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ness, and intrepidity, that nerve the arm and will then be destroyed with the same apathy invigorate the mind, that provide you men, at that is now discovered in the destruction of all times, able and willing to defend the soil others that are more useful. From the high blessed by their industry, and to advance the price of labor in America,--the cheapness, glory of a nation that has the wisdom to pro- quantity, and excellence of our lands, and the tect and cherish them.
profitable employment of capital in foreign Instead of these hardy employments, you commerce,-we cannot expect to manufacture offer the loom and shuttle. Îvu huddle to- many articles so cheap as they can be afforded gether men, women, and children, in one con- from other countries, less fortunately situated. taminated, and contaminating mass, and will Such will then be imported, and the numerous soon render your men more effeminate than adventurers in these new establishments must your women. You have sentenced the sons of fail. Sad, but certain result of not leaving to industry and enterprise to penury and want, the sagacity of individuals, at all times more and expect to stifle their complaints by sending quick-sighted and intelligent on subjects of this them to work at a machine, where an idiot can sort than the wisest governments, the employwork as skilfully as themselves, and a feeble ment of their wealth, and the exercise of their girl of ten years of age can earn as much,
I know, sir, the people of this country are All writers, sir, on political economy, all napatient beyond all example. They have be- tions, except our own; all statesmen, except lieved the government was not hostile io their those who rule the destinies of the United interests. They have . been taught to think States; are satisfied of the vast importance of the privation they endured was a necessary commerce to the population, the riches, and price for the protection of their rights, and the prosperity of a country; that, with it, are insupport of their freedom. This opiate, which separably connected individual wealth and nahas been so plentifully administered, must, and tional power, of which it is essentially the will lose its effect. They cannot continue the source and support. dupes of that policy, of which they are so man From some cause, which I will not now unitestly the victims. They will not stoop to beg; dertake to develope, but which is, at last, they cannot see their wives and children perish pretty well understood throughout this counwith hunger and nakedness. You take from try, the efforts of our government have all them their livelihood, and restrain them from tended directly to the destruction of commerce. the sad privilege of seeking abroad that bread To this end it has been loaded with all the which you will not permit them to earn at home. shackles and restrictions for which any preThey will feel themselves degraded and insult-tence could be invented, and to as high a deed by being told, that they must fight the ene-gree, and as long as the patience of the people my for their rights, when the government, would bear. Congress has now finally supwhich ought to be their friend and protector, pressed all that can be exercised by our own deprives them of all their rights, of even the citizens, both foreign and domestic. means of obtaining subsistence, and at the same The little remnant which had been spared time renders them the scoff and ridicule of the from prohibitions, proscriptions, embargoes, world.
and war measures against Great Britain, at Would to heaven, sir, the government might the evident hazard of offending the few friends awake from its own fatal illusions, before it be which remain to us in the civilized world, is too late,-before the people shall awake to the now to be sacrificed to this exterminating deformity of that despotism which debases and spirit. Not an article, of which wool or cotoppresses them!
ton is an ingredient, is to be admitted from The President tells you the restraints will abroad. By far the greatest portion of the apaffect those most who are most ready to sacri- parel of the whole population of this country, fice the interests of their country in pursuit of is composed of wool or cotton. It cannot be their own. These restraints will affect all who pretended that one-half the supply necessary use any articles like those which are prohibited. to cover our citizens from absolute nakedness, The bill grants a monopoly to the manufac- can be made at home. Without recurring to turer, at the expense of every one who wears the uncertain accounts, of who makes, and the article which he makes. You tax the where these goods are made, and the quantities weaver the difference that is occasioned in that interested manufacturers pretend can be price, by want of those commodities, which delivered, there is one fact known to every would have been imported had not your pro-one, that puts this question beyond all doubt: hibition been imposed.
notwithstanding the immense influx of those By the destruction of commerce, with its de- articles in the autumn of 1812, and the quanpendent arts, and the flattering bounties you tities which we are told find their way into the thereby heap on the favored manufacturers, United States from Great Britain, as well as you prematurely seduce the capitalists of the from other parts of the world, goods of this country into new and untried employments. kind, especially of the coarser sort, and such as When peace returns, and trade shall be restor- are used almost exclusively by the poor, have ed, should that ever be the case, these manu- been sold for a year past at three times the factures will not compete with foreign. They l amount of their original cost, whereas, in common and ordinary times, forty, or at most fifty |tion, should our government execute their deper cent, advance, on the first price, was con- clared purpose. On all that extent of coast, sidered sufficient to pay all charges, and afford from Louisiana to Maine, we have scarcely a a handsome profit to the importer.
