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Jacket are noteworthy examples. Photographs of the influential men from each of the Six Nations and from the Saint Regis tribe are not unworthy of companionship with business men among any people.
The briefest outline of the old-time conquests of the Iroquois confederacy challenges as much attention as the triumphs of Cæsar or Alexander. They seized upon firearms as rapidly as they could acquire them, when they learned their use in the hands of Champlain's French followers, and with their new weapons fearlessly extended the range of their triumphs. In 1643 they nearly destroyed the Eries, and extended their successes to northern Ohio. In 1670 they controlled the whole country between Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario, and the north bank of the Saint Lawrence to the mouth of the Ottawa river near Montreal. About the year 1670 they became the terror of the New England tribes who had been practically subjugated by the English, so that Colden, writing of that period, says: “I have been told by old men of New England, who remember the Indian wars, that as soon as a Mohawk was discovered in their country the Indians raised a cry from hill to hill ' a Mohawk! a Mohawk !' upon which all fled like sheep before wolves, without attempting the least resistance”. In 1680 the Senecas invaded Illinois, even to the Mississippi, at the time that La Salle was preparing to descend that river to the sea. The Cherokees upon the Tennessee and the Catawbas of South Carolina yielded captives to these omnipresent invaders. Michigan and even Lake Superior were visited by them. One well-informed Indian historian uses this language: “No distant solitude. no rugged fastness, was too obscure or difficult to escape their visitation; no enterprise was too perilous, no fatigue too great, for their courage and endurance. The fame of their achievements resounded over the continent”. As early as 1607 John Smith met a band of them in canoes upon the upper waters of Chesapeake bay on their way to the territories of the Powhatan confederacy. For a whole century, reaching the pinnacle of their triumphs at last, they became the controlling interior power, with a colossal sway over all other Indian tribes, and only when the protracted wars with the French demanded their constant attention and all their resources did they give up the extension of their growing empire. The Revolutionary war was a trial of their better judgment. The wise protest of the Oneidas divided the league, and the Five Nations did not unite with the British, except as volunteers. The Mohawks took refuge in Canada. The Oneidas and Cayugas after the war gradually sold their lands and departed westward. Their history is a sad one since the dissolution of the confederacy. Even the British government omitted, in its settlement with the United States, to suggest a single paragraph in recognition of their former allies. The broadest and strongest Indian empire north of the Aztec monarchy, fraught with inherent elements of great endurance and substantial strength, succumbed only before advancing civilization, leaving monuments of its wisdom and old-time greatness as suggestive appeals to the generosity, sympathy, and protection of the conquering whites.
THE SAINT REGIS, SUCCESSORS OF THE MOHAWKS: 1890. Saint Regis river, Saint Regis parish, at the junction of the river with the Saint Lawrence river, Saint Regis island, directly opposite, and Saint Regis reservation, in New York, alike perpetuate the memory of Jean François Regis, a French ecclesiastic of good family, who consecrated his life from early youth to the welfare of the laboring classes. Opposed by his aristocratic neighbors and connections, he sought an appointment as missionary to the Iroquois Indians of Canada. He was unable to leave home, although appointed to the mission, but resumed his previous labors, and died in 1640 at the age of 43, after 26 years of faithful service. He was canonized, upon the joint request of Louis XV of France, Philip V of Spain, and the clergy of France assembled at Paris in 1735, by Clement XII in 1737 in recognition of his disinterested labors (a).
The French jesuits, as early as 1675, established a mission among the Caughnawagas, 9 miles above Montreal, and gathered many of the New York Mohawks under their care. The Oswegatchie settlement had also been established near the present site of Ogdensburg, mainly, according to Abbé Paquet, “ to get the Indians away from the corrupting influences of rum and the train of vices to which they were exposed from their vicinity to Montreal”.
About the year 1708 an Indian expedition into New England cost many lives, including those of two young men, whose parents permitted them to go only on the condition that if they failed to return their places should be made good by captives. This pledge was redeemed by a secret expedition to Groton, Massachusetts, and the capture of two brothers of the name of Tarbell, who were adopted in the place of the two who fell in the original expedition. They grew to manhood with strongly developed characters and, respectively, married the daughters of Chiefs Sa-kon-en-tsi-ask and At-a-wen-ta. Jealousies arose between them and the Caughnawagas, which the missionaries could not settle, and in 1760 they formed a part of a migrating band in search of a new home and independence. Father Anthony Gordon, their attending spiritual adviser, located them at the mouth of the river Ak-wis-sas-ne. “ where the partridge drums” and where peculiar echoes, even at the splash of the paddle by night, still perpetuate the original, suggestive name, although the drumming partridges have almost become extinct. The worthy ambition of Regis to give his life to the welfare of this people was remembered and his name was adopted for the new settlement. Lineal descendants of the Tarbells still survive, and are elsewhere noticed. The well-preserved records of the old parish church and the recollections of the aged grandson of the original Peter Tarbell rescue many floating traditions from vague and conflicting statements.
a Hough's History of Saint Lawrence and Franklin counties, 716 pages, Albany, 1853, enters fully into the settlement and development of this part of Xes York.
