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Europe

Country.

England and Wales

Isle of Man

Channel Islands

Ireland

Scotland

2 Army and navy and seamen abroad,

'Malta.

Gibraltar

Norway.

Sweden

• Portugal Spain.

France

Belgium

The Netherlands

Switzerland

Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia,
Denmark

12 Iceland

13 Faroe Island German Empire Austria-Hungary

Greece

Turkey in Europe

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Cyprus

Crete

Samos

Montenegro

Monaco

Andorra

Luxemburg (Grand Duchy)

San Marino

Servia

Rumania

14 Russia in Europe.

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1801 1901
1821 1901

1901

1801 1901
1801 1901

1801 1901

1860 1901 5 1871 1901 71801 1900

1749 1900

1864 1901

91857 1900
1800 1906
1846 1900
1829 1899

1837 1900

1861 1901

1906

11 1801
1801
1801 1906

1901

1871 1905

1850 1900

1832 1907

1879 1895

1881 1905

1901
1900

1890 1900

1867 1900

1906

1905

1834
1844 1899
15 1851
1897

First.

Population.

240,380,224 392,502,789

8,892,536
189,508

5,216,329

1,608,420

442,013

139,842

• Excluding military and naval, etc.

7 A count made in 1769 gave population as 723,141.

1,158,440
2,007,919

3 Including Gozo and Comino.

* Including military and naval and merchant shipping.

5 A count of population in 1860 gave 18,491.

13,304

678,137

3,578,000 62,307,213

367,736

18,695

883,440

1,746,449

4 207,890
27,460
1905
2,240,032 1906
5,136,441 1906
5,423,132 1904
15,464,340 10 18,831,574 1905
27,349,003 39,252,245
4,337,196 6,693,810 1906
5,104,137 1906

4,188,410

2,613,487

2,190,258

3,315,443

1905
1907

32,475,253

21,777,334
925,680

2,588,919

47,240

5,265 41,062,697 30,726,503

712,608

199,958

1 Including Channel Islands.

2 Also included in the returns for countries where stationed.

Last.

32,527,843

54,752

95,618

4,458,775

4,472,103

78,470

16,349 60,641,278 45,405,267

2,631,952

15,180

--

Latest Estimate.

1907 1,568,092 1907 4,035,648

237,152 1905

310,185

236,543 11,439 2,688,747

5,956,690 105,396,634

Date. Population.

1907 44,100,231

1907

1902

1907

1907

1905

1907

1906

269,837,147

* 18,645

2,321,088 5,337,055 5,556,814

19,565,903

7,238,622 5,672,237 3,463,609 33,640,710

6,130,200 1,600,000

248,114

310,300

53,400

230,000

5,230 246,455

6,585,534 127,513,000

8 Including Azores and Madeira.

9 A count made in 1594 gave population as 8,206,791.

10 Legal population.

11 A count made in 1769 gave population as 814,238, and one in 1787 gave 840,045.

12 A count made in 1769 gave population as 46,201.

13 A count made in 1769 gave population as 4,773.

14 Including Finland.

15 Before 1897 there were various enumerations called revisions. In 1897 the whole of the empire was enumerated.

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1 Including military and naval.

2 Not including provinces ceded by Siam in 1907.

3 Census of 1904 was for twelve Monthons or provincial circles only, the metropolitan Monthon of Bangkok being among those not enumerated.

Partly estimated.

First census taken under Act of 1862. A count made in 1691 gave population as 1706. • Excluding military and naval.

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OCCUPATION MORTALITY STATISTICS OF
SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND, 1890-1907.

BY F. S. CRUM.

The annual reports of the Medical Officer of Health of Sheffield, England, have long been of special interest and value because they have contained occupation mortality data. This fact in itself is sufficient to mark the reports as being unique, for mortality by occupation is very rarely included in the health reports of England or any other country. Sheffield being an important centre for the manufacture of cutlery and files, many men are employed there as cutlers, grinders, toolmakers, file-makers, etc., and the occupation statistics are of special value because they throw considerable light upon certain trades which are health-injurious.

The present report, like those for many previous years, contains the tabulated mortality returns for all of the important occupations. The industries of special importance, however, are those already specifically mentioned. The following table found on page xi of the report for 1907 will indicate in a rough way the effect of certain occupations on mortality, and particularly their effect on the mortality from certain causes of death:

Trade.

AVERAGE MORTALITY IN SHEFFIELD FROM ALL CAUSES AND FROM PHTHISIS AND DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS DURING THE THREE YEARS, 1905, 1906, AND 1907, IN CERTAIN DUSTY TRADES, AND AMONG ALL MALES OVER TWENTY YEARS OF AGE.

Grinders
Cutlers.

File-cutters

Silver, etc., Workers
All Males

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This table would have been more useful if it had been given by divisional periods of life, but even in its present form it is suggestive of the baneful effect on health of certain trades which expose the workmen to mineral and metallic dust. The mortality rate from all causes is shown to have been more than double the expected rate for grinders and cutlers, and excessive for file-cutters and other metal-goods workers. The mortality from phthisis was more than six times as high for grinders as for all males, and very much in excess also among the other metal workers. The mortality from respiratory diseases was four times as high for cutlers as for all occupied males, and considerably in excess among other metal workers.

Unfortunately, the number of persons employed in the various trades peculiar to Sheffield are not available by divisional periods of life, and it is therefore impossible to calculate deathrates by age groups. The mortality returns, however, are given by age groups and by principal causes of death, and a study of these statistics can be made in such a manner as to show the proportion which certain causes of death bear to the mortality from all causes at various divisional periods of life. This method, when used in a comparative way, is very suggestive and perhaps quite as determining for certain purposes as deathrates per 1,000 living.

In the following tables a summary is presented of the statistics of four typical trades-grinders, cutlers, tool-makers, and file-cutters for the eighteen-year period 1890-1907, for the purpose of showing whether or not there has been any improvement in the mortality from phthisis and respiratory diseases of the workmen in the trades specified:

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