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manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a "maker" of an article.

In the case of apprentices, state the trade to which apprenticed, as apprentice-carpenter, etc.

Distinguish between butchers, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and provisions dealers, who sell meats only.

Distinguish also between glover, hatter, or furrier who actually make or make up in their own establishments all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which they sell, and the person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.

Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify in every instance the kind of work done, as cotton mill spinner; silk mill weaver, etc.

Do not describe a person in a printing office as a "printer" where a more expressive term can be used, as compositor, pressman, press feeder, etc.

Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch "maker"and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.

Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.

Do not say "finisher," "molder," "polisher," etc., but state the article finished, molded, or polished, as brass finisher, iron molder, steel polisher, etc.

Distinguish between cloakmakers, dressmakers, seamstresses, tailoresses, etc. In the case of sewing-machine operators, specify the work done.

OTHER OCCUPATIONS.—When a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., has retired from practice or business, say retired lawyer, retired merchant, etc.

The distinction to be made between housewives, housekeepers, and those assisting in housework has already been stated under "Domestic and Personal Service." For the large body of persons, particularly young women, who live at home and do nothing, make the return as "No occupation." With respect to infants and children too young to take any part in production or to be engaged in any state occupation, distinguish between those at home and those attending school. For those too young to go to school, or who for some reason did not attend school during the census year, write the words "At home," and for those who attended school during some part of the school year write the words, "At school—public," or "At school—private," according to the kind of school. If taught by a governess or tutor, it should be so stated. The student at college or engaged in special studies should be reported separately from scholars in public or private schools.

Measuring America

The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, should not be considered an occupation. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated.

1 7. Months unemployed during the census year (June I, 1889, to May 31, 1890).

If a person having a gainful occupation was unem-
ployed during any part of the census year it should
be so stated in months and parts of months. If, as
may often happen, a person was unemployed at his
usual occupation for some time during the census
year and yet found other temporary employment for
some part or the whole of the time, this fact should
be clearly stated. For instance, a person's occupation
may be that of "farm laborer," at which he may have
had no employment for three months during the cen-
sus year. During two of these three months, however,
he may have worked in a shoe shop, so that, so far
as actual idleness is concerned, he was only out of
work one month. In all such cases, where the nonem-
ployment returned in answer to inquiry 1 7 does not
represent actual idleness as regards the person's
usual actual occupation given in answer to inquiry
16, indicates the number of months unemployed at
occupation by inserting the figures, in parenthesis,
after the name of the occupation itself. In the case
just cited, and as shown in the "illustrative example,"
the answer to inquiry 16 would appear as "Farm
laborer (3)" and the answer to inquiry 1 7 as "1." For
all persons not engaged in gainful occupation the
symbol "X" should be used.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE, ILLITERACY, AND
LANGUAGE SPOKEN

1 8. Attendance at school (in months) during the census year (June 1, 1889, to May 31,1900).

For all persons between the ages of 5 and 1 7, inclusive, the attendance at school during the census year should be in all cases stated in months and parts of months. Where a person within the above ages did not attend school at all during the census year write "0," and for all other persons to whom the inquiry is not applicable use the symbol "X."

Inquiries numbered 19 and 20 relate to illiteracy, and are to be made only of or concerning persons 10 years of age or over.

19. Able to read.

Write "Yes"or "Wo,"as the case may be.

31 20. Able to write. home. If it is occupied as a home by one or more tenants, or by owner and one or more tenants, it is to be regarded as a home to each family.

Write "Yes" or "No," as the case may be.

A person may not be able to read or write the English
language, and yet may be able to read or write (or
both) their native language, as French, Spanish, Ital-
ian, etc. If in such cases a person can read or write
(or both) some language, the answer to Inquiry 1 9
and Inquiry 20 should be "Yes," according to the fact.
If not able to so read or write the answer should be
"No." For all persons under 10 years of age use the
symbol "X."

