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interest in this special work, is not the true credential to success. Something more than a certificate is both necessary and just. Competent Indian teachers are available, and their exclusion is impolitic and wrong. When one very young beginner excuses the absence of his school register, which provides for record of visiting parents and strangers, as well as of school attendance and recitations, on the ground that "it might get dirty", and a young lady excuses the absence of her register because "she never had any ", it is not strange that parents say, "these teachers don't care for anything but their money; the children will do about as well at home ". This very common complaint, justly conceived, should be without sufficient cause in this and other respects. No people notice more quickly discrimination against them.

School No. 1, conducted by Miss Anna Warner, the most western school, is near the town of Irving. Visitations by the teacher to parents and children when absence becomes noticeable, and original ways of entertaining the pupils, such as the occasional use of the magic lantern, indicate the spirit which can make Indian schools successful and Indian parents sympathetic and supporting; and yet even this school proves the necessity of some method to induce more regular attendance. Accommodations are estimated for 50; highest attendance during the year, 21; 10 males and 12 females attended 1 month or more; under 6 years of age, 1 male and 1 female; between the ages of 6 and 18, 1 male and 1 female: average attendance during the year, 7.1; largest attendance during any one month, 10.75, in September, 1889; special attendance, Kittie M. Silverheels, 160 out of a possible 181 days.

School No. 2 has accommodations for 40; largest attendance any one time, 12; attended 1 month or more, 5 males and 3 females; under 6 years, 1 female; between the ages of 6 and 18, 5 males and 2 females; average age, 10 years; largest average attendance during the year, 6.66; largest average attendance during any one month, 8, in April, 1890. This school is taught by a young man. Special attendance, Jacob Pierce, jr., and brothers, 170, 170, and 163 out of a possible 171 days.

School No. 3 has accommodations for 50 ; largest attendance, 30; 16 males and 13 females attended 1 month or more during the year; under 6 years of age, 1; between the ages of 6 and 18, 16 males and 12 females; average age of pupils, 10.5 years; average attendance during the year, 15; largest average attendance during any one month, 16, in May, 1890; location, nearly opposite the Presbyterian church; special attendance, Flora Patteison, 158 out of a possible 178 days.

School No. 4. The Thomas Orphan Asylum practically answers for this number.

School No. 5 has accommodations for 40; largest attendance during the year, 18 ; 10 males and 11 females attended 1 month or more during the year; 1 male is under the age of 6, and 9 males and 11 females are between the ages of 6 and 18; average age, 10.33 years; average attendance during the year, !); largest average attendance any one month, 9.5, in September, 1889. This school is central, near the Methodist church and the courthouse. Special attendance, Ray Crouse, 154 out of a possible 178 days.

School No. 6 has accommodations for 40; largest number present at any one time, 25; 14 males and 13 females attended 1 month or more, all between the ages of 6 and 18; average age, 9.5 years; average attendance during the year, 10; largest average attendance during any one month, 12, in June, 1890. This school is on the summit north from the courthouse. Special attendance, Willie Jackson, 156 out of a possible 167 days.

School No. 7 is situated in the strongly pagan district of Newtown, in the midst of a large school population. There are accommodations for 50 pupils, and the school is now in charge of Miss Ball, an earnest and experienced teacher. Largest number present at any one time, 45: 28 males and 23 females attended 1 month or more during the year; 3 males were under the age of 6; 25 males and 23 females between the ages of 6 and 18; average age, 9.153 years; average attendance during the year, 24.33; largest average attendance during any one month, 34, in December, 1889; special attendance, Willie Crow, 126 out of a possible 156 days, and George Wilson, jr., 73 days, a full fall term.

School No. 8 has accommodations for 40; largest attendance at any one time, 40; 10 males and 7 females attended 1 month or more during the year; 1 male and 1 female are under 6 years of age; 9 males and 6 females are between the ages of 6 and 18; average age, 9 years; average attendance during the year, 6.5; largest attendance any one month, 12, in November, 1889; location, on the "Four-mile level road" to Gowanda.

