Gambar halaman

boarded and burned in the harbor of Tripoli by an expedition under Lieutenant Decatur.

She had been refitted by her captors.
1804. — CONGRESS repealed the Bankruptcy Act.

1804, March 10. — Upper Louisiana was formally surrendered to the United States.

It was taken possession of by Captain Amos Stoddard, as the agent of the United States. The chief business of the territory was furs, which centred at St. Louis, and the circulation consisted of peltry bonds, or notes payable in furs.

1804. -- THERE were eighty-four patents granted this year. 1804. — The legislature of New York passed an act prohibiting all unincorporated companies from issuing their notes to serve as money.

A similar act was passed in Massachusetts.

1804, May 9. - The Richmond Inquirer appeared at Rich. mond, Virginia

It was published by Thomas Ritchie and William W. Worsley, and was founded upon the Examiner, a Republican paper edited by Merriweather Jones. Jefferson was interested in its establishment, and in its first number it printed the laws of the United States. Thomas Ritchie retired from it in 1843, and his sons William F. and Thomas, Jr. carried it on. It is still in existence. In its palmy days it was known as the organ of the Richmond Junta.

1804. - ELEVEN thousand dollars of the gold coined this year was obtained from North Carolina.

All the gold from this date to 1827, amounting to one hundred and ten thousand dollars, was obtained from this state.

1804. - OLIVER EVANS constructed, this year, a steam dredg. ing-machine which he called the Eruktor Anphibolis.

It was built on the order of the Philadelphia Board of Health. It propelled itself upon land, and in the water with paddle-wheels at the stern. Later in the year he made an estimate for the Lancaster Turnpike Company of the expense of a locomotive engine, and offered to build one such.

1804, JULY 11. - Alexander Hamilton was fatally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr.

His death created much excitement, and was of much influence in creating an abhorrence of duelling. The coroner's inquest found Burr guilty of wilful murder. In New Jersey, where the duel was fought, he was indicted for murder, and in New York, he and his seconds were indicted for being concerned in sending and receiving a challenge, a recent law of the state having made this an offence punishable with disfranchisement and incapacity for holding office for twenty years.

1804. – CONGRESS appropriated sixty thousand dollars for building twenty-five gunboats.

They were in addition to the ten ordered before. Jefferson, in his annual message, had advised twenty-five a year for ten years, to be used for harbor defence.

1804. — A COMPANY of Germans, under the leadership of George Rapp, landed, and, organizing the “ Harmony Society," settled about twenty-five miles north of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

In 1814 they moved to Posey County, Indiana, and in 1824 moved to their present settlement of Economy, on the Ohio. They are a religious community, and are very wealthy.

1804. — The Historical Society in New York city, and the Athenæum Library in Boston, Massachusetts, were both organized this year.

1804. — DAVID PEACOCK, of New Jersey, patented a plough.

The mould-board and land-side were made separate and of cast-iron, while the share was of wrought-iron edged with steel.

1804. - JOHN STEVENS, of New York, constructed a steampropeller.

It was finished soon after Fulton's steamer, the Clermont. As Livingston and Fulton held the monopoly of steam navigation in the state, Stevens carried his boat by sea round to the Delaware.

John Stevens was born in New York in 1749, and died at Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1838. In 1812 he published a pamphlet proposing to build a railroad from Albany to Lake Erie.

1804, AUGUST. — During this month two treaties were made at Vincennes, by which the Indian title to large tracts was extinguished.

The treaties were held with the Delawares and Piankeshaws. In November another treaty was made at St. Louis with the Sacs and Foxes, by which also large tracts were ceded. The consideration in this last treaty was a yearly payment in goods of a thousand dollars, and the tract ceded embraced nearly eighty thousand square miles, lying on both sides of the Mississippi.

1804. — CONGRESS annexed all the region south of the state of Tennessee to the Territory of Mississippi.

The act made an appropriation for exploring the Territory of Louisiana, and under it the expedition of Lewis and Clarke was made.

1804. – A MEMORIAL from a convention of the people of In. diana, held at Vincennes, asking for the territory a suspension of the article in the ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery north of the Ohio, was referred, together with a report made upon it by a committee, to a new committee.

The memorial had been presented at the last session, and the committee had reported just before its close, that they thought it "highly dangerous and inexpedient to impair a provision wisely calculated to promote the happiness and prosperity of the north-western country, and to give strength and security to that extensive frontier.” The new committee reported in favor of the suspension, so us to admit for ten years slaves born in the United States, their male heirs to be free at the age of twenty-five, and their female heirs at the age of twenty-one. No further action was taken on the subject.

1805, JANUARY 2.- Judge Chase, of the Supreme Court, ap. peared before the Senate to answer charges of impeachment, and requesting delay, was given a month.

There were eight charges against him: six for his conduct in trials, and two for his late charge to the Maryland grand jury. At the trial, in consideration of his age and infirmities, he was allowed to be seated in the centre of the Senate chamber. He was acquitted on all of the charges.

1805. — The Territory of Orleans was given such a govern. ment as that of the Territory of Mississippi, or of a territory of the first class.

The people had petitioned for the right to form a state, and had complained of the arbitrary government placed over them. This gave them a legislature chosen by the people, and the privilege of organizing themselves into a state, forming a constitution, and claiming the right of admission to the Union, as soon as they numbered sixty thousand. Claiborne was continued as governor, and Robert Williams made governor of Mississippi.

1805. — THE District of Louisiana was erected into a territory of the second class.

The governor and judges had the legislative power. By a section of the act, all existing laws and regulations were continued in force until repealed or altered by the legislature. This tacitly permitted slavery, which existed in some of the settlements on the Arkansas and Missouri.

1805. — A PORTION of Indiana was divided off and erected into a territory of the second class called Michigan.