fortress to protect us against this menace, If the bill passes, and effects the exclusion should we proceed the unhallowed length thai which is expected, the rich must, and will pay has been threatened. And we have the most the monopoly price of the manufacturer. The fatal evidence, that our enemy is neither slow poor must suffer extreme distress. Formerly, nor measured in his retaliations. On our norththe number of this class was small, and it has ern frontier, late a scene of the most extravabecome very large, and soon will embrace a gant vaunting, and whence we expected to majority of our citizens. On them will fall realize all the promised fruits of the war, we these restraints. Wherein have they been behold our towns altogether defenceless, and at willing to sacrifice the interests of the country the mercy of an exasperated foe, the country in pursuit of their own? Their poverty is laid waste and desolate, villages sacked and their only crime, and this cannot be charged burning, and their wretched inhabitants naked on them. It flows directly and palpably from and forlorn, fleeing in the most inclement seathe government. They have been generally, son, from the flames of their houses, and the both in faith and practice, devoted to the ad- tomahawk of the savage. ministration.
All this time, the government of the nation Well may they exclaim, What have we done amuses itself, by weighing the degree of presto merit from your hands both nakedness and sure it can make on a powerful enemy, by dehunger? All this is to be inflicted and suffered priving her woollen drapers and cotton weavers under the notion, that, by such pitiful schemes, of the sale of a few bales of goods. Never was you can compel the most opulent, the most such a scene exhibited, since the day when the powerful, the most prosperous, and the proud- master of a great empire thought to divert himest nation on the earth, to receive the law self by the most frivolous amusement while his at your hands, and to accept peace on your capital was in flames. Let us quit this disgraceown terms. I forbear to press this subject fur- ful and humiliating game, and seriously betake ther. I am persuaded, sir, and I trust this ourselves to the protection of our defenceless House, if it will exercise its own judgment, and neglected inhabitants, restore to them their will also be persuaded that this bill, if passed ancient rights, suffer them to return to cheering into a law, can have no other effect than to industry and honest enterprise, endeavor to render the nation ridiculous, and to increase bring back peace, prosperity, and, if possible, the misery and distress of a loyal and faithful character, to our bleeding country-once the people, already bowed to the earth with priva- just pride of every American, and the envy of tions and sufferings. There is one other con- every nation, now so fallen, so dishonored, so sideration in the minds of many, of greater disgraced, and degraded, as to be unworthy the magnitude than any yet contemplated, against consideration of the meanest. employing our time and strength in such fruit-| The system, sir, of which this is a part, has less schemes, which will now they always been tried in youth, and in manhood, in peace, have done-prove a mere ignis-fatuus, as re- and in war. In no instance has it ever pressed lates to the enemy. They delude us from on Great Britain so as to produce from her a examining into the critical state of our na more favorable attention to our complaints. tional affairs, and from adopting measures
To us it has been pregnant with misfortune and suited to the extreme exigency of our con- disgrace. When practised by the most popudition.
lous and most wealthy nations of the earth, it It is time to cease this trifling, and to look has also been ineffectual. Great Britain has fully at the dangers of our present, and prepare risen triumphant over all the efforts of her for the horrors of our future situation. On our numerous foes, and has now as friends, almost southern frontiers, we have an invading foe, all those who were her enemies, and nearly the and no force, that we know of, to prevent deso-whole world is open to her as a market. It lation and ruin, as far as he chooses to proceed. would seem then, conclusive to any men, not In the west, it is true we hear the voice of joy bereft of reason, that to persist in this course and gladness, arising from the great influx of of measures, as instruments of war, marks the wealth, from projects for new demarcation grossest imbecility of mind and power. We of boundaries, extended territories, increasing have also seen that the most powerful nations population, and unclouded prosperity. I really have never been able to execute such a system. rejoice, sir, that any part of our soil is free from The bill before us, and the message* which prothe general gloom, from the otherwise univer- duced it, confess that we have not executed it: sal despair that pervades the country. I need we have tried all the civil and military force of not say it is only in that highly favored portion the country-all the forfeiture and penalties of the United States, where the occasion or the
ates where the occasion or the that human ingenuity and uncontrolled power sound of gladness is to be heard.