School No. 9 has accommodations for 40; largest attendance at any one time during the year, 20; 12 males and 10 females attended 1 month or more during the year; 2 females under the age of 6; 12 males and 10 females between the ages of 6 and 18; average age of pupils 9.5 years; average attendance during the year, 12.33; the largest average attendance during any one month was in September, 1889; location, on the west road from Versailles to Gowanda.

School No. 10 has accommodations for 50; largest attendance during the year, 18; 11 males and 4 females attended 1 month or more during the year, all between the ages of ti and 18; average age of pupils, 10.5 years; average attendance during the year, 10; largest average attendance during any one month, 12.5, in March, 1890; location, north from Versailles, on the west bank of Cattaraugus creek; Chauneey Parker, teacher; special attendance, John Herbert and Victoris Jimerson, 149 out of a possible 155 days.

School No. 11 has accommodations for 50; largest attendance during the year, 25; 12 males and 15 females attended 1 month or more; 1 male is over 18 years of age; 2 males and 2 females are under 6 years of age; 9 males and 13 females are between the ages of 6 and 18 years; average age, 9.66 years; average attendance during the year, 15.66; largest average attendance during any one month. 22.33, in Deceml>er, 1889; location, on summit west of "One-mile strip"; special attendance, Charlotte David, Letha and Frank Seneca, and Sarah Tallchief, the full fall term of 78 davs.

TUSCARORA SCHOOLS.

School No. 1, western district, on the crossroad from Frank Mountpleasant's to Captain C. Cusickrs larm, on the Mountain road, has accommodations for 35; largest attendance during the year, 32; attendance 1 month or more during the year, 31, viz, males 19 and females 12: under ti years of age, males 1, females 1; over 18 years of age, 2 males and 2 females; 20 males and 13 females between the ages of 6 and 18 years; average attendance during the year 13.33; largest attendance during any one month, 19, in February, 1890; salaries of teachers and employes, $252; all other expenses, $17.75; value of building, $287.

School No. 2, a boarding-school building; accommodations, nominally 35; greatest number present at any one time, 28; attendance 1 month or more during the year, 43, viz, 33 males and 10 females; under 6 years of age, 3 males and 2 females; over 18 years of age, 2 males and 2 females; average age of pupils, 10 years; average attendance during the year, 14; largest average attendance any one month, 17, in February, 1890; salaries, $252; all other expenses, $17.75. Prominent chiefs state that the missiou buildings and the necessary assistance are available when the state of New York is prepared to do its part.

STATE SUPERVISION.

lion. A. S. Draper, superintendent of public instruction for the state of New York, in successive annual reports, as well as in association with the commission appointed by the general assembly of that state, earnestly deplores the condition of the Indian schools, the irregular attendance, and the indifference or opposition of

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parents, and states that "this indifference is not chargeable to the character of the schools". The statistics give fuller justice to the Indian than the school register warrants. The fact should be noted that many children do not attend school at all, and many are very irregular in their attendance, after being entered on the school register, and the most laborious and sympathetic efforts of the state and local superintendents, if combined with the efforts of the most capable and self-sacrificing teachers, whether native or English, can not supply the want of some form of compulsory attendance. At the same time the difficulty is not overcome by this conclusion any more than by similar reasoning as to the ignorant classes of people outside the boundaries of the state of New York, and who are equally as hard to approach in the matter of school attendance by constitutional and lawful methods as are the Indians of the Six Nations.