The population of the territory was about four thousand. The Indian title had been extinguished in only a small tract about Detroit, and another on the main land opposite Mackinaw. William Hull was appointed governor.

1805, FEBRUARY 13. — Thomas Jefferson was elected President, , and George Clinton Vice-President.

1805, APRIL. — The New York legislature granted a charter to the Merchants’ Bank of New York city.

1805. — The legislature of New York appropriated the proceeds of the remaining state lands for the school fund.

The land consisted of more than a million acres.
1805, JUNE. — A treaty of peace was made with Tripoli.

It provided for an exchange of prisoners, man for man. As the American prisoners were fewer by about two hundred, sixty thousand dollars were paid by the United States.

1805. -- The King's County Society of Mechanics and Trades. men was incorporated in New York.

1805. — The first cargo of ice exported from this country was one of one hundred and thirty tons, sent by Frederick Tudor, of Boston, in his own brig, to Martinique.

Mr. Tudor persevered, making very little, if any profit from the business until after the war of 1812. In 1815 he obtained the monopoly of the Havana trade; in 1817, that of Charleston, South Carolina; in 1820, that of New Orleans. In 1833 he sent the first cargo to Calcutta, and in 1834, the first to Brazil. He monopolized the business until 1836, when other parties became interested.

1805.— The Free School Society was incorporated in New York city.

The present Board of Education was its outgrowth.

1805, July 4. — At a treaty held at Fort Industry, the Indians ceded to the United States the tract in Ohio known as the Connecticut Reserve.

The treaty was made by Governor Harrison, with the Wyandots, Ottawas, Chippeways, Mamsees, Delawares, Shawances, and Pottawatonies. The consideration was a perpetual annuity of one thousand dollars. The Connecticut Land Company, which had purchased the land from Connecticut, had already paid the Indians sixteen thousand dollars.

1805, AUGUST 21. - By a treaty with the Indians, their title to almost the whole of the present state of Indiana was extin. guished.

The treaty was made with the Delawares, the Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians, and Ucas. The land ceded extended to within fifty miles of the Ohio, except a narrow strip along the west bank of the Wabash. The consideration was four thousand dollars in cash, an annuity for ten years of five hundred dollars, and a permanent one of eleven bundred dollars.

1805. - THE Cherokees ceded to the United States the tract between the settlements of East and West Tennessee, and allowed the opening of roads, and the passage of the mail through their territory.

The consideration was fourteen thousand dollars in cash and a perpetual annuity of three thousand dollars. Having become interested in agriculture and stock-raising, they no longer needed as wide an expanse of hunting-grounds.

1805, OCTOBER. — A decision in a Massachusetts court was con. sidered a further advance of religious liberty.

A tax-collector in the town of Dalton had collected a tax from a member of a Baptist church for the support of an older parish in the town. Suit was brought against the town for the recovery of the money, and the court decided it should be returned.

1805. — The Reporter appeared in Lexington, Kentucky.

It was established by William W. Worsley, who left the Richmond Inquirer, and Thomas S. Smith. It was the organ of Henry Clay.

1805. -A BILL was passed by the New York legislature authorizing the truth to be given in evidence, when the matter, written or printed, was published " with good motives and for justifiable ends."

This change in the law of libel was incorporated in the constitutions adopted for the state in 1821, 1845, and 1865. It was brought about from a trial in 1804 of II Croswell, the cditor of the Iludson Balance, who had assailed Thomas Jefferson with suclı violence that he was indicted by the grand jury of Columbia County for libel. The case was tried before Chief Justice Lewis in the superior court, and Alexander Hamilton, as counsel for Croswell, showed that the maxim “ The greater the truth, the greater the libel," was contrary to the genius of our republican institutions, an outrage on human rights, common justice, and common sense, and of modern date in England.

1805. — The legislature of Virginia enacted that thenceforth all emancipated slaves remaining in the state six months after obtaining their freedom should be arrested and sold for the benefit of the poor of the county.

The proceeds of such sale were afterwards awarded to the literary fund. Negro or mulatto orphans, bound out by the overscers of the poor, were forbidden to be taught reading, writing, or arithmetic. It was the business of the overseers to forbid their masters to do this. Free blacks coming to the state were sent back.

1805, NOVEMBER 14. -- The Creeks ceded to Georgia the tract between the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers.

The consideration was an annuity of twelve thousand dollars for eight years, and then one for eleven thousand dollars for ten years.

1806, JANUARY. — Congress appropriated two millions of dollars for “ extraordinary expenses of foreign intercourse."

The bill had been debated in the House for two weeks with closed doors. The money was placed at the disposal of the President, who was authorized to borrow it, the extra duty being continued to reimburse the loan. In sending the bill to the Senate, it was accompanied by a message that it was passed for “the enabling the president to commence with more effect a negotiation for the purchase of the Spanish territories east of the Mississippi." The negotiations resulted in nothing. The American claim extended to the Rio Grande. On the other side, the Spaniards limited Louisiana to a very narrow strip on the west bank of the Mississippi. The Sabine had been considered a provisional boundary, but the Spanish commander in Texas crossed the river with an armed force, and occupied a settlement at Bayou Pierre, on the Red River. Orders were sent to General Wilkinson, at St. Louis, to reinforce the troops in the Territory of Orleans, and take command there.

1806, MARCH 26. - Congress prohibited the importation from Great Britain or her dependencies, or from any other country, certain articles of British manufacture.

These were manufactures of leather, silk, hemp, flax, tin or brass; woollen cloths invoiced over a dollar and a quarter a square yard; woollen hosiery, glass, silver or plated warc, paper, nails, spikes, hats, ready-made clothing, millinery, beer, ale, porter, playing-cards, or prints. The act was to take effect in the middle of November.

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