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Preface to Bulletin No. 16.

This handbook includes the following new matter, as well as addition to and revision of:

Universal gauging tables for horizontal cylindrical tanks.
Gauging tables for the bumped ends of horizontal cylindrical


Methods for the determination of the capacity of oil pipe lines.
Detail cost on the refining and cracking of oil.

The laws and taxes governing the sale and transportation of refined petroleum.

The detailed description of the decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminum chloride.

The most recent specifications for the quality of petroleum products as used by the trade.

Standard method of drilling oil wells.

Detailed and explicit methods of analysis of all types of petroleum products giving preference to accepted or standardized methods. New developments in the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons for the production of gasoline.

Formulae for the calculation of the total gasoline obtainable by any means from crude oil of different gravities and bases.

The properties of crude oils from all of the important fields. New matter on the uses, properties and value of fuel oil. Specific gravity and Baume' gravity correction tables for very light petroleum oils and for very heavy petroleum oils.

Baume' gravity and Specific gravity equivalents for oils heavier than water, but on the lighter than water scale.

The combustion of gasoline and the products of combustion of internal combustion engines.

The properties of gasoline made by present methods of decomposition.

The properties of average gasoline as now sold on the market. The vapor volumes of petroleum distillates and different temperatures and of different gravities.

Processes and U. S. patents issued to 1922.

The statistics of the production, transportation and refining of petroleum up to 1922.

Preface to Bulletin No. 15.

The purpose of this publication is to set forth in concise form for the petroleum producer, seller, refiner, and technologist, scientific information and statistics on the production, properties, handling, refining and methods of valuation of petroleum and related products.

All matter formerly published in Bulletin No. 14 has been revised and included in this publication. In addition there has been added fifty-five new illustrations, complete temperature-Baume' correction tables, extensive tank gauging tables, refinery engineering formulae, complete specifications for petroleum products, much additional data on oil cracking, geology, lubricants and asphalt, a complete set of methods of analysis of petroleum, asphalt and natural gas and a fairly complete bibliography.

The sources of original information have been from the research, commercial and engineering departments of the Kansas City Testing Laboratory and from the bibliography published at the end of the book.

November 1, 1919,

Kansas City, Missouri.

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(General outline only. See index for detailed subject matter.)

1. Economics of Petroleum.......

Refinery practice. Refinery designs. Cost of refining.

Chemical nature of cracking. Properties of gasoline and naphtha
made by various processes of decomposition. Aluminum chlo-
ride process.
Classification of oil cracking processes. Benton
process. Dewar & Redwood process. Burton process. Cross
process. Cracking and refinery engineering. Calculation of
cracking yields and refinery profits.

5. Properties of Refined Petroleum..

fuels. Comparison with other fuels. Sampling. Relative costs.
Specifications. Combustion.

7. Oil Shale, Shale Oil and Coal Naphtha..

Occurrence, properties, distillation products, by-product

coal distillation plants, gas manufacturing.

8. Asphalt

Refining oil for road building and paving purposes. Prop

erties of asphaltic and bituminous materials. Various types of
asphalt pavements with their properties and specifications. Spe-
cifications for brick filler. Asphalt for water-proofing. Road oils.

9. Natural Gas

Occurrence of natural gas. Production. Prices. Composi-

tion. Manufacture. Gasoline by absorption method. Capacity
of absorption towers. Manufacture of carbon black. Properties
and production of helium. Explosions of natural gas. Measur-
ing the capacity of gas wells. Capacities of gas pipe lines.

10. Methods of Analysis of Petroleum, Asphalt, Natural Gas..425-519

Standardized and commercial methods.


The word petroleum has its derivation from the Latin "petra,"
rock, and "oleum," oil. Synonymous terms are mineral oil, rock oil,
crude oil and crude naphtha. In the widest sense, the word embraces
the whole of the hydrocarbons, gases, liquids and solids occurring in
nature. In a commercial or practical sense, the word applies to
natural liquid hydrocarbons, and the term asphalt applies to the solid
forms, such as asphaltum, albertite, elaterite, gilsonite, ozokerite,
glance pitch and hatchettite.

The occurrence of petroleum has been recorded from the earliest
times and has been spoken of as oil springs, burning water and the
like. The first probable exploitation of petroleum in the way of dis-
tillation was by Jas. Young, an Englishman, in 1850. Petroleum
was obtained by well drilling first in 1858 by E. L. Drake. The
depth of this well was 70 feet and the yield of oil was 25 barrels
per day.

The original use of petroleum was in the preparation of illumi-
nating oil to replace coal oil. After the production of illuminating
oil from petroleum, it was soon shown that the heavy petroleum oil
had far superior lubricating properties to vegetable and animal fats
and oils so that at the present time, practically all lubricating oils
are obtained from petroleum.

The development of the gasoline engine is due principally to the
need of a commercial outlet for gasoline. Gasoline was originally
used for lighting purposes and domestic stoves. It is now the most
valuable and important product of petroleum, being approached in
value only by that of lubricating oil. There are 10,000,000 gasoline
automobiles in the United States at this time.

The following outlines some of the main uses of petroleum

Gasoline and Naphtha-Gas lighting, laboratory solvents,
cleansing, gasoline stoves, automobiles, extraction of seed oils, metal
polishes, gasoline engines, paint vehicles, asphalt paint and road
binder solvent, refrigerant.

Kerosene and Illuminating Oils-Lamps, distillate engines, sig-
nal lights, gas washing and absorbents, portable stoves.

Gas Oil-Pintsch gas, Blaugas, town gas, straw oil, heating,
cracking, anti-corrosives.

Heavy Distillates-Lubricants, spindle oil, auto oil, machine oil,
engine oil, cylinder oil, greases, vaseline, wax, medicinal oil, water-
proofing for fabrics, candles, soap filler, paints, polishes.

Liquid Residua-Steam fuel, heating, concrete waterproofing.
road and macadam oils, dust prevention, cracking, cylinder oil.

Semi-solid Residua-Asphalt pavement, waterproofing, brick
filler, roofing, rubber filler or substitute.

Crude Oils-Diesel engines, dust prevention, waterproofing,
steam fuel.

The following statistics show the extent of the petroleum indus-
try at this time:

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