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vote in favor of sustaining the new constitution was 10, against 12, William Lyon neutral. The analysis of the vote does credit to Indian imitation of the white man's methods. Jacob Scanandoah, who has a small hall opposite the green for public use, and Asa Wheelbarrow and George Vanevery changed their votes, and Jacobs and Thomas, friends of the constitution, were absent. The vote on the 21st of October had 16 in favor of the adoption, as already noticed. At a called meeting for December 17, 6 chiefs being present, a protest was entered against the action of the previous day, and the clerk, Jaris Pierce, was appointed a committee to draft a bill and prepare a petition to go before the legislature for relief.
The nation is near the point where well-considered advice and support would be of saving value.
*Thomas Webster (Snipe), age 64 ; *John Green (Wolf), 74 ; * Asa Wheelbarrow (Eel), 64 ; Charles Green, 30 ; *William Hill, 52 ; *John Hill, 56; *Peter George (Eel), 38; John R. Farmer, 28; *James Thomas, 42; George Vanevery (Snipe), 36; *Frank Logan (Wolf), 35; . William Lyon (Turtle), 50 ; *Billings Webster, 31 ; Daniel La Forte (Wolf), 58; *George Crow (Wolf), 34 ; *Baptist Thomas (Turtle), 64; *Abbott Jones, 76 ; *Charles Lyon, 57 ; *Andrew Gibson (Beaver), 29; *Wilson Reuben (Beaver), 50 ; Jacob Scanandoah (Beaver), 70 ; *George Lyon (Eel), 42 ; *Levi Webster, 35; Hewlett Jacobs (Eel), 48; Jacob Bigbear (Turtle), 56 ; John Thomas (Turtle), 30; Enoch Scanandoah, 24.
Abbott Jones and Enoch Scanandoah are not pagans, the former attending the Wesleyan church.
THE TONAWANDA SENECAS are governed by 34 chiefs, elected by the women of families entitled to fill a vacancy, the chiefs already in office having the power to remand the selection back for reconsideration if there be wellfounded objection to the first nominee. This does not impair the right of the families of a clan or tribe to recognition. The people vote for executive officers, and at the annual election for president, clerk, and peacemakers in 1890 such was the doubt as to the fairness of the vote that the state courts were called upon to declare and decide the question upon trial of the issue raised by the christian party.
David Billy (Wolf), an illiterate pagan, was elected president, and a majority of the chiefs, of which the president must be one, is also pagan. The most influential of the party is Chauncey A. Abram (Snipe), while the progressive or christian party is well represented by Edward M. Poodry (Turtle), David Moses (Hawk), and Jacob Doctor (Hawk). Here, as on all the reservations, the changing political interests or ambitions involve changes from one party to another without regard to religious views. No ward politician, seeking small offices, a little patronage, and the control of public funds, can more shrewdly manipulate the voters or pledge small favors for votes than the ambitious Indian chief. In proportion as the granting of leases brings in good rentals, so does the struggle to control the funds become earnest. This is more conspicuous where, as on the Allegany reservation, the rents amount to thousands of dollars per annum. This tendency at Tonawanda is modified by the small amount of public money that accrues to the nation from outside sources.
The contest becomes more closely drawn between the old and progressive divisions of the people. Poodry and others of his education, business independence, and force of character are inclined to stand aloof, mind their own business, and abide developments. Two of the chiefs, Nickerson Parker (Hawk), living at Cattaraugus, and his brother, Ely S. Parker, living in New York, married white wives, and take no active part in the national councils, although Tonawanda was their birthplace and the old homestead still stands, as indicated on the map. To a very marked extent the do-nothing party (the old party, the party of the sixteenth century) depresses nearly all national enterprises.
There is, however, a maturing sentiment among many of the pagan chiefs here, as on every reservation, that affairs are drawing to a crisis in their national history, and that customs which inspire idle gatherings, whether religious, social, political, or sportive, are becoming obsolete. There was an inquisitive inquiry respecting the purpose of the exhaustive interrogatories attending the enumeration, and perfectly plain words of warning and encouragement were received respectfully by pagan as well as christian.
The most impressive representation of folly on the part of the governing chiefs is the vacant manual school building. A state act of 1869 initiated the enterprise. The Tonawanda trust-fund income supplied $1,600 and the state expended $5,500 more. A farm of 80 acres, well located and of the best quality, was provided; buildings, furniture, teams, and implements were also purchased, but in 1877 all was abandoned, and the buildings are rapidly falling into decay. The state committee, in its report, very justly says: “It is well located and perfectly adapted for the work it was designed to accomplish. It stands there to-day a monument to mismanagement or neglect on the part of the state or its representatives, as well as to manifest indifference on the part of the Indians". The report adds: “The committee believes that it might have been of great value to the Indian youth if it had been carried out as originally intended”. It was poor economy, or indifference, or want of an appreciation of the existing opportunity to stimulate the Indians to co-operation by liberal support that fastened upon the reservation such an unnecessary warning that the Indians, poor as they are, must look out for themselves. Pagan chiefs say that “if it could be even now turned into a high or mechanical school for teaching trades they would do something for it”. At present the governing body is by a decided majority unwilling even to keep the roads in repair.
The year has been one of general good order, and the action of the peacemaker court has rarely been appealed to 6 chiefs, as authorized by law, in cases unsatisfactorily decided.
