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1880 QUESTIONNAIRE-SCHEDULE 1, "INDIAN DIVISION"

(27" X 1 1", folded to provide cover and three pages, 9"X 1 1''). The annual Report of the Superintendent of the Census... 1889 (p.26), states, "An attempt was made...to enumerate [Indians living on reservations] upon a very elaborate plan, and of many of the tribes, particularly those on the west coast, a full enumeration was obtained; but the investigation was stopped by the failure of the appropriation, and was not resumed."

The manuscript consists of four volumes in Record Group 29 in the National Archives (Preliminary Inventory 161, page 1 01, item 298): I and II, schedules for Indians near Fort Simcoe and at Tulalip, Washington Territory; III, Indians near Fort Yates, Dakota Territory; and IV, Indians in California. All schedules are arranged within the volumes by name of tribe.

The 1880 Indian schedule made the following inquiries: Name (Indian name, English translation of Indian name, other name habitually used); relationship to head of household; civil condition (single, married, widowed/divorced, whether a chief or war chief); whether Indian of full or mixed blood; whether adopted into the tribe; time in years and fractions person has lived on a reservation; time in years and fractions person has worn "citizen,s dress"; language spoken; sex; age; occupation; whether sick or disabled (if so, what is the sickness or disability); whether vaccinated; whether maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled; whether blind, deaf and dumb, idiotic, or insane; whether attending school; literacy; number of livestock owned (horses, cattle, sheep, swine, dogs); whether the household possess a firearm; acreage owned and type of ownership; time cultivating land; whether self-supporting or supported by other entity (self, family, or government) or occupation (hunting, fishing, or "natural products of the soil," i.e. roots, berries, etc.).

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THE PLAN OF ENUMERATION IN INSTITUTIONS.
Instructions to Enumerators

The statistics of population and other special data concerning persons residing in institutions will be taken by institution enumerators; that is, some official or other trustworthy person connected with the institution, who will be appointed specially for the purpose.

This plan of enumeration will not be extended to all institutions, but the appointment of special institution enumerators will be determined partly by the size of the institution and partly by its nature.

For those institutions where this plan of enumeration is to be carried out the enumerators for the districts in which such institutions are located will have no responsibility.

Each enumerator will receive in advance of the enumeration due notification from the supervisor for his district as to the institutions which are not to be taken by him. It should be the duty of the enumerator, however, if there is any institution in his district, whatever may be its size or character, to satisfy himself by personal inquiry of the officer in charge whether a special institution enumerator has been appointed, and if not, to proceed to enumerate the population as in the case of all other houses visited by him. On the other hand, if a special institution enumerator has been appointed for it, then it has been withdrawn from his district, and he will leave it to be enumerated by the special institution enumerator.

SOLDIERS AND SAILORS

All soldiers of the United States Army, civilian employees, and other residents at posts or on military reservations, will be enumerated in the same manner as has been provided for institutions, by the appointment of a special resident enumerator; and in all such cases where the district enumerator has been so notified such posts or military reservations should not be included as a part of his district. For posts not garrisoned, and any other posts not so withdrawn, the district enumerator will make the necessary inquiries, and if no special enumerator has been appointed he will include the residents of such posts as a part of his district equally with other elements of the population.

In a similar way all sailors and marines stationed on vessels, and at the United States navy yards, as well as resident officers, with their families, will be specially enumerated, and need not be taken by the district enumerator if, upon inquiry or by notification, he knows that such special provision has been made.

SPECIAL ENUMERATION OF INDIANS

The law provides that the Superintendent of Census may employ special agents or other means to make an enumeration of all Indians living within the jurisdiction of the

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United States, with such information as to their condition as may be obtainable, classifying them as to Indians taxed and Indians not taxed.

By the phrase "Indians not taxed" is meant Indians living on reservations under the care of Government agents or roaming individually or in bands over unsettled tracts of country.

Indians not in tribal relations, whether full-bloods or halfbreeds, who are found mingled with the white population, residing in white families, engaged as servants or laborers, or living in huts or wigwams on the outskirts of towns or settlements, are to be regarded as a part of the ordinary population of the country, and are to be embraced by the enumeration.

The enumeration of Indians living on reservations will be made by special agents appointed directly from this office, and supervisors and enumerators will have no responsibility in this connection.

Many Indians, however, have voluntarily abandoned their tribal relations or have quit their reservations and now sustain themselves. When enumerators find Indians off of or living away from reservations, and in no [ways] dependent upon the agency or Government, such Indians, in addition to their enumeration on the population and supplemental schedules, in the same manner as for the population generally, should be noted on a special schedule [7-91 7] by name, tribe, sex, age, occupation, and whether taxed or not taxed.

The object of this is to obtain an accurate census of all Indians living within the jurisdiction of the United States and to prevent double enumeration of certain Indians.

Where Indians are temporarily absent from their reservations the census enumerators need not note them, as the special enumeration for Indian reservation will get their names.