THE THOMAS ORPHAN ASYLUM, (a)

This institution, established in the year 1855 by Mr. Philip E. Thomas, of Baltimore, Maryland, and now generously maintained by the state of New York, is located, as indicated on the map, less than three-quarters of a mile west from the Seneca courthouse, on the main road which leads through the Cattaraugus reservation to Irving. A productive farm, with buildings admirably arranged and suitably heated and ventilated, and with all the accessories of a good boarding school, also a well-arranged hospital and cheerful home, make this a true asylum for the orphan and destitute children of the Six Nations. The names and derivatives of all inmates during the census year are attached to the general schedule of the reservation. During that period 48 boys and 57 girls under the age of 16 enjoyed its instruction and care, with but 2 deaths from the number. The property returns for the year represent the value of farm, buildings, and all properties that make the institution complete as $46,747. The board of trustees, Mr. William C. Bryant, of Buffalo, chairman, are responsible for its general welfare. Elias Johnson, the Tuscarora historian, Nathaniel Kennedy, of Cattaraugus, and David Jimerson, a Tonawanda Seneca, represent the Indians upon the executive board. The superintendent, Mr. J. H. Van Valkenburg, and his wife, after large experience at the state blind asylum, have demonstrated by their management and extension of this great charity the capacity of Indian children for the best development which discriminating forethought and paternal care can realize. The necessary condition that these Indian children can only remain in the asylum until they are 16 removes them from its influence at the very time they are beginning to respond to excellent discipline, regular habits, and careful teaching. They consequently return to their people unfitted for the lives they must lead, and yet unable to sustain the fuller, nobler life of which they have caught a passing glimpse.

Regular hours for study, recreation, and work, with every possible guidance which affection, sympathy, and good judgment can devise, combine in behalf of the orphan inmates to develop the elements of a religious and industrious life. During the year 14 returned to parents or guardians, 2 were sent out to work, and 2 were adopted. Besides the day system of routine duty, the evenings are made cheerful by readings, talks, games, and music until a reasonable retiring hour, and the order, willing obedience, and obliging manners of both boys and girls leave nothing wanting to vindicate the noble purpose of the founder. The girls, who learn to sew, manufactured wearing apparel during the year to the value of $2,515. In addition they make fancy articles, which they are allowed to sell to visitors on their own account, while the boys are no less efficient upon the farm in every form of handiwork adapted to their strength.

The Indian's love for music is systematically developed by superintendent and matron, both being accomplished musicians, and this love for music, with an innate obliging disposition, prompts the cheerful entertainment of interested visitors at all proper times. In addition to their music at home, and their regular service of song at the Presbyterian church on the Sabbath, they are welcome attendants at many public occasions. 767 Indian children have been educated through the agency of the asylum, and to say that a boy or girl " is at the Thomas asylum" is a proverbial assurance of a promising future. In reading, grammar, geography, and history, in deportment, penmanship, drawing, and in their sports, there is a visible pride and interest. The system eliminates tardiness, laziness, and indifference, and establishes systematic habits, industry, and zeal. The studies at the asylum during the year and the number of pupils in each branch, as presented in the following statement, is the best answer to the question, "What can you make of an Indian boy or girl "?

a In the summer of 1854 an Indian died on the Cattaraugus reservation, leaving a large fumily in extreme want. The sympathy which this event occasioned led to inquiries which showed that on that reservation alone there were not less than 50 children in great need of support. The facts coming to the knowledge of Philip E. Thomas, of Baltimore, a Friend, who had in many ways already done much for the Indians, he caused the more destitute to be gathered and kept through the winter at his own expense. This suggested the idea of a permanent asylum. The Seneca nation gave lands, and 2 Seneca brass bands, with a choir of singers, volunteered to give a concert in the city of Buffalo; from these and other sources a beginning was made. The act of incorporation by New York was accompanied by a grant of §2,000 for building, and $10 a year for 2 years for any number of children, not over 50 in all, that might be maintained, besides a pro rata allowance from the general appropriations to asylums. An amendment to the constitution of New York in 1874 forced the issue of abandonment of the Thomas asylum or its transfer to the state. Finally, by net of the legislature passed April 24, 1875, it was transferred to the control of the state of New York. See Executive Document No. 95, Forty-eighth Congress, Second session.

ENGLISH STUDIES.