The following is a list of the chiefs, those marked with a * being unable to read or write:
* David Billy (Wolf), age 51 ; Chauncey Lone (Bear), 53; Chauncey A. Abram (Snipe), 52; *Samuel Bluesky (Turtle), 59 ; Isaac Doctor (Beaver), 77; Jacob Doctor (Hawk), 45 ; Nickerson Parker (Hawk), - ; Addison Charles (Heron), 61 ; * Henry Spring (Snipe), 40; Solomon Spring (Hawk), 31; Edward M. Poodry (Turtle), 56 ; Jesse Spring (Beaver), 75; John David (Snipe), 40; *Lewis Hotbread (Bear), 69; Milton Abram (Snipe), 52; Robert Sky (Snipe), 31 ; David Moses (Wolf), 51 ; Charlie Doctor (Hawk), 57 ; Isaac Sundown (Deer), 36; Daniel Fish (Bear), 60; *Charles Clute (Beaver), 60; Erastus Printup (Beaver), 55 ; Wallace Jimerson (Hawk), 34; *Charles Hotbread (Hawk), 35; Andrew Blackchief (Wolf), 68; Howard Hatch (Wolf), 57 ; Clinton Moses (Wolf), 61 ; *Elan Skye (Snipe), 73; Fox Poodry (Hawk), -; *Eli Johnson (Hawk), 56 ; *Peter Doctor (Wolf), 29; *George Mitten (Bear), 33; *William Strong (Hawk), 49; Ely S. Parker (Hawk), –
THE ALLEGANY and CATTARAUGUS reservations are organized and incorporated under the laws of New York as “ The Seneca nation”, with a constitutional system giving them large independent powers. This constitution, as amended October 22, 1868, provides for a council of 16 members, of whom 8 shall be elected annually for each reservation on the first Tuesday of May every year. A quorum consists of 10, and the affirmative vote of 10 shall be necessary to appropriate public moneys. Expenditures of more than $500 require the sanction of a majority vote at a popular election, duly ordered. The president, also elected annually, is the executive officer of the nation, has a casting vote upon a tie in the council, fills vacancies until the next election thereafter, decides cases of impeachment, and is authorized to initiate by his recommendation any measures he may deem for the good of the nation not inconsistent with the true spirit and intent of the laws of the state of New York. A peacemaker court on each reservation for 3 years, one-third of the peacemakers being elected annually, has jurisdiction in all matters relating to wills, estates, real estate, and divorces, with forms of process and proceedings similar to those of justices of the peace in New York. An appeal lies to the national council, to which the evidence taken below is certified, and a quorum of the council is competent to decide the case upon arguments submitted, or, upon due application of either true party in interest, to submit the facts to a jury. A treaty, however, must be ratified by three-fourths of the legal voters, viz, “males above 21 years of age who have not been convicted of felony", and also by the consent of three-fourths of the mothers of the nation. A clerk, treasurer, and 2 marshals, 1 from each reservation, are provided for. The salaries of these officers are determined by the council, and are not to be enlarged or diminished during their term of office. Provision is made for amendment of the constitution and for the enactment of any laws not inconsistent with the constitution of the nation or the constitutions of the United States and the state of New York.
Section 13 of the constitution of the nation contains the following provision :
The laws heretofore enacted by the legislature of the state of New York for the protection and improvement of the Seneca nation of Indians, also all laws and regulations heretofore adopted by the council of the nation, shall continue in full force and effect, as heretofore, until the statutes of the state of New York shall be repealed or amended by the councilors, to the extent, and in the manner, as the attorney of the nation shall deem lawful and proper.
No provision is made whereby the nation may exercise its choice of an attorney, the plain purpose being that they are to have the disinterested advice of competent legal counsel, at the expense of the state, in matters in which they would lack discretion without legal advice. The contingency of having an attorney whose engagements might conflict with those of the nation, or whose habits and character would militate against its highest moral progress, was never considered in the preparation of the above section. The importance of having an attorney, if not a religious man, who would support and foster and not offend the christian agencies at work among the people is of the highest concern in their development. All other officials are chosen by them. In this they have no choice or suggestion of a choice. No people are more approachable if their confidence be won. However slow to change old customs and dull to forecast the future, they are suspicious of outside advice, if it be not entirely free from any possible antagonism to their own business and social relations.
The present council consists of the following members, those marked with a * being unable to read or write:
FROM ALLEGANY.-Sackett Redeye (Plover), age 49 ; Dwight Jimerson, 32 ; *George Gordon (Deer), 47 ; *Stephen Ray (Hawk), 50 ; Alfred Logan (Bear), 50 ; Abram Huff (Turtle), 40 ; Cyrus Crouse (Bear), 59 ; Marsh Pierce (Beaver), 69.
FROM CATTARAUGUS.--*David Stevens, age 73 ; *Chauncey Green, 45 ; *John Lay, jr. (Heron), 45 ; *Howard Jimerson (Wolf), 30 ; Elijah Turkey (Hawk), 34 ; Lester Bishop (Wolf), 41 ; *Robert Halftown (Snipe), 45 ; Thomas Patterson (Turtle), 36.
Andrew John, jr. (Gar-stea-o-de, Standing Rock), elected president in May, 1889, as elsewhere noticed, is a strict pagan, a shrewd politician, and an expert in applying the white man's methods of improving the opportunities of office. He presides over the council with self-possession, and is attentive to evidence upon questions of impeachment which come before him. A somewhat perplexing case was fairly adjudicated in September. Frequent journeys to Washington and abundant reticence in political matters have given him a large but varying influence with both parties. He is a steadfast upholder of his nation, while never making unnecessary sacrifice of his personal interests for anybody. This is his third but not consecutive term of office.