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CATTARAUGUS SENECAS–Continued.
Fourteenth New York Heavy Artillery--Oliver Silverheels, Company C; Jacob Halftown, John Jackson, Lewis Moses, and Sprague Moses;

Company D; Lewis Jones, Rawley Jimerson, and James Abram, Companies C and D.
Fifth New Hampshire Infantry-Allen Turkey, Company H.
Twenty-Third Massachusetts Infantry-Cyrus Johnnyjohn, Chicken Bigfire, William Bigfire, and Charles Bigfire, Company B.
Twenty-ninth Connecticut Infantry-Phillip Fatty, Company F.
Eighty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry-Samuel Logan, Besken Dowdy, and Cornelius Fatty, Company A.
The enumeration of the Cattaraugus Senecas drew out the following additional data :

William Butler, half-blood, enlisted in Seventy-eighth New York Infantry, Coni pany D, 1861; discharged 1865. William Bluesky, Stephen Gordon, Jesse Turkey, and Lewis John, Cayugas, enlisted in the Thirteenth New York Infantry December 23, 1863, all in Company K, and were discharged July 20, 1865. Jacob Halftown, John Jackson, sr., and Oliver Silverheels enlisted in the Fourteenth New York Heavy Artillery, Company D, January 5, 1864. Horace Jackson and George White, jr., enlisted in the Twenty-fourth New York Cavalry, Company D. January 12, 1864, and were discharged August 5, 1865. Cyrus Johnnyjohn enlisted in the Thirteenth New York Infantry January 5, 1864, Company B, and was discharged August 21, 1865. Jesse Kenjockerty and John King served in Company B, Thirteenth New York Heavy Artillery. George Snow, James Halfwhite, George Wilson, and Henry Sundown enlisted in the One Hundred and Thirty-second New York Infantry May 24, 1862, Company D, and were discharged May 25, 1865. Noah Twoguns enlisted in the Sixty-fourth New York Infantry, Company D. Martin Davis, Cayuga, enlisted in the Fifty-first New York Infantry, Company H.

Soldiers' widows—Catherine Jimerson, widow of Jacob T. Jimerson, Company C, Thirteenth New York Heavy Artillery. Elizabeth S. F.
Jacobs, widow of Halftown Jacobs.
TUSCARORAS:
Edward Spencer (Anderson), Company A, Thirty-fifth New Jersey Infantry, enlisted March 10, 1865; discharged May 26, 1865. John

Bembleton, Company M, Twelfth New York Cavalry, enlisted December 20, 1863; discharged July 3, 1865. Jeremiah Peter,
Company D, One Hundred and Thirty-second New York Infantry, enlisted October 28, 1863; discharged July 3, 1865. Ozias Chew,
Company M, Twelfth New York Cavalry, enlisted June 26, 1862; discharged June 25, 1865. Cornelius C. Cusick, Company D, One

Hundred and Thirty-second New York Infantry, now captain Eleventh United States Infantry.
Soldiers' widows-Charlotte Mountpleasant, widow of Clinton Mountpleasant, who served in the Thirty-first New Jersey Volunteers,

Colored Brigade. Sarah Ann Thompson, widow of Nicodemus Thompson, Company M, Twelfth New York Cavalry. Elizabeth Johnson, widow of Elijah Johnson, Battery K, First New York Artillery, who enlisted April 16, 1864, and was discharged November 10, 1865. Eliza Green, widow of Charles Green, of Company K, One Hundred and Twentieth New York Infantry. Sarah Bembleton, widow

of Daniel Bembleton, Company M, Twelfth New York Cavalry. SAINT REGIS: John Bonaparte and Jacob Williams, Ninety-eighth New York Infantry, enlisted December 25, 1861; discharged July 26, 1862. John

Bonaparte also in Company C, One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New York Infantry, from April 30, 1864, to April 20, 1865. John Tarbell, Fifty-sixth Massachusetts, enlisted January 7, 1864; discharged July 17, 1865. John Hoops, Company F, Fifty-sixth New York Infantry, enlisted February, 1864; discharged July 20, 1865. Mitchell Benedict, Company K, New Hampshire Infantry, enlisted December 19, 1863; discharged July 17, 1865. Jacob Pelo, John Billings, Peter Cook, and Peter Gray, Company A, Ninetyeighth New York Infantry. Joseph Bero, Company E, enlisted October, 1861; discharged July 25, 1862. John Tarbell and John White, Company F, Fifty-sixth Massachusetts Infantry, enlisted January 7, 1864; discharged July 17 and 20, respectively, 1865 (Tarbell in Andersonville prison). Jacob Arquette, Company E, New York Infantry, enlisted January 1, 1862; discharged July 25,

1865. Abram Herring (Heron), Company C, Ninth New York Infantry. Frank Papinean. Peter Chubbs served six days and left. Soldiers' widows-Mary Gorrow (Gareau), widow of Joseph Gorrow. Margaret Gorrow (Gareau), widow of John Gorrow. Hattie C.

