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as farmer if he gets most of his income from farm-
1 50. Column 1 9. Industry.—An entry should be made in
151. The purpose of columns 1 8 and 1 9 is thus to bring out, on the one hand, in column 18, the specific occupation or work performed, if any, by each person enumerated, and on the other, in column 19, the character of the industry or place in which such work is performed.
152. Farmworkers. Return a person in charge of a farm as a farmer, whether he owns it or operates it as a tenant, renter, or cropper; but a person who manages a farm for some one else for wages or a salary should be reported as a farm manager or farm overseer; and a person who works on a farm for some one else, but not as a manager, tenant, or cropper, should be reported as a farm laborer.
1 53. Women doing housework.—In the case of a woman doing housework in her own home, without salary or wages, and having no other employment, the entry in column 1 8 should be none. But a woman working at housework for wages should be returned in column 1 8 as housekeeper, servant, cook, or chambermaid, as the case may be; and the entry in column 1 9 should state the kind of place where she works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house. Or, if a woman, in addition to doing housework in her own home, regularly earns money by some other occupation, whether pursued in her own home or outside, that occupation should be returned in columns 1 8 and 19. For instance, a woman who regularly takes in washing should be reported as laundress or washerwoman, followed in column ]9 by at home.
1 54. Women doing farm work.—A woman working regularly at outdoor farm work, even though she works on the home farm for her husband, son, or other relative and does not receive money wages, should be returned in column 1 8 as a farm laborer. Distinguish, however, such women who work on the home farm from those who work away from home,
by writing in column 1 9 either home farm or working out, as the case may require. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm should be reported as a farmer, and not as a "farm laborer."
15 5. Children on farms.—In the case of children who work for their own parents on a farm, the entry in column 1 8 should be farm laborer and in column 1 9 home farm; but for children who work as farm laborers for others, the entry in column 1 9 should be working out.
1 56. Children working for parents.—Children who work for their parents at home merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work, should be reported as having no occupation. Those, however, who materially assist their parents in the performance of work other than household work should be reported as having an occupation.
1 57. Keeping boarders.—Keeping boarders or lodgers should be returned as an occupation if the person engaged in it relies upon it as his (or her) principal means of support or principal source of income. In that case the return should be keeper—boarding house or keeper—lodging house. If, however, a family keeps a few boarders or roomers merely as a means of supplementing or eking out the earnings or income obtained from other occupations or from other sources, no one in the family should be returned as a boarding or lodging house keeper.
1 58. Officers, employees, and inmates of institutions or homes.—For an officer or regular employee of an institution or home, such as an asylum, penitentiary, jail, reform school, convict camp, state farm worked by convicts, etc., return the occupation followed in the institution. For an inmate of such institution, if regularly employed, return the occupation pursued in the institution, whether the employment be at productive labor or at other duties, such as cooking, scrubbing, laundry work, etc.; but if an inmate is not regularly employed—that is, has not specific duties or work to perform, write none in column 18.
1 59. Avoid general or indefinite terms.—Give the occupation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a coal mine as a miner—coal mine, laborer—coal mine, driver—coal mine, etc., as the case may be.
1 60. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more precise definition of the occupation can be secured. Employees in factories and mills, for example, usually have some definite designation, as weaver, roller, puddler, etc. Where the term "laborer" is used, be careful to define accurately the industry in column 19.
161. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," but give the exact occupation, as carpenter, painter, machinist, etc.
1 62. Distinguish carefully the different kinds of "agents" by stating in column 19 the line of business followed.
163. Distinguish carefully between retail and wholesale merchants, as retail merchant—dry-goods; wholesale merchant—dry-goods.
1 64. Avoid the use of the word "clerk" wherever a more definite occupation can be named. Thus a person in a store, often called a clerk, who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman. A stenographer, typewriter, accountant, bookkeeper, or cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a clerk.
165. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store; the former preferably should be reported as a commercial traveler.
166. If any person in answer to the occupation question says that he is "in business," you must find out what branch of business and what kind of work he does or what position he holds.
