition of the country. We have been through a trying period but my own personal feeling is that we shall emerge once again into the sunlight of good business. The period through which we have just passed has been to business as a period of training to an athlete. Sacrifices have been made by almost all of us but it is well to remember that it is only by sacrifice that we progress. The personal note which I wish to sound at the present time is that the opportunity of this country to continue to be the workshop of the world to an even greater extent than ever before is only limited by her capacity for hard work and sound business judgment qualities which have made America great and will make her still greater in the future.
C. M. SCHWAB."
PRESIDENT TODD:- I understand that Mr. Perkins of St. Louis has something he desires to say.
A. T. PERKINS :- Mr. Chairman and gentlemen: During a few minutes of absence from the room while in discussion on the question of the taxation of motor buses, etc., was going on, I understand the statement was made that a franchise had recently been granted in St. Louis to a motor bus company. Unless that was done yesterday or this forenoon that statement is an error. An application for a franchise has been made by a certain company of New York people and the Board of Public Service Commissioners has had a hearing on their application and has it under consideration. No motor bus has been agreed upon and no recommendation has as yet been made by the Board of Public Service to the Board of Aldermen.
PRESIDENT TODD :- We will now have the report of the Committee Resolutions, Mr. Thomas N. McCarter, Chairman.
T. N. McCARTER: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen: I move the adoption of the following resolutions.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS To the American Electric Railway Association:
GENTLEMEN :- WHEREAS this Association, meeting in Chicago, has learned with regret of the death in this city within the last few months of a former president of this Association, Charles B. Holmes, and
WHEREAS, through his loyal services to this Association, both as president and otherwise, he was of inestimable value to it during its early days, and greatly helped to establish it on its present foundation, and
WHEREAS, Mr. Holmes was also a prominent pioneer in the street railway industry, especially in the substitution of cable for horsepower in the days before electric railroading had been developed, now therefore
Be It Resolved, that this Association place on record its feeling of indebtedness, both as regards the Association and the industry, for the services accorded by Mr. Holmes.
WHEREAS, W. Caryl Ely was called to the presidency of this Association at a critical time when questions of reorganization were pressing upon it, but by his wisdom, energy and tact was able to leave the Association, when he retired as president, on a foundation which has since proved wise and stable, and
WHEREAS, he did not allow his interest in, and devotion to, the Association to cease at that time but maintained it and continued, as long as he lived, ever unstintingly to give his time and energies to the service of the Association, and
WHEREAS, his high character and attractive personality endeared him to all with whom he came in contact, now therefore,
Be It Resolved, that this Association record the deep sorrow with which it has heard of his death and its appreciation of the many services which he rendered to it.
WHEREAS, Henry J. Davies for thirty years was a dominant figure in assisting to supply Cleveland with electric railway transportation, and had a great deal to do with the adoption and successful operation of the service at cost franchise in that city, and
WHEREAS, Mr. Davies conferred inestimable services on this Association, both through the accounting branch, which he served as president, and on this Association's insurance committee and other committees, and
WHEREAS, in all of this work Mr. Davies exhibited the characteristic of a tireless, conscientious and unselfish worker, and endeared himself to all of these with whom he came in contact by his attractive character, now therefore,
Be It Resolved, That this Association place on record its appreciation of his many services and its sincere sorrow of his death.
WHEREAS, one of our affiliated organizations, the Engineering Association, has lost through death during the past year the services of one of its vice-presidents, Arthur B. Stitzer, and