The Saint Regis Indians have very little in common with the other nations of the old Iroquois confederacy. Only two Oneidas are found among them, and no Onondagas, Cayugas, or Senecas. The Tuscaroras were still in North Carolina when the Mohawks were being gradually drawn into closer relation with the Indians of Canada, and the growth of christianity among them so rapidly severed all associations with the practices and rites of the ancient belief of the founders of the league that even its traditions are little known among their descendants. They had nearly as intimate associations at one time with the Seven Nations of Canada as with the Five Nations of New York, and they still cherish those associations.
RESERVATIONS AND LOCATIONS IN NEW YORK: 1721, 1771, AND 1890.
Ho-de-no-sau-nee-ga-"Territory of the people of the long house".
The old map of the province of New York, dated 1723, was copied from the original map now in possession of Mrs. Caroline Mountpleasant, who writes :
This curious map, so quaint in topography, and so generally in harmony with the geographical knowledge of the period of its date, was found among the old papers of the late John Mountpleasant, my husband, one of the most progressive and distinguished of the chiefs of the Tuscaroras. I can give no clew to its early history, except that my brother, General Ely S. Parker, valued it when he assisted Morgan in the preparation of his history of the Six Nations in 1851, 40 years ago.
This map gives the locations of the Six Nations in 1723.
THE GOVERNOR TRYON MAP OF 1771. The accompanying map was prepared in 1771 under the direction of William Tryon, captain general and governor in chief of the province of New York, and is as nearly suggestive of the then recognized boundary of the Six Nations as any that has had official sanction. In 1851 Lewis H. Morgan, assisted by Ely S. Parker, a Seneca chief, and afterward an efficient staff officer of General Grant, and ex-Commissioner of Indian Affairs, prepared a map for a volume of 475 pages, entitled League of the Iroquois, which aimed to define the villages, trails, and boundaries of the Five Nations as they existed in 1720. Indian names were assigned to all lakes, water courses, and villages, and the various trails from village to village as far as the Ne-ah-ga (Niagara) river. Unfortunately, the plates were not stereotyped, and the book itself is a rare possession. Another map, so ancient as to almost crumble at the touch, represents the territory of Michigan as visited by the Five Nations, and by a footnote relates the visit of 80 Ne-car-ri-a-ges, besides men, women, and children, who came from “Misilmackinac" May 30, 1823, asking to be admitted as a seventh nation into the league, just as the Tuscaroras had been adopted as a sixth. It has some data as to “carrying places” which are not upon the Governor Tryon map. The latter has historic value from its description of " the country of the Six Nations, with part of the adjacent colonies ", recognizing at the time the independent relations which they sustained to Great Britain. The vast tract then controlled by the Seneca Indians is clearly defined, and the changes of 120 years appear more impressive when the boundaries and condition of the present representatives of the former Six Nations are brought into close relation to the facts of to-day.
AREAS OF THE SIX NATIONS RESERVATIONS IN NEW YORK AND CORNPLANTER SENECA IN PENNSYLVANIA.
The New York commission estimates the acreage of the Onondaga reservation at 7,300. The Saint Regis, with swamp land, is estimated at 15,280 acres.
RESERVATIONS OF THE SIX NATIONS IN NEW YORK: 1890. The maps of the existing reservations, as defined in 1890, locate each family, water course, and road, developing, as if by accident, in the clustering of their homes, the differences between those of each nation who “hold to the tradition of the father", and those who welcome the civilization and christianity of the white man.
For a complete and full history of the original treaties and authorities as to the legal status of the Six Nations reservations in New York (beside the report of the New York state commission herein referred to), see the report prepared by Alice C. Fletcher in 1885 and a monograph by Franklin B. Hough, of Lowville, New York, on the Indian tribes of New York, both printed in Executive Document No. 95, Forty-eighth Congress, second session, which are full and most valuable. The various New York reports and especially that of the New York commission, made in 1889, contain much of interest as to the reservations of the Six Nations.
A MAP of the Country of the FIVE NATION S, belonging to the Province of NEW YORK;
and of the LAKES near which the Nations of FAR INDIANS tive with pártof CANADA.
N.B. The Tuscarorat are now reckond a sixth Nation & we between the onondaques & Oneidot; of the Necariages of Misduralinai were
received to be the swenth National Albany, May 30th723 at their own desire so mend that Natin being preunt besides momen s children Reproduction of old map of country occupied by the Five Nations, for report on the Six Nations of New York.
Eleventh Census : 1890