167. Illustrations of occupations.—The following examples, in addition to the occupations given in the illustrative schedule, will illustrate the method of returning some of the common occupations and industries; they will also suggest to you distinctions which you should make in other cases:
working out home farm odd jobs street work garden nursery railroad railroad cotton mill cotton mill cotton mill locomotive lumber mill lumber mill fire department general practice street railway
car factory ship yard house
carriage factory own shop real estate insurance hotel
private family groceries leather
dry goods department store department store department store department store bank
steam railroad street car general farm truck farm private estates general practice general farm truck farm life insurance co. bank
EMPLOYER, EMPLOYEE, OR WORKING ON OWN
168. Column 20. Whether employer, employee, or working on own account. For one employing persons, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business, write "Emp" (for employer). For a person who works for wages or a salary, write "W" (for wageearner). For a gainful worker who is neither an employer nor an employee, write "OA" (for own account). For all persons returned as having no occupation, leave the column blank.
1 69. Employer. An employer is one who employs helpers, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business. The term employer does not include the superintendent, agent, manager, or other person employed to manage an establishment or business; and it does not include the foreman of a room, the boss of a gang, or the coal miner who hires his helper. All such should be returned as employees, for, while any one of these may employ persons, none of
them does so in transacting his own business. Thus no individual working for a corporation either as an officer or otherwise should be returned as an employer.
I 70. A person employing domestic servants in his own home but not employing any helpers in his business should not be returned as an employer. But, on the other hand, a person who is the proprietor of a hotel or boarding or lodging house and employs servants in running that hotel or boarding or lodging house should be returned as an employer, because he employs these servants in his business.
71. Employee.—Any person who works for wages or a salary and is subject to the control and direction of an employer, is an employee, whether he be president of a large corporation or only a day laborer, whether he be paid in money or in kind, and whether he be employed by his own parent or by another. The term employee does not include lawyers, doctors, and others who render professional services for fees,
and who, in their work, are not subject to the control and direction of those whom they serve. It does include actors, professors, and others who are engaged to render professional services for wages or salaries. A domestic servant should always be returned as an employee even though, as previously explained, the person employing a domestic servant is not always returned as an employer.
1 72. Working on own account.—Persons who have a gainful occupation and are neither employers nor employees are considered to be working on their own account. They are the independent workers. They neither pay nor receive salaries or regular wages. Examples of this class are: Farmers and the owners of small establishments who do not employ helpers; professional men who work for fees and employ no helpers; and, generally speaking, hucksters, peddlers, newsboys, boot-blacks, etc., although it not infrequently happens that persons in these pursuits are employed by others and are working for wages, and in such case should, of course, be returned as employees.
1 73. Illustrative examples.—In many occupations a man may be either an employer, or an employee, or working on own account. For example, a physician is working on his own account if, as explained above, he works for fees solely and employs no helpers; if, however, he employs an assistant in his office he becomes an employer; but if he works for a salary, say in a hospital or institution, he is an employee. It may happen, however, that he receives a salary and also works for fees, in which case he should be classed with respect to his principal source of income.
1 74. A dressmaker who works out by the day for day wages should be returned as an employee; but a dressmaker who works at home or in her own shop should be returned as working on own account, unless she employs helpers, in which case she becomes an employer.
1 75. Similarly, a washerwoman or laundress who works out by the day is an employee, but a washerwoman or laundress who takes in washing is either working on own account, or, it may be, is an employer.
1 76. Case of wife working for husband or child working
for parents.—When, in accordance with the preceding
1 77. What is meant by "out of work."—The purpose of inquiries 21 and 22 is to ascertain the amount of enforced unemployment—the extent to which persons want work and can not find it. Do not, therefore, include with those "out of work" those who are on a strike, those who are voluntarily idle, those who are incapacitated for any work, or those who are on sick leave or on a vacation. School-teachers, artists, and music teachers are often unemployed during a portion of the year, but should not be considered as "out of work," in the sense in which the term is used for the purposes of the census.
1 78. Column 21. If an employee, whether out of work on April 15, 191 0.—If a person reported as an employee (W) in column 20 was out of work on April 1 5, 1910, write "Yes;" but if such person had work on that date, write "No." For persons other than employees, leave the column blank.
1 79. Column 22. If an employee, number of weeks out of work during year 1 909.—If a person reported as an employee (W) in column 20 was out of work during any part of the year 1 909, enter the number of weeks out of work; but if such person was not out of work at all during the year, do not leave the column blank, but write "0." For persons other than employees, leave the column blank.
