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Instructions to Enumerators

92. Column 1.—Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. In this column the first dwelling house you visit should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and so on until the enumeration of your district is completed. The number should always be entered opposite the name of the first person enumerated in each dwelling house, and should not be repeated for other persons or other families living in the same house.

93. Dwelling house defined.—A dwelling house, for census purposes, is a place in which, at the time of the census, one or more persons regularly sleep. It need not be a house in the usual sense of the word, but may be a room in a factory, store, or office building,

a loft over a stable, a boat, a tent, a freight car, or the like. A building like a tenement or apartment house counts as only one dwelling house, no matter how many persons or families live in it. A building with a partition wall through it and a front door for each of the two parts, however, counts as two dwelling houses. But a two-apartment house with one apartment over the other and a separate front door for each apartment counts as only one dwelling house.

94. Column 2. Number of family in order of visitation.—In this column number the families in your district in the order in which they are enumerated, entering the number opposite the name of the head of EACH family. Thus the first family you visit should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and so on, until the enumeration of your district is completed.

95. Family defined.—The word "family," for census purposes, has a somewhat different application from what it has in popular usage. It means a group of persons living together in the same dwelling place. The persons constituting this group may or may not be related by ties of kinship, but if they live together forming one household they should be considered as one family. Thus a servant who sleeps in the house or on the premises should be included with the members of the family for which he or she works. Again,

a boarder or lodger should be included with the members of the family with which he lodges; but a person who boards in one place and lodges or rooms at another should be returned as a member of the family at the place where he lodges or rooms.

96. It should be noted, however, that two or more families may occupy the same dwelling house without living together. If they occupy separate portions of the dwelling house and their housekeeping is entirely separate, they should be returned as separate families.

97. Boarding-house families.—All the occupants and employees of a hotel, boarding house, or lodging house, if that is their usual place of abode, make up, for census purposes, a single family. But in an apartment or tenement house, there will usually be as many families as there are separate occupied apartments or tenements, even though use may be made of a common cafe or restaurant.

98. Institutional families.—The officials and inmates of an institution who live in the institution building or group of buildings form one family. But any officers or employees who sleep in detached houses or separate dwelling places containing no inmates should be returned as separate families.

99. Persons living alone.—The census family may likewise consist of a single person. Thus a clerk in a store who regularly sleeps there is to be returned as a family and the store as his dwelling place.


100. Column 3. Name of each person enumerated.—Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode on April 15, 191 0, waswith the family or in the dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made. In determining who is to be included with the family, follow instructions in paragraphs 95 to 99.

101. Order of entering names.—Enter the member of each family in the following order, namely: Head first, wife second, then children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, and lastly, all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.

102. How names are to be written.—Enter first the last name or surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as that of the person in the preceding line do not repeat the name, but draw a horizontal line ( ) under the name above.

103. Column 4. Relationship to head of

family.—Designate the head of the family, whether
husband or father, widow, or unmarried person of
either sex, by the word "Head" for other members
of a family write wife, father, mother, son, daughter,
grandson, daughter-in-law, uncle, aunt, nephew,
niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to
the particular relationship which the person bears
to the head of the family.

104. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc.; and in the case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc., instead of the word "Head."

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105. If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write head for one and partner for the other or others.

106. In the case of a hotel or boarding or lodging house family (see paragraph 97), the head of the family is the manager or the person who keeps the hotel or boarding or lodging house.


107. Column 5. Sex.—Write "M" for male and "F" for female.

108. Column 6. Color or race.—Write "W" for white; "B" for black; "Mu" for mulatto; "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian. For all persons not falling within one of these classes, write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.

109. For census purposes, the term "black" (B) includes all persons who are evidently fullblooded negroes, while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all other persons having some proportion or perceptible trace of negro blood.

11 0. Column 7. Age at last birthday.—This question calls for the age in completed years at last birthday. Remember, however, that the age question, like all other questions on the schedule, relates to April 1 5, 1910. Thus a person whose exact age on April 1 5, the census day, is 1 7 years, 11 months, and 25 days should be returned simply as 1 7, because that is his age at last birthday prior to April 1 5, although at the time of your visit he may have completed 1 8 years.

111. Age in round numbers.—In many cases persons will report the age in round numbers, like 30 or 45, or "about 30" or "about 45," when that is not the exact age. Therefore, when an age ending in 0 or 5 is reported, you should ascertain whether it is the exact age. If, however, it is impossible to get the exact age, enter the approximate age rather than return the age as unknown.

11 2. Ages of children.—Take particular pains to get the exact ages of children. In the case of a child not 2 years old, the age should be given in completed months, expressed as twelfths of a year. Thus the age of a child 3 months old should be entered as 3/12, a child 7 months old as 7/12, a child 1 year and 3 months old as 1 3/1 2, etc. If a child is not yet a month old, enter the age as 0/1 2. But note again that this question should be answered with reference to April 1 5. For instance, a child who is just a year old on the 17th of April, 1910, should nevertheless be returned as 11/1 2, because that is its age in completed months on April 15.

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I 1 3. Column 8. Whether single, married, widowed, or

divorced. Write "S" for single or unmarried persons; "Wd" for widowed (man or woman); "D" for divorced; for married persons, inquire whether they have been married before, and if this is the first marriage, write "Ml," but if this is the second or subsequent marriage, write "M2" (meaning married more than once).

114. Persons who were single on April 1 5 should be so reported, even though they may have married between that date and the day of your visit; and, similarly, persons who become widowed or divorced after April 1 5 should be returned as married if that was their condition on that date.

