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1841, APRIL 10. — The New York Tribune appeared in New York city.
It was published by Horace Greeley, and was issued for a cent. On July 31 Thomas McElrath became its publisher. It is now published by an association. Horace Greeley died November 29, 1872. 1841, JULY 21.-Congress authorized a loan of twelve millions
a of dollars.
1841, August. — The act establishing the sub-treasury was repealed.
1841, AUGUST. — The President vetoed a bill for the establishment of “The Fiscal Bank of the United States."
The secretary of the treasury had suggested such a bank; and being called on to furnish a plan, had done so, and a bill in accordance with it had been prepared. Another bill was prepared, with the title, “ An act to provide for the better collection, safe-keeping, and disbursement of the public revenue by means of a corporation to be styled the Fiscal Corporation of the United States," and passed in September. This bill the President also vetoed. In consequence, September 11, all the cabinet officers, except Daniel Webster, the secretary of state, resigned.
1811, August 19. — A bankruptcy act was passed. It was to take effect February 2, 1842. It was repealed March 3, 1843. 1841, AUGUST. — Congress passed an act to distribute among
, the states the proceeds of the sales of the public lands.
The distribution was to be made upon the condition that the duties laid by the tariff of 1833 were not to be raised. The distribution was to be made semi-annually after January 1, 1842.
1842, JANUARY. — The Ledger appeared in Mobile, Alabama. It was published by John Forsyth, on the cash system, and for a penny.
1842. — The pound sterling was ordered by Congress to be rated for customs at four dollars and eighty-four cents.
1842. — A COMPANY calling themselves a " True Inspiration Congregation” (Wahre Inspirations Gemeinde) came from Germany and settled near Buffalo.
In 1855 they moved to Iowa, settling about seventy-four miles west of Davenport. They call their place Amana, and have seven villages. They are a religious community, and number nearly fifteen hundred persons. Their present inspirational leader is a woman.
1842, FEBRUARY 21. — A patent for a sewing-machine was granted John J. Greenough, of Washington, District of Columbia.
The needle was pointed at both ends, with the eye in the middle, and was pulled through by pincers. They were never introduced to public use.
1842. — DURING the summer of this year Colonel Fremont's first expedition to the Rocky Mountains was made.
His report was ordered printed by the Senate.
1842, MARCH. — The House passed a resolution of censure upon Joshua Giddings, a member from Ohio.
The Creole, in October, 1841, while carrying a load of slaves from Richmond to New Orleans, was captured by the slaves, who rose and forced those of the crew who were spared to carry the vessel to Nassau, in the British island of New Providence. Here nineteen of the negroes were imprisoned for mutiny and murder, others being set free. The secretary of state having opened a correspondence concerning the case with the British government, Mr. Joshua R. Giddings submitted a series of resolutions, maintaining that, slavery being created by municipal law, the slaves in regaining their liberty had violated no law of the United States, and that any attempt to re-enslave them was unauthorized by the Constitution and incompatible with national honor. Upon the motion of Mr. Botts, of Virginia, it was voted that Mr. Giddings “deserved the severe condemnation of the people of this country, and of this body in particular.” In the debate, Mr. Giddings was denied speaking in his defence. Having resigned after the vote, Mr. Giddings was returned again to the House by his constituents.
1842. - CONGRESS passed a tariff law raising the average rate to thirty-three per cent.
The duties were to be paid in cash on a valuation at the port of entry. The President had vetoed two tariff bills previously passed. A separate act was then passed to permit the distribution of the revenue from the sale of public lands, notwithstanding the increase of duties. This act the President retained, thus preventing it from going into force.
1812, March 19. — The Philadelphia banks resumed.
During the year, Pennsylvania and Maryland failed to pay the interest on their debt.
1842, AUGUST. - Congress passed an act giving the right to patent designs.
1842. — A PATENT was granted J. Read, of Illinois, for a mow. ing and reaping machine.
1842. — An act was passed by Congress for the settlement of Florida.
Every head of a family who should make an actual settlement, and clear, enclose, and cultivate five acres, building a house upon them, was entitled to a quarter section. The purpose of the act was to occupy the soil, and by a cessation of hostilities influence the small remainder of the Seminoles to emigrate. This ended the Seminole war, and by successive cessions the land passed entirely into the jurisdiction of the United States. The act was to remain in force one year, and in that time the land was all occupied. The Seminole war had cost about twenty millions of dollars.
1842. — The Croton aqueduct, of New York, was finished.
John B. Jervis was the chief engineer, and the cost of the work was twelve million five hundred thousand dollars. The length of the aqueduct, from the Croton River to the distributing reservoir, is forty and a half miles, and the flow of water is some thirty million gallons daily at the lowest average. The construction had taken five years.
1842, AUGUST 9. — A treaty was made with Great Britain, by which the north-western boundary, between the United States and the British provinces, was completed.
Lord Ashburton, appointed by the English government as minister plenipotentiary for the settlement of this matter, arrived April 3. Commissioners appointed by the states of Maine and Massachusetts, and by New Brunswick, were present at the negotiation. Maine surrendered a tract lying north of the St. John's, the free navigation of that river being granted by Great Britain. The portion of the Madawaska settlement lying south of the St. John's was relinquished by Great Britain, together with the Aroostook and Rouse's Point. For the suppression of the slave-trade, each country agreed to maintain an adequate squadron on the coast of Africa. Persons charged with murder, murderous assault, piracy, robbery, or forgery, were to be mutually delivered up. The treaty was ratified by Great Britain October 13, and proclaimed by the President on November 10.