could invent and enact, without effect. It must, On our seaboard, we are closely invested by the enemy's fleet, from the St. Croix to the * See Secret Message of President Madison to the Con. Mississippi, menacing destruction and devasta-gress, in the Annals of Congress, 1818-1814, page 519.
therefore, be worse than idle to persist, espe-| the annual amount of cash receivable in duties, cially by such feeble means.
from sixteen millions to a half a million of dolI did not, sir, in my motion for striking out, lars, it cannot, in the view of the administration, include spirits distilled from the sugar cane, be important to regard the article in this relabecause I am satisfied we can make at home, tion; moreover, the prohibition of spirits disspirits in as great quantities as can be useful for i tilled from cane, and the admission of French domestic consumption. The only remaining brandy, discover a due respect to that power consideration would be that of revenue. And and those interests, with which our own seem since, by all the skill of our financiers, and the intimately, if not inseparably and fatally ,inwisdom of our statesmen, we have only reduced / volved.
SPEECH ON DIRECT TAXATION.
The following remarks, on the bill “ to pro-, nor of the degrading imbecility, and prodigal vide additional revenue for defraying the ex-waste
ring the ex. waste of treasure, of blood, and character, by
which it has been prosecuted. penses of government, and maintaining the
| The enemy publicly proclaims his purpose to public credit, by laying a direct tax upon the spread desolation far and wide, on our unproUnited States, and to provide for assessing and tected sea-coasts. He proceeds to execute his collecting the same,” were delivered by Mr.
threats with a barbarity and baseness, in many Gore, in the United States Senate, on the fifth
| instances, unprecedented.
The mansions of the rich, the palaces of the of January, 1815.
nation, and the cottages of the poorest citizen,
feel alike his disgraceful vengeance. The opuMe. PRESIDENT: This bill imposes burdens lence of the wealthy is destroyed; the means extremely heavy on all the citizens of our com- of subsistence to the impoverished inhabitants mon country, and on those with which I am of the sands are redeemed from his rapacity by most acquainted, a load that, under existing grinding impositions, which the charity of such circumstances, will be intolerable.
as being out of the reach of his power are alone With the principle of the bill, in selecting as able to supply. Even the ashes of the dead are objects of taxation the lands and buildings of not suffered to repose in quiet. And, as the the United States, I have no fault to find. last act of atrocity, your slaves are seized and
I consider them as fit and proper subjects of seduced, embodied in military array, and led to revenue, and such assessments calculated to | the destruction of their masters, and the plunequalize the burdens of the country, as impos- der of their possessions. ing them on all parts, and with more impar- Whether those acts seek an apology in the tiality than can be attained by any other mode. conduct of our own government, we cannot And, sir, I should feel it my duty to vote for a inquire for the purpose of weighing our duty to bill imposing such a tax to any reasonable amount repel his attack. Whoever comes to our shores had it not pleased the government of the nation in the character of an enemy must be resisted. to place the State, which I have the honor to We must do all in our power to defend ourrepresent, out of the protection of the United selves and our soil from an invading foe. States, and to determine, that while it shall A question arises, Have we any grounds for bear a full proportion of the taxes, none of believing that the grants of men and money their fruits shall redound to her relief.
will be wisely applied to the purposes of defence The motives of Congress in granting supplies, and protection are doubtless to provide for the defence of the Honorable gentlemen will please go back to country, and the security of its rights, by a safe November, 1811, when the Executive, in windand honorable peace.
ing its devious course to the fatal act of June, These motives are wise and irresistible; all 1812, addressed the hopes, the fears, the vanity, concur in the necessity of defending our terri- and pride of the people, and owning its duty tory against the enemy; and in the assertion to establish the general security, assured the and maintenance of our essential rights at every nation, “that the works of defence on our marperil, and if necessary, by the sacrifice of all itime frontier had been prosecuted with an acthat conduces to private ease and personal tivity leaving little to be added for the comple3njoyment.