II 5. Column 9. Number of years of present

marriage.—This question applies only to persons
reported as married, and the answer should give
the number of years married to the present hus-
band or wife. Thus a woman who may have been
married for 10 years to a former husband, but has
been married only 3 years to her present husband,
should be returned as married 3 years. For instance,
a person who on April 1 5, the census day, has been
married 3 years and 11 months should be returned
as married 3 years. For a person married less than 1
year, write "0" (meaning less than 1 year).

I 1 6. Column 1 0. Number of children born.—This ques

tion applies to women who are now married, or
who are widowed, or divorced. The answer should
give the total number of children that each such
woman has had during her lifetime. It should
include, therefore, the children by any former mar-
riage as well as by her present marriage. It should
not include the children which her present husband
may have had by a former wife, even though they
are members of her present family. Stillborn chil-
dren should not be included. If the woman has
never had any children, write "0" in this column and
also in column 11.

II 7. Column 11. Number of children now living.—This

refers again only to the children which the woman
herself has had. Include all of these children that
are living, no matter whether they are living in your
district or somewhere else. If all the children are
dead, write "0."


118. Column 1 2. Place of birth of this person. If the

person was born in the United States, give the state
or territory (not county, city, or town) in which
born. The words "United States" are not sufficiently
definite. A person born in what is now West Vir-
ginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma

Measuring America should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. Do not abbreviate the names of states and territories.

119. If the person was born outside the United States, enter the country (not city or district) in which born.

120. Instead of Great Britain, write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales.

121. For persons born in the double Kingdom of AustriaHungary, be sure to distinguish Austria from Hungary. For person born in Finland, write Finland and not "Russia." For persons born in Turkey, be sure to distinguish Turkey in Europe from Turkey in Asia.

122. Do not rely upon the language spoken to determine birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly threefourths of the Swiss speak German. In the case of persons speaking German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Switzerland, Austria, or elsewhere.

123. If the person was born abroad, but of American parents, write in column 1 2 both the birthplace and Am. cit.— that is, American citizen. If the person was born at sea, write At sea.

124. Mother tongue.—The question "What is your mother tongue or native language?" should be asked of all persons who were born in any foreign country, and the answer should be written in column 1 2, after the name of the country of birth. In order to save space, the abbreviations (indicated on separate "List of foreign countries") should be used for the country of birth, but the language given as the mother tongue should be written out in full. In returning the mother tongue observe the rules laid down in paragraphs 134 to 143.

1 25. For example, if a person reports that he was born in Russia and that his mother tongue is Lithuanian, write in column 12 Russ.Lithuanian; or if a person reports that he was born in Switzerland and that his mother tongue is German, write Switz.German.

1 26. Note that the name of the mother tongue must be given even when it is the same as the language of the country in which the person was born. Thus, if a person reports that he was born in England and that his mother tongue is English, write Eng English; or if a person reports that he was born in Germany and that his mother tongue is German, write Ger.—German. This is necessary to distinguish such persons from others born in the same country but having a different mother tongue.

1 27. The question of mother tongue should not be asked of any person born in the United States.

1 28. Columns 1 3 and 1 4. Place of birth of father and

mother.—Enter in columns 1 3 and 14 the birthplace of the father and of the mother of the person whose own birthplace was entered in column 1 2. In designating the birthplace of the father and mother, follow the same instructions as for the person himself. In case, however, a person does not know the state or territory of birth of his father or mother but knows that he or she was born in the United States, write United States rather than "unknown."

129. Mother tongue of father and mother. Ask for the mother tongue of any parent born abroad and write down the answer in columns 1 3 and 14, following the instructions given for reporting the mother tongue of persons enumerated in column 1 2.

1 30. In short, whenever a person gives a foreign country as a birthplace of himself or either of his parents, before writing down that country ask for the mother tongue and write the answer to both questions in columns 12, 13, or 14, as the case may be, in the manner herein indicated.


131. Column 1 5. Year of immigration to the United

States.—This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace as reported in column 12 was in a foreign country. Enter the year in which the person came to the United States. If he has been in the United States more than once, give the year of his first arrival.

1 32. Column 1 6. Whether naturalized or alien.—This question applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to females, to foreign-born minors, or to any male born in the United States. If the person was born abroad, but has become a full citizen, either by taking out a second or final papers of naturalization or through the naturalization of his parents while he was under the age of 21 years, write "Na" (for naturalized). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and has taken out his "first papers," write "Pa" (for papers). If he has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien).


1 33. Column 1 7. Whether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spoken.—This question applies to all persons 1 0 years of age and over. If such a person is able to speak English, write English. If he is not able to speak English—and in such cases only—write the name of the language which he does speak, as French, German, Italian. If he speaks

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140. Write Croatian instead of "Hervat."

141. Write Little Russian instead of "Ukrainian."

142. Write Ruthenian instead of "Rosniak" or "Russine."

143. Write Roumanian instead of "Moldavian," "Wallachian," "Tsintsar," or "Kutzo-Vlach."


144. Column 1 8. Trade or profession.—An entry should be made in this column for every person enumerated. The occupation, if any, followed by a child, of any age, or by a woman is just as important, for census purposes, as the occupation followed by a man. Therefore it must never be taken for granted, without inquiry, that a woman, or child, has no occupation.

145. The entry in column 18 should be either (1) the occupation pursued—that is, the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of work done by which the person enumerated earns money or a money equivalent, as physician, carpenter, dressmaker, night watchman, laborer, newsboy; or (2) own income; or (3) none (that is, no occupation).

146. The entry own income should be made in the case of all persons who follow no specific occupations but have an independent income upon which they are living.

147. The entry none should be made in the case of all persons who follow no occupation and who do not fall within the class to be reported as own income.

148. Persons retired or temporarily unemployed.—Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income the return should be own income. If they are supported by other persons or institutions, the return should be none. On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but merely happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed.

149. Persons having two occupations.If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man

Measuring America

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