1842. A TREATY was made with Mexico.
She had failed to meet the conditions of the convention of 1838. Ratifications of this new treaty were to be exchanged within three months at Washington. The American claims, as stated by the President in his message of this year, amounted to $2,026,079. The first payment was to be made April 30, 1843, and the whole amount to be settled in quarterly payments extending over five years, in gold and silver, in the city of Mexico. 1842, NOVEMBER 21. - Rhode Island, by an election, ratified
, the constitution which had been prepared for her.
The charter had up to this time remained as the basis of her organic law. The constitution had been prepared by a convention called in 1841. The chief discontent with the charter was the limit it placed upon the right of suffrage, it being limited to land-owners and their eldest sons. At the election, Thomas W. Dorr was elected governor. Samuel W. King, the governor under the charter, claimed the position, ordered out the militia, declared martial law, and obtained aid from the United States to suppress the rebellion. The armed resistance lasted about two weeks. Dorr fled the state, but returned to answer a charge of treason, on which he was found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment for life. In 1847 he was pardoned, and in 1853 restored his civil rights by the legislature, and the record of his sentence ordered to be blotted out.
1843, JANUARY 1. — The public debt amounted to thirty-two million seven hundred thousand dollars.
1843, FEBRUARY 25. — The bankruptcy act was repealed.
1813, MARCH 3. — Congress appropriated thirty thousand dollars for the construction of an experimental telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore.
1843, MARCH 4. - A patent for a sewing-machine was granted to Benjamin W. Bean, of New York.
It made a lasting stitch. 1843. — A BLAST furnace was started in the Adirondack region. In 1849 a larger furnace was constructed, and the old one abandoned.
1843. – A SOCIETY for the study of natural history was organized at Boston, Massachusetts.
1843, JUNE 16. -- A new constitution for Mexico was issued by a junta convoked by Santa Anna.
1843, NOVEMBER. — A treaty was made between Mexico and the United States.
It provided for the appointment of a joint commission for the examination and settlement of claims for three millions of dollars, which had been left undecided by the previous commission.
1843. – COLONEL FREMONT made his second expedition of exploration.
He passed through the western slope of the Rocky Mountains, then an unknown wilderness. The Great Salt Lake, the Sierra Nevada, and the valleys of California, were brought to public notice.
1844, JANUARY 2. — Santa Anna was inaugurated president of Mexico under the new constitution.
The public debt of Mexico amounted to nearly one hundred millions of dollars, of which sixty millions were due English creditors. The income was derived from taxation, and produced about twenty millions, the expenses of the government being rather more than this amount.
1844, APRIL 12. — A treaty was concluded with Texas, at Washington, for annexing her to the Union.
It had been made by John C. Calhoun, secretary of state, and Isaac Van Zandt and J. P. Henderson representing Texas. On the 22d it was communicated to the Senate, and ordered to be printed privately for their use.
1844, JUNE 8. - The Senate voted against the ratification of the treaty with Texas.
The vote was 16 to 25.
1844. - The first hydropathic establishment in the United States was opened at No. 63 Barclay Street, New York. Campbell, publisher of the Water Cure Journal, was proprietor,
and Joel Shew, physician.
1844, JUNE. — The experimental telegraph line, built by an appropriation from Congress, was erected between Washington and Baltimore.
1844. — PROFESSOR JOHNSTON published his Lectures on the Application of Chemistry and Geology to Agriculture.
1844. — ABOUT.this time guano began to be imported into the United States.
Previous to 1850 the importations were less than thirty thousand tons.
1844. — In Rensslaer and Delaware counties, New York, an armed resistance began by the anti-renters.
They refused to pay rents any longer to the Patroons. The resistance continued through 1846 and 1847.
1844. - The first successful mining operations for copper in the region of Lake Superior were commenced.
Copper had been known to exist there for nearly two hundred years, but the district had been until within a few years only accessible to the hunter and trapper.
1844. — The interest upon loans by the various states which was unpaid amounted to over seven millions.
1844. — A NORMAL school was established in Albany, New York.
1844, JUNE. - Smith was arrested at Nauvoo and confined in the jail at Carthage, Illinois.
He had the year before declared the revelation establishing polygamy among the Mormons. On the 27th of June a mob broke into the jail, captured Smith and his brother, and murdered them.
1844.— A COMPANY, under Dr. Keil, settled at Bethel, Missouri.
They were a religious community.
1844, SEPTEMBER 30. — Lucia di Lanımermoor was presented in Palmo's New York Opera House.
This was the introduction of opera in the United States. The Opera House was built by Palmo in Chambers Street. The introduction of the opera ruined him. The house was subsequently Burton's Theatre.
1844, DECEMBER 7. – Don Joaquin de Herrera was appointed president of Mexico ad interim.
An insurrection had deposed Santa Anna, and captured him. He was banished in January, 1845.
1841-45. - NINTH administration. President,
William H. Harrison, of Ohio. Died April 4, 1841. Vice-President,
John Tyler, of Virginia.
Resigned May 8, 1843.
Hugh S. Legare, of South Carolina, May 9, 1843. Secretaries of State,
Died June 20, 1843.
February 28, 1844.
September 11, 1841.
Walter Forward, of Pennsylvania, September 13,
1841. Resigned March 1, 1843.