Advanced reading 35 Advanced arithmetic 30

Intermediate reading 42 Intermediate arithmetic 24

Primary reading 50

Advanced spelling 36

Intermediate geography 32

Advanced grammar 29

Language lessons 44

Primary arithmetic 36

Advanced geography 32

Primary United States history 24

Advanced United States history 28

Advanced physiology 46

Civil government 46 Intermediate physiology 35

Intermediate writing. 44 , Advanced writing 36

Primary writing 29 Recitation and declamation 123

MUSICAL COURSES.

Instrumental lessons 55 j Advanced chorus singing 20

Voice culture and special training 7 Primary chorus singing 36

Intermediate chorns singing 24 Sunday school music 131

Musical notation and singing 80 I Anthems and church music 70

There is an active " band of hope " in the school, and the atmosphere of the entire institution is that of a happy

family.

SCHOOL WORK OF THE FRIENDS.

William Penn's treaty with the Indians at Shakamaxon "on the 14th day of the 10th month, 1682 ", laid the foundation for that confidence in the Society of Friends which prompted the great chief Cornplanter to write, in 1791: "Brothers! we have too little wisdom among us, and we can not teach our children that we see their situation requires them to know. We wish them to be taught to read and write, and such other things as you teach your children, especially the love of peace ".

Sag-a-ree-sa (The Sword Carrier), a Tuscarora chief, who was present when Timothy Pickering made the Canandaigua treaty of 1794, requested some Friends who accompanied the commissioner from Philadelphia to have some of their people sent to New York as teachers. As secretary of state, Mr. Pickering afterward granted the request. 3 young men began work among the Stockbridge and Oneida Indians in 1796, and 4 visited the Seneca settlement of Cornplanter in 1798. The foundation thus laid was strengthened by the visit of a committee of Friends to all the Six Nations in 1865, and the Friends' school, now in vigorous operation, on the verge of the Allegany reservation, less than a mile from the station at Quaker bridge, on the Allegany river, is the mature fruit of that early conception. It comprises a farm and boarding school, with an attendance of 40 pupils, soon to be increased to 45.

The course of instruction here, more advanced than at the state schools, coupled with the financial benefits enjoyed, is the cause, in part, of the abandonment of the school near the house of Philip Fatty, on the west bank of the Allegany, below West Salamanca, as indicated on the map.

During September, 1890, a committee of Friends from Philadelphia, consisting of George B. Scattergood, Ephraim Smith, Sarah E. Smith, Ann Fry, and Rebecca K. Masters, a minister, visited the school and addressed the Indians in both council house and church. The school, under the superintendence of Friend James Henderson, Rebecca W. Buntly, matron; Elizabeth Conan (in charge of the boys), and Mary Penrose, never enjoyed greater prosperity. Every appointment of good service in playground, schoolroom, dining room, and dormitory, and the good conduct of all the pupils at all hours, evinced the harmonious operation of a generously designed and nobly developed philanthropy.

The annual exhibition proved a substantial test of the loving, faithful work done. The programme of 38 numbers opened with a scripture recitation, followed by the ninety-third psalm, read in unison, and closed with the third chapter of Saint James' epistle. Dialogues, declamations, and class examinations in physiology, arithmetic, geography, and language filled the interval. After listening to the enthusiastic songs of the pupils at the Thomas Orphan Asylum, and witnessing the musical impulse of the Indians generally, the quiet order of the programme at the Friends' school left the impression that one of the quickest avenues to the Indian mind was closed by the sober routine which excluded all song; and yet the tender care, patient labor, and kind discipline were so wholesome and fruitful of good that the missing feature of the programme was in no sense a serious omission. The exhibition room was filled with parents and friends of the homeward-bound youths, and was a fitting memorial day of nearly 100 years of service by the Friends among the Seneca nation.

EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS AT SAINT REGIS.

There are 5 state schools upon this reservation, under the interested personal supervision of Sidney G. Grow, the

thoroughly competent state superintendent. The last school building was erected at a cost of $500, and the aggregate

value of the 5 buildings is about $1,400. The salaries of the teachers, all females, are $250 each, and the annual

incidental expense of each school is $30. The schools are judiciously located, and the deportment and progress of

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