21. Able to speak English. If not, the language or dialect spoken.

This inquiry should also be made of or concerning every person 10 years of age or over. If the person is able to speak English so as to be understood in ordinary conversation, write "English;" otherwise, write the name of the language or dialect in which he usually expresses himself, as "German," "Portuguese," "Canadian French," "Pennsylvania Dutch,"etc. For all persons under 10 years of age use the symbol "X."

MENTAL AND PHYSICAL DEFECTS, ETC.

22. Whether suffering from acute or chronic disease, with name of disease and length of time afflicted.

If a person is suffering from acute or chronic disease so as to be unable to attend to ordinary business or duties, give the name of the disease and the length of time that it has lasted.

23. Whether defective in mind, sight, hearing, or speech, or whether crippled, maimed, or deformed, with name of defect.

If a person is mentally or physically defective, state the nature of the defect.

24. Whether a prisoner, convict, homeless child, or pauper.

If the person is a prisoner, convict, homeless child, or pauper, be careful to so state, as "prisoner," "pauper," etc.

25. Supplemental schedule and page.

If answers are required to inquiries 22, 23, or 24, indicate in this space the number of the supplemental schedule and page of schedule on which the special inquiries relating to such person have been answered. (See instructions concerning supplemental schedules.)

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES AND FARMS

26. Is the home you live in hired, or is it owned by the head or by a member of the family?

If hired, say "Hired;" if owned, say "Owned," and indicate whether owned by head, wife, son, daughter, or other member of family, as "Owned—head;"

"Owned— wife;" "Owned—son," etc. If there is more
than one son or daughter in the family, and the home
is owned by one of them, indicate which one by
using the figure at the head of the column in which
the name, etc., of the person is entered, as
"Owned—son (4)."

27. If owned by head or member of family, is the home free from mortgage encumbrance?

If free from encumbrance, say "Free;" if mortgaged, say "Mortgaged."

28. If the head of family is a farmer, is the farm which he cultivates hired, or is it owned by him or by a member of his family?

To be answered in the same manner as for inquiry 26.

29. If owned by head or member of family, is the farm free from mortgage encumbrance?

To be answered in the same manner as for inquiry 27.

30. If the home or farm is owned by head or member of family, and mortgaged, give the post-office address of owner.

In answer to this inquiry the post-office address of the owner of a mortgaged home or farm must be correctly stated; that is, the post office at which the owner (whether head of family, wife, son, daughter, etc.) usually receives his or her mail.

In all cases where it can not be definitely ascertained whether the home or farm is mortgaged or not return the post-office address of the owner, so that this office can communicate with such persons.

In connection with the definition of mortgage encumbrance it should be stated that judgment notes or confessions of judgment, as in Pennsylvania and Virginia, the deeds of trust of many States, deeds with vendor's lien clause, bonds or contracts for title that are virtually mortgages, crop liens or mortgages upon crops, and all other legal instruments that partake of the nature of mortgages upon real estate, are to be regarded as such; but mechanics' liens are not to be regarded as mortgage encumbrances upon homes or farms.

The enumerator should be careful to use the local name for the mortgage encumbrance when making the inquiries, and should not confine himself to the word "mortgage" when it will be misunderstood.

Some of the difficulties which will arise in connection with the prosecution of the inquiries concerning homes and farms, and how they are to be treated, may be mentioned, as follows:

1. A house is not necessarily to be considered as identical with a home and to be counted only once as a

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2. If a person owns and cultivates what has been two or more farms and lives on one, they are not to be taken as more than one farm.

3. If a person owns and cultivates what has been two or more farms and all are not mortgaged, the several farms are to be counted as one farm and as mortgaged.

4. If a person hires both the farm he cultivates and the home he lives in, or owns both, the home is to be considered as part of the farm.

5. If a person owns the home he lives in and hires the farm he cultivates, or owns the farm he cultivates and hires the home he lives in, both farm and home are to be entered upon the schedule, and separately.