tion of the most important ones. The land No one feels this truth more sensibly than forces so disposed as to ensure appropriate and myself-no one considers the duty more im- important services, and embodied and marched perative. With its obligations I have no com- toward the north-western frontiers," to seek promises to make, and in its performance I ask satisfaction for acts, which it was declared, had for no limitations on account of the folly and alike, "the character and effects of war." improvidence with which the war was urged,! The subsequent course of things must be ful: in the mind of every one, and the result known against a common and ordinary hostile at and felt by all.
tack. We learn that the same measures are to be Shortly after the adoption of the constitution pursued. The Atlantic coast is to be defended, she ceded to the United States all the fortresses as heretofore, by attempts on Canada. This is in her possession. These, with all the promifrankly and formally told to the Congress, that nent points of lands and sites, appropriate for no pretence can be urged in future, of disap- fortifications, to defend the State against inpointment or deception.
vasion, were, and for a long time previous to I forbear to speak on this subject. In the the war had been, in the exclusive possession actual state of things, all reasoning must be of the United States. The State, therefore, had futile. The powers of language cease before no authority or jurisdiction over, nor even to the eloquent monitors constantly in our view. enter them for any purpose; much less to as
We are doomed to remain in this scene, that sume the defence of their territory, through we may not for a moment lose sight of our de- these means. gradation and disgrace. The government had One great and principal object of the consticomplete information of the designs of the enemy tution was to provide by this government for months before his attack on Washington. In the common defence, and, by the power and this city were all the means of defence, for- resources of all the States, to protect each tresses, ships, cannon, men, and money; here, I against invasion. too, was concentrated all the wisdom of the The preamble declares: “We the people of administration, to deliberate, examine, decide, the United States, in order to form a more perand prepare for the support of the Capitol, at fect union, establish justice, ensure domestic least sixty days prior to its destruction, by a tranquillity, provide for the common defence, few thousand worn down and exhausted sol- promote the general welfare, and secure the blessdiers. You have now in full view the effect of ings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, their combined councils—of their individual do ordain and establish this constitution.” For and united talents, prudence, and energies. this end the States surrendered the principal
These monuments show, in characters not to sources of revenue, over which they previously be mistaken, the future in the past, and the had uncontrolled dominion. desolation around. They declare the fate of “The Congress shall have power to lay and every place under the influence and protection collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises to pay of our government, if approached by the en- the debts and provide for the common defence. emy.
to borrow money on the credit of the United Congress continues to grant, with no sparing States." hand, supplies of every kind to the same men, Here are ample resources, and means comin the hope, it is imagined that heaven may, by mensurate to the duties the United States were some miracle, interpose for their application to enjoined and undertook to perform. the safety and relief of the country.
This cannot be denied by the men now in Permit me, sir, to crave your indulgence, and power; for they abolished many taxes, in full that of the honorable Senate, while I relate the and productive operation, at the time they recondition of the country which I represent, asceived the government. the grounds of the vote I am constrained to Power was also granted to raise and support give on this occasion. The State of Massachu- any kind of force necessary to ensure the comsetts has a sea-coast of about six hundred miles mon defence, and to protect the State against in extent. Its eastern boundary joins that of invasion, viz.: “ To raise and support armies. the enemy. It is of course peculiarly liable to To provide and maintain a navy. To exercise invasion. The President of the United States exclusive legislation over all places purchased was avowedly of the opinion that it would be by the consent of the legislatures of the States invaded immediately on the commencement of in which the same shall be, for the erection of the war. There were several islands, and one forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other of great importance, on the eastern frontier, the needful buildings." title to which was not definitively acknowledg | The several States, having surrendered their ed by Great Britain. The claim of Massachu- own resources, and afforded such ample provisetts had been allowed by this power in a treaty | sion for the common defence, left no doubt of made according to the instructions of the Presi- the paramount duty in the United States to perdent, which treaty the United States had chosen form it punctually and faithfully. to reject. The government, therefore, super- In the present war, they are without excuse, added to the general obligation enjoined upon it, if this be not fully and perfectly done; for the to protect and defend the territory of all the war was of their own choice; they made it, States, had incurred a peculiar responsibility to and at their own time. guard this particular frontier from falling into The several States received from the United the hands of the enemy.