Torrance (Terans), widow of Frank Currier, Ninety-second New York (pensioner). Sarah David, widow of Loran David. Mary Phillips (absent), widow of John Phillips, who enlisted January 7 and was discharged June 12, 1865, as claimed, but regiment forgotten. Ida Stump, widow of William Stump, Company C, Fifteenth Connecticut; has pension claim; enlistment January 1,

1862; discharged July 5, 1862. The following were the Six Nations survivors of the United States army of the war of 1812-’14 on June 1, 1890 :

John Adams, Onondaga reservation; age 96. John Joe (Little Joe), Cattaraugus; age uncertain. Henry Phillips, Cattaraugus; age 88. Daniel Twogans, recently deceased; age 92. Peter Johnson, John Jones, Jack Kenjockerty, and John Jones, very old men, recently deceased, are reported by their surviving families to have served in the same war upon the American side.

BY HENRY B. ('ARRINGTON.

PART I.

HISTORICAL OUTLINE.

The retirement of the Indian westward within the United States has been qualified by two historical factors. The first grew out of the unlimited and conflicting sweep of British land grants, which involved subsequent conflicts of jurisdiction and corresponding compromises. The second was incidental to the passage of the ordinance of July 13, 1787, which organized the northwest territory. The first, especially in the adjustment of the claims of Massachusetts and New York to the same lands, dealt with Indian titles and rights which neither party could wholly ignore. The white men had overlapped and practically surrounded certain internal nations. The United States followed the British precedent, recognizing the independent sovereignty of the Five Nations (a) in New York, and the rival states of Massachusetts and New York made their adjustments upon the same general basis.

Unlike their less fortunate countrymen in the southern states, the Five Nations inherited titles, which they fully maintained in spite of French invasion, compelling Great Britain to honor those titles in her settlement of issues with France. The French claim of discovery was not supplemented by one of conquest. The Iroquois confederacy successfully defended its ancestral homes against both Indian and civilized invaders, even before Plymouth and Yorktown were colonized or Hollanders occupied Manhattan island. At the establishment of the American republic the Five Nations were still too strong to be ruthlessly forced out of their surroundings, and the sentiment of the American people, supported by President Washington, completely suppressed any demonstration in that direction. The campaign of General Sullivan was based upon hostile invasion by the Indians, and its settlement was treated as the end of a necessary war with contiguous states.

The ordinance of July 13, 1787, dealt with the Indian upon the border, whose hunting range had no limit, and whose home jurisdiction had no distinctive definition.

The distinction between the early status of the New York tribes and that of the western tribes is an important one in applying the facts obtained for the Eleventh Census of the United States to the solution of the problem in future dealings with the Six Nations.

The Indians of New York, early recognized as an independent body politic, too strong to be despised and to be conciliated as allies against other enemies, have been comparatively undisturbed by modern progress, but which must inevitably resolve all purely tribal relations into common citizenship. The pressure from without has, in the main, been that of example and ideas rather than that of force. The reduction of their landed possessions and the modification of their governmental forms and social usages have been matters of negotiation, treaty, and friendly adjustment. The grant by King James I of England to the Plymouth colony, afterward known as Massachusetts, from the Indian tribe of that name, and the grant of Charles II to the Duke of York covered in part the same lands, involving questions similar to those which attended Virginia land grants and all others which extended westward to the Pacific ocean at a time when the geographical status of lands" westward” had no clear description.

A brief reference to the substantial settlement of this and other matters affecting the New York tribes is all that is needed in this connection. The numerous national treaties and acts of Congress and other treaties between the state of New York and the Six Nations, which are matters of public record, have been compiled and published by the state of New York in a volume entitled “Report of special committee appointed by the assembly of 1888 to investigate the Indian problem of the state”. The documents occupy 320 pages, octavo size. Additional printed matter of 804 pages embodies the testimony taken by a special commission in prosecuting their inquiries, and an appendix to the volume cites statutes and treaties which have historic relation to the subject-matter.

The state of New York has not been indifferent to the welfare of the Indian nor reluctant to encourage by legislative sanction his efforts to initiate civilized forms of government and modern methods of internal economy in his administration of home affairs, as was shown in the case of the Allegany and Cattaraugus Senecas. 3 of the statutes cited in the volume referred to relate particularly to the Oneidas, 9 to the Tuscaroras, 10 to the Shinnecocks

a The Five Nations, or League of the Iroquois, became the Six Nations after 1715 by the admission of the Tuscarora Indians from North Carolina into the Iroquois confederacy.