1 80. Person not employed at his principal or usual occupation but engaged in some side or temporary work is not to be considered as unemployed, the intent of this question being to find out the number of weeks during which the person was unable to secure any employment.
181. Column 23. Whether able to read.—Write "VWforall persons 1 0 years of age and over who can read any language, whether English or some other, and "No" for all such persons who can not read any language. For persons under 10 years of age, leave the column blank.
1 82. For a person reported as "blind" (column 31), write "Yes" if he could read any language before becoming blind or, if born blind, if he has been taught to read any language.
1 83. Column 24. Whether able to write.—Write "Yes" for all persons 10 years of age and over who can write any language, whether English or some other, and "No" for all such persons who can not write any language. For persons under 10 years of age, leave the column blank.
1 84. For a person reported as "blind" (column 31), write "Yes" if he could write any language before becoming blind or, if born blind, if he has been taught to write any language.
1 85. Column 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909.—Write "Yes" for any person who attended school, college, or any educational institution at any time since September 1, 1 909, and "No" for any person of school age—5 to 21 years—who has not attended school since that date. For persons below or above school age, leave the column blank, unless they actually attended school.
OWNERSHIP OF HOME
186. Column 26. Home owned or rented.—This question is to be answered only opposite the name of the head of each family. If a dwelling is occupied by more than one family it is the home of each of them, and the question should be answered with reference to each family in the dwelling. If the home is owned, write opposite the name of the head of the family "O." If the home is rented, write "R." Make no entries in this column for the other members of the family.
187. Owned homes.—A home is to be classed as owned if it is owned wholly or in part by the head of the family living in the home, or by the wife of the head, or by a son, or a daughter, or other relative living in the same house with the head of the family. It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made or that the family should be the sole owner.
1 88. Rented homes.—Every home not owned, either
wholly or in part, by the family living in it should be classed as rented, whether rent is actually paid or not.
189. Column 27. Home owned free or mortgaged.—This question applies only to those homes classed in column 26 as owned homes and not to rented homes. Write "M" for mortgaged and "F" for owned free. These entries should be made opposite the name of the head of the family. All owned homes which are not fully paid for, or upon which there is any encumbrance in the form either of a mortgage or of a lien upon which judgment has been had in a court, are to be reported as mortgaged.
190. Column 28. Farm or house.— This column is intended merely to distinguish farm homes from other homes. If the home is a farm home, write "F" (for farm) opposite the name of the head of the family. If it is not a farm home, write "H" (for house). A farm home is a home located on a farm, for which a farm schedule should be secured. Any other home is to be reported simply as a house.
191. Column 29. Number of farm schedule.—This question applies only to farm homes. If the home is a farm home, enter in this column simply the number of the agricultural schedule filled out for this farm. Make this entry opposite the name of the member of the family operating the farm. Usually this will be the head of the family.
SURVIVORS OF THE CIVIL WAR
1 92. Column 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy.—This question should be asked as to all males over 50 years of age who were born in the United States and all foreign born males who immigrated to this country before 1 865. Write "UA" if a survivor of the Union Army; "UN" if a survivor of the Union Navy; "CA" if a survivor of the Confederate Army; and "CN" if a survivor of the Confederate Navy. For all other persons leave the column blank.
BLIND AND DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS
1 93. Column 31. Whether blind (both eyes).—If a person is either totally or partially blind, in both eyes, so as not to be able to read even with the help of glasses, write "Bl." For all other persons leave the column blank.
194. Columns 32. Whether deaf and dumb.—If a person is both deaf and dumb, write "DD." For all other persons leave the column blank. Persons who are deaf but not dumb, or persons who are dumb but not deaf, are not to be reported.
SPECIAL INDIAN SCHEDULE
195. When to be used.—This schedule (Form 8 1 857) is a modified form of the general population schedule; it is to be used principally for the enumeration of Indians living on reservations or in tribal relations, and also by the enumerators in certain counties containing a considerable number of Indians.
196. If any copies of this schedule are enclosed in the portfolio for your district, you are required to enumerate thereon all Indian families living in your district, in accordance with the instructions printed upon the schedule itself.
1910 QUESTIONNAIRE—INDIAN POPULATION
(23" X 1 6", printed on two sides, space for 20 entries on each side, reverse side contained continuation of instructions. The top of the questionnaire contained questions 1-28 which were identical with those on the general schedule.)