States a solemn obligation, that they would This State has been left entirely unprotected protect each against invasion. “The United and defenceless, and has at no time had within States guarantee to every State a republican it, and destined to its defence, sufficient force form of government, and shall protect each of of the United States to protect any one point them against invasion."
If any thing were wanting to show the sacred- his officers, ever pretended that this case exness of this duty in the United States, and the isted, at the time the requisition was issued. absolute reliance which the States entertained | The requisition was made expressly for the deof its complete performance, it is to be found fence of the ports and harbors of that State and in the restrictions and privations which the of Rhode Island. several States imposed on themselves.
The militia is a force which belongs to the "No State shall grant letters of marque and several States respectively and exclusively, and reprisal. No State shall, without the consent is so recognized by the Constitution of the of Congress, lay any imposts, or duties on im- United States. The Government of the United ports or exports," except, &c. "No State States is a government of limited authorities, shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any and has no other powers than what are grantduty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war, ed by the constitution. A power to call forth in time of peace, enter into any agreement or the militia to provide for the common defence, compact with another State, or with a foreign or to protect against invasion, is nowhere power, or engage in a war, unless actually in- granted to the United States in express terms. vaded, or in such imminent danger as will not All the authority over the militia delegated to admit of delay."
the United States, is to call them forth to repel Having thus surrendered all the pecuniary | invasion; to execute the laws, and to suppress resources necessary to provide the means of insurrection. The United States are bound to defence, and also the right to raise a force re- provide for the common defence. quisite to this end, the several States did rely, To repel invasion, is included in the duty of and were justified in relying, with perfect con- providing for the common defence; and as infidence, for complete protection and defence, vasion may be sudden, even in time of profound on the Government of the United States. peace, and before the United States can bring
No one will pretend that such defence has their forces to meet an unexpected attack, the been afforded to all the States in the Union. militia of the several States is granted to the Massachusetts has been entirely abandoned. United States, from the necessity of the case, The men raised there for the regular army have as the means by which they may provide for been marched out of the State.
the common defence, in snch particular inWithin a month of the declaration of war, stance. the governor of that State was informed, by If the United States have authority to call direction of the President, that the regular forth the militia for the ordinary purposes of troops were all ordered from the sea-coast, and war, for the common defence, or for protection his threat, if intended as such, was instantly against invasion, under any of the general powexecuted. Thus, the moment the United States ers granted, such as that to provide for the had placed the country in a situation to require cominon defence, there would have been no defence, and which it was their duty to pro- necessity for the special clause authorizing vide, they wantonly took away the only force Congress to provide for calling them forth to which could afford it.
repel invasion; for repelling invasion is unIt may be said, that the President called doubtedly one part of the duty of providing for forth the militia, in June and July, 1812, for the common defence. the purpose of making the defence, and pro If it were the intent of the constitution to tecting the State against invasion, and the grant to the United States expressly, a power governor refused to obey the requisition. On over the militia for protection against invasion, the 12th June, 1812, the President, by his it would have declared, that, for such purposes, Secretary of War, requested Governor Strong the United States might call forth the militia; to order into the service of the United States, or it would have said to protect against or reon the requisition of General Dearborn, such pel invasion. And especially in the clause parts of the militia as the general might deem which enjoins on the United States the duty of necessary for the defence of the sea-coast; and, protecting each State against invasion, the on the 22d June, the same general informed the constitution would have declared, and that, for governor that war was declared against Great this purpose, the United States shall call forth Britain, and requested forty-one companies for the militia. No such words, no such grants, the defence of the ports and harbors in Mas- are made in this instrument. If, therefore, the sachusetts, and the harbor of Newport, in authority of the United States to call forth the Rhode Island.
militia to protect the ports and harbors of a The governor of a State is obliged to comply State, be granted, it must be by the terms to with every requisition of the United States for repel invasion. Common defence includes all militia, made in pursuance of the provisions of the means by which a nation may be guarded, the constitution. He is equally bound, by his protected, defended, and secured against danduty to the States, to refrain from calling them ger, both in war and in peace. forth for purposes not within these provisions. To repel invasion, is only one particular and
The only cases which authorize a call for the specific act providing for the common defence. Inilitia of the several States, to act against an It is contrary to common sense, as well as to enemy, is to repel invasion.
| all the rules of logic, to say that a specific The President neither by himself nor any of power or duty includes the general power, or