6. If the tenant of a farm and its owner live upon it, either in the same house or in different houses, the

owner is to be regarded as owning the home he lives in and the tenant as hiring the farm he cultivates. If the owner simply boards with the tenant, no account is to be made of the owner.

7. If the same person owns and cultivates one farm and hires and cultivates another farm, he is to be entered upon the schedule as owning the farm he cultivates.

8. The head of a family may own and cultivate a farm and his wife may own another farm which is let to tenant, perhaps to her husband. In such case only the farm which is owned by the head of the family is to be considered, but the rented farm is to be taken account of when its tenant's family is visited.

9. A person who cultivates a farm is not to be regarded as hiring it if he works for a definite and fixed compensation in money or fixed quantity of produce, but he is to be regarded as hiring it if he pays a rental for it or is to receive a share of the produce, even though he may be subject to some direction and control by the owner.

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Instructions to Enumerators
(Name and Relationship)

108. Column 3. Name of each person

enumerated.—Enter the name of every person
whose usual place of abode (see paragraph 111) is
in the family or dwelling place for which the enu-
meration is being made. The census day, that is, the
day as of which the enumeration is made, is June 1,
1900. Include, therefore, every person living on
June 1, 1900, or during any part of that day, and
omit children born after that date.

I 09. It is intended that the name of every man, woman,

and child whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1900, was within your district shall be entered on the population schedule,but no entry is to be made of a child born between the first day of June, 1900, and the day of your visit, say June 5, June 1 5, etc., as the case may be.

110. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of your district upon the first day of June, 1900, but between that date and the day of your visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list of the inhabitants on the first day of June, 1 900, and all changes after that date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded.

111. The census law furnishes no definitions of the phrase "usual place of abode;" and it is difficult to guard against the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgement of the enumerator, who, if he will take the pains, can satisfy himself, in the great majority of instances, as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family.

112. In the case of boarders at hotels, students at schools or colleges, and inmates of institutions, ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house.

II 3. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal

men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on June 1, 1900.

11 4. The transient guests of a hotel are not to be enumerated as of the hotel, unless they are likely otherwise to be omitted from the enumeration; but the proprietor and his family, and those boarders, employees, and servants who regularly sleep there are to be so included.

11 5. The inmates of transient lodging-houses are to be so enumerated, if they claim no other home or have no other place of abode.

11 6. All inmates of hospitals or other institutions are to be enumerated; but if they have some other permanent place of residence, write it in the margin of the schedule on the left-hand side of the page.

117. If a soldier, sailor, or marine (officer or enlisted man), or civilian employee in the service of the United States at a station at home or abroad, is a member of a family living in your district, he should be enumerated as a member of that family, even though he may be absent on duty at the time of the enumeration.

I 1 8. Summer boarders at hotels or country houses and

persons temporarily residing in foreign lands
should be enumerated as part of their family at
their home or usual place of abode.

II 9. The floating population in vessels, steamboats, and

house boats at wharves and piers or river landings should be enumerated on the morning of June 1, as far as possible, by the enumerators of the districts contiguous to the water front, including in the enumeration all persons who claim to be residents of the United States, even though they have no other home than on board the craft where they are found; but the officers and crew of a foreign ship only temporarily in the harbor are not to be enumerated.

1 20. It is important to ascertain beyond a doubt whether the information given by the person supplying the same covers all the persons in the family, including not only the immediate members of the family, as the head, wife, and children, but also other relatives living with the family, servants (if they sleep in the house), and persons who live with the family, as boarders, lodgers, etc.

121. In the case of families reported "out" at the first
visit, but enumerated at a later visit, no spaces

should be left blank on the population schedule for
the entries concerning the members of such a fam-
ily, as you can have no knowledge, in most cases,
of the number of members constituting the family,
and hence of the number of lines to be left blank.
The enumeration of the family is to be made on that
sheet of the population schedule on which you are
at work on the day when the information concern-
ing such family is finally obtained by you.

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