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of Long Island, 13 to the Saint Regis (successors of the Mohawks), 21 to the Onondagas, 14 to the Tonawanda Senecas, and 37 to the Seneca nation, as incorporated by statute, which embraces the Indians of the Allegany and Cattaraugus reservations proper.

These acts, eleemosynary, educational, and general, touch nearly every phase of state supervision and support which does not conflict with the quasi independence of the tribes under original treaties and supplemental agreements in harmony therewith. Their respective bearings upon the census enumeration, as well as the entire testimony procured by the state under its special commission, had careful examination and analysis before the enumeration began, in order to so collect and classify the data that general and state governments might find a-remedy for existing evils and save the Indian from any legalized wrong, as well as from the ruinous effects of barbarous rites and customs, which have not been eliminated by a century of contact with the white race. The tendency of attempted legislation and very pronounced utterances from respectable sources have been in the direction of an abrogation of all existing treaties, with or without the consent of the Indians. All such propositions will be confronted by a national judicial negative, and no impatience with slow Indian development can excuse the impairment of his substantial titles and rights or the imposition of terms of conquest. There must be a middle course, just to all. Neither the encroaching white man nor the conservative pagan can resist the wise and safe conclusion that the Indian must come within the pale of civilization and yet lose nothing of intrinsic value to himself or his family.

ANTECEDENTS OF THE SIX NATIONS. It is impossible to justly apply the tests of to-day without deference to the antecedents of this people and that course of history which has perpetuated their independence while nearly all their contemporary tribes have diminished or disappeared. The advent of the white man in the colonization of the Atlantic coast was at a time when the Iroquois confederacy of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations had practically mastered the Algonquin tribes, which in Canada, New England, the middle colonies, and the west had long girdled the New York tribes as a belt of fire. Unlike the Algonquins, whose tribes had nothing to bind them together but certain similar peculiarities of dialect and jealousy of the Five Nations, the Iroquois (the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas) had a constitutional bond of union, described by Lossing as a “barbaric republic, the Iroquois confederacy, existing in the wilderness, simple, pure, and powerful, with its capital 100 miles from the sea, and unknown until Cartier sailed up the Saint Lawrence, until Champlain penetrated its forests, and Hudson discovered the beautiful river that bears his name”.

The traditions of the formation of this league are very old, systematic, and carefully preserved. The league was called Ko-ni-shi-o-ni, the cabin builders" or the “ long house”, of which the Mohawks held the eastern and the Senecas the western door, with the great council fire or federal capital among the Onondagas. The words attributed to Hiawatha, “the very wise man”, mingled with much romantic story, are so descriptive of the family peculiarities of the different nations that they are worthy of notice in the briefest of the two forms preserved among the people. The scene of the conference was on the hill slope north of Onondaga lake, in the state of New York.

THE WORDS OF HIAWATHA. We have met, members of many nations, many of you a great distance from your homes, to provide for our common safety. To oppose these foes from the north by tribes, and alone, would prove our destruction. We must unite as a common band of brothers, and we shall be safe.

You Mohawks, sitting under the shadow of the great trees, whose roots sink deep into the earth, and whose branches spread over a vast country, shall be the first nation, because you are warlike and mighty.

You Oneidas, a people who recline your bodies against the everlasting stone that can not be moved, shall be the second nation, because you give good counsel.

You Onondagas, who have your habitation at the great mountain and are overshadowed by its crags, shall be the third nation, because you are greatly gifted in speech and are mighty in war.

And you Cayugas, whose habitation is in the dark forest and whose home is everywhere, shall be the fourth nation, because of your superior cunning in hunting.

And you Senecas, a people who live in the open country and possess much wisdom, shall be the fifth nation, because you understand the art of raising corn and beans and making cabins.

You five great and powerful nations must unite and have but one common interest, and no foe shall be able to subdue us. If we unite, the “Great Spirit” will smile upon us. Brothers, these are the words of Hiawatha. Let them sink deep into your hearts.

