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ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1877.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCUMENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

NEW SERIES, VOL. II.

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XVII.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

649 & 551 BROADWAY.

1878.

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PREFACE.

The year 1877 witnessed the culmination of many very important events, and perhaps the commencement of others which may, in a still greater degree, involve the welfare of mankind. The war between Russia and Turkey closed with the defeat of the latter, causing Europe to be extremely agitated lest the great military position of Constantinople should come into the hands of the conqueror.

The election of the President of the United States was determined in peace, although it awakened in many quarters fearful anticipations of the future. The strife of principles, the seething of opinions, the struggles of interests, and the aims and efforts of noble and ignoble passions, and the industries of mankind during the year, are fully portrayed in these pages.

The great conflict in Europe has involved the highest diplomacy of the age, and the latest improvements in military skill and science, all of which are set forth in the article “ Turkey,” and in those treating of “Ordnance,” “Torpedoes,” etc. Nor is the ever-recurring “Eastern Question” overlooked, with its complications.

A survey of the commerce of the civilized world is given in “International Commerce," and the intermingling and ever-flowing streams of all nations, the swelling volumes and the ebbs, with the causes of the rise and depression of each.

The “Currency," a great question before the public of the United States, with its varying standards, was discussed in Congress, in conventions, in books and reports, all of which is so presented as to illustrate the principles involved and present the facts on which they rest.

In the United States the “ Electoral Commission” peacefully took the place of Congress in determining who should be President; and the quiet of the country was undisturbed except by the conflicts between labor and capital, which led to fearful, and in some places destructive," Labor-strikes.” Meanwhile the civil governments in all the Southern States were entirely abandoned by the Federal Government to the care and reconstruction of their own citizens, whether black or white.

The details of American affairs in these pages embrace the speeches and proceedings of the Electoral Commission and of Congress on important subjects ; the administration of the Federal Government; its army and navy; its finances and their relation to the resumption of specie payments; the results of its sys

tem of revenue and taxation; the strength of local banks, and the demand for Government paper currency; the commerce, manufactures, and general state of the country; the finances of the States; their debts and resources; their educational, charitable, and reformatory institutions; the various political conventions of the year, with their nominations and platforms; the results of elections; also commercial and financial conventions and their proceedings; the proceedings of State Legislatures on the various local matters of importance; the extension of railroads and telegraphs, and all those improvements involved in the rapid progress of the country.

The compass of this work embraces the world's history during the year, in every department of human activity of sufficient importance to be a matter of record. A special article is devoted to the affairs of every country, which contains a sketch of its history during the year, and all official and reliable information on area, population, religion, education, finances, army, nary, commerce, political affairs, military operations, and the reforms effected. The great war in the East will be found to be presented with most full and accurate details.

The religious history of the year is set forth in special articles on the great religious divisions and denominations, containing a mass of information hardly accessible elsewhere in any language.

The nature and progress of the great “Engineering” works of mankind in all countries; the important “Mechanical Improvements”; and the inventions and discoveries relative to the “Phonograph,” “Telegraphy," and other departments of activity, are illustrated and described in these pages.

The manifestations of “Astronomical Phenomena"; the advance and discoveries in “Chemistry,” such as the liquefaction of gases, new metals and compounds, with new and valuable applications, are fully presented.

The narrative of “Geographical Discoveries” in the different parts of the earth is very complete; also under the title “Earth” are summaries of the area,

, population, and religion of the large divisions of the globe, according to the latest statistical information.

The record of “Literature and Literary Progress” in the United States and many other countries is as important as in any previous year.

The biographical department is quite full, embracing a very large number of men who have come to distinction during the year, with brief notices of deceased persons of distinction in all pursuits.

The volume contains numerous illustrations of noted cities, places, and buildings in all parts of the world; also steel portraits of the English premier, Earl Beaconsfield, the United States Secretary of State, William M. Evarts, and Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil.

All important documents, messages, orders, and letters, from officials and others, have been inserted entire.

Great efforts have been made to secure the completest information from all parts of the world, and it is felt that in its several departments this work may be safely consulted as the completest and most reliable book of reference.

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