SCHEDULE NO. 1—POPULATION

The schedule adopted for the enumeration of the population is what is known as the family schedule; that is, a separate schedule for each family, without regard to the number of persons in the family. Three forms of this schedule are provided for the use of enumerators, according as the families to be enumerated are made up of a large or small number of persons.

The single-sheet schedules [7-566a] are provided for use in enumerating families containing from 1 to 1 0 persons, the double-sheet schedules [7-556b] for use in enumerating families containing more than 1 0 but not over 20 persons, and the additional sheets [7-556C] for use in enumerating families containing more than 20 persons. In the case of large families, boarding houses, lodging houses, hotels, institutions, schools, etc., containing more than 20

Measuring America persons use the double sheet for 1 to 20 persons, and such number of the additional sheets as may be necessary. Wherever the additional sheets are used, be careful to write on each sheet, in the spaces provided therefor, the number of the supervisor's district, enumeration district, dwelling house, and family, and also the name of the institution, school, etc., as the case may be. Also, at the heads of the columns in which the information concerning the several persons enumerated is entered, fill in the "tens" figures on the dotted lines preceding the printed unit figures, and continue to number the columns consecutively, as 21, 22, etc., until all persons in the family have been enumerated.

Upon one or the other of these forms of the population schedule, according to the size of the family to be enumerated, is to be entered the name of every man, woman, and child who on the 1st day of June, 1890, shall have his or her usual place of abode within the enumerator's district. No child born between the 1 st day of June, 1 890, and the day of the enumerator's visit (say June 5, June 1 5, etc., as the case may be) is to be entered upon the schedule. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of the district upon the 1 st day of June, 1 890, but between that date and the day of the enumerator's visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list of the inhabitants on the 1st of June, 1890, and all changes after that date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded in the enumeration.

In answering the several inquiries on the population and other schedules the space provided for each answer should be filled by a definite statement or a symbol used to denote either that the inquiry is not applicable to the person for whom the answers are being made or that the information can not be obtained. In all cases where the inquiry is not applicable use the following symbol: (X). If for any reason it is not possible to obtain answers to inquiries which are applicable to the person enumerated, use the following symbol to denote this fact: (=). The enumerator must bear in mind, however, that where he has every reason to suppose that he can supply the answer himself it is better than the symbol; and in any case the symbol should not be used until he has made every effort to ascertain the proper answer from the persons in the family or in the neighborhood, as required by law.

Illustrative examples of the manner of filling the population and the use of these symbols are contained in printed sheets which are supplied to enumerators.

SUPERVISORS' AND ENUMERATION DISTRICTS

The first thing to be entered at the head of each schedule is the number of the supervisor's district and of the enumeration district in which the work is performed. These numbers must be repeated for each family enumerated,

and where additional sheets are used these numbers are to be carried to those sheets, as already stated.

CIVIL DIVISIONS

Be careful to enter accurately the name of the city, town, township, precinct, etc., and distinguish carefully between the population of villages within townships and the remainder of such townships. The correct enumeration of the population of these minor civil divisions is especially important, and is of interest in the presentation in the printed reports of details concerning these small bodies of population. So far as possible, also, the population of small unincorporated villages and hamlets should be separately reported. Also enter at the head of each schedule, in the spaces provided therefor, the name of the county and State or Territory in which the minor subdivision is located. In cities the street, street number, and ward should be entered in the proper spaces, and in those cities where special sanitary districts have been established for the purposes of the census enumeration the letters used to designate them should be added in some convenient space at the head of each schedule and encircled thus: (A), (B), (C), etc., according to the special letters used to distinguish these sanitary districts.

Institutions

Whenever an institution is to be enumerated, as, a hospital, asylum, almshouse, jail, or penitentiary, the full name and title of the institution should be entered, and all persons having their usual place of abode in such institution, whether officers, attendants, inmates, or persons in confinement, should then be entered consecutively on the schedules as one family. If, as sometimes may be the case, a sheriff, warden, or other prison official may live in one end of the prison building, but separated by a partition wall from the prison proper, his family (including himself as its head) should be returned on a separate schedule, and should not be returned on the schedule upon which the prisoners are entered. Where the officers or attendants, or any of them, do not reside in the institution buildings, but live with their families in detached dwellings, no matter whether the houses are owned by the institutions or located in the same grounds, they should be reported on separate schedules, but should be included as a part of the work of the special institution enumerator, where one is appointed, and should not be left to be taken by the district enumerator. It may happen also that some of the officers or attendants may reside wholly outside of the institution precincts, either in rented houses or houses owned by the institution, or by themselves, and in such cases they should be enumerated by the district enumerator and not by the special institution enumerator. The tour of duty of the special institution enumerator should not extend beyond the boundaries of the institution grounds, but should include all those persons and inmates whose usual places of abode are clearly within the territory controlled by the institutions.

Measuring America

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