In 1535, at the site of the future city of Montreal, Cartier made a vocabulary of Indian words, showing that the Iroquois language was then spoken by the Hurons, who were conquered or absorbed by the Iroquois. The confederacy is held to have had its origin about this time. This league, purely aristocratic in spirit, but republican and representative in form, was not political, but chiefly for mutual defense. The carefully preserved wampums of those early times will receive notice in another connection. “Each nation was distinct and independent as to domestic affairs”, writes Lossing, “but bound to the others by ties of honor and the general good”. Each had its principal sachems or civil magistrates with subordinate officers, in all 200, besides 50 with hereditary rights. These were assigned as follows: To the Mohawks, 9; to the Oneidas, 10; to the Onondagas, 14; to the Cayugas, 10, and to the Senecas, 8. Each nation had subdivisions of tribes or clans, such as Wolf, Bear, Turtle, Snipe, Beaver, Deer, Hawk, and Heron, 8 in all. The insignia or totem (mark) of each was subsequently placed upon treaties after the European style. These tribes or clans formed one of the closest bonds of union among the confederated nations. In effect, each tribe was divided into 5 parts, and 1 part was located in each nation. The Mohawk Wolf regarded the Seneca Wolf as his brother. Thus if the nations fell into collision it would have turned Bear against Bear, Wolf against Wolf, brother against brother. “The history of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee”, says Morgan, “exhibits the wisdom of these organic provisions, for during the whole history of the league they never fell into anarchy nor verged upon dissolution from internal disorders. The whole race was woven into one great family of related households". The 8 tribes were, however, in 2 divisions of 4 each, the Wolf, Bear, Beaver, and Turtle forming one division, and the Deer, Snipe, Heron, and Hawk forming the other. Marriage between members of the same division was nearly as rigidly forbidden as between members of the same tribe.

Other tribes are claimed to have existed besides the 8 principal ones, which are found in many other Indian nations; that of the Eel survives among the Onondagas. The names of birds are confused, according to locality, the "tip-up” (Allegany) evidently being the same as the snipe, and chicken hawk and mud turtle being only a familiar substitute for hawk and turtle. The enumeration follows the Indian's own dictation as a general rule.

It was the sound theory of their wise men that purity of blood could alone perpetuate the empire which their fathers had founded. The initiation of a system of physical decay has been as great a curse to the red men of America as fire water itself.

The league had a president with 6 advisers, and authority to convene representatives of all tribes in cases requiring concert of action. Merit was made the basis and sole reward of office. Oh-to-da-ha, an aged Onondagan, was the first president of the league. The mat upon which he sat is still preserved with care, and the buckskin threads upon which the shell and stone beads were strung are still sound, presenting one of the most beautiful relics of the history of the confederacy.

In the military department chiefs were elected for special causes, nor did they hesitate in extreme cases to depose the civil sachem to give greater force to battle action. The military service was not conscriptive, but voluntary, although every man was subject to military duty, and to shirk it brought disgrace.

Most extraordinary of all, the matrons sat in council with a substantial veto as to peace or war. “With these barbarians”, says the historian of New York, “woman was man's coworker in legislation, a thing yet unknown among civilized people”. Doctor Colden, in his history of the Five Nations, sagely suggests that “here we may with more certainty see the original forms of government than in the most curious speculations of the learned”. Such was their regard for the rights of man that they would not enslave captives; neither did they allow intermarriages among families of the same clan. This has been the prevailing law up to the present time.

At the advent of the Europeans the Iroquois were rapidly spreading their organized power from the lakes to the gulf, and were the dread of other nations both east and west. The Senecas framed cabins, tilled the soil, manufactured stone implements and pottery, made clothing, and showed much skill in military works of defense. When Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, 100 years later, proposed a campaign against the French he obtained pledges of support from the confederacy, but the British government withheld the promised aid. In 1778 General Lafayette accompanied General Schuyler to a conference with the Six Nations, but while the Oneidas and Tuscaroras remained neutral, the other nations were waiting for the opportunity to avenge their losses in the battle of Oriskany. The subsequent fate of Wyoming and Cherry Valley ended all negotiations, and the campaign of General Sullivan punished the invaders.

As the rival European nations, in founding New France, New Amsterdam, New Holland, and New Spain, had so maintained their murderous rivalry in the new world that the Indians could form no idea of “one religion” governing all white men, the red men, in alliance with the British, who had resisted the French, felt it their right to compensate for their sacrifices by revenge upon the Americans, the enemies of their friends.

In looking back to the landing of the early colonists, the impression prevails that all the Indians of that date were equally and purely savage, and yet Jefferies truthfully says, in his work upon the human race, that “the Five Nations, at the landing of the Pilgrims, constituted a rising power in America. Had not New England been settled by Europeans it is most likely that the Iroquois would have exterminated the inferior tribes of red men”. “ To this Indian league”, writes Morgan, “France must chiefly ascribe the final overthrow of her magnificent schemes of colonization in the northern part of America”. Parkham says of the Iroquois : “ Among all the barbarous nations of this portion of the continent, these stand most prominent”. In 1839 the Hurons occupied 32 villages, with 700 dwellings, and eagerly adopted civilized methods. Schoolcraft mentions Cusick, who not only became a Moravian minister, but wrote a book in the English language upon the aboriginal tribes of America. Doctor Crane, in Crania Americana, says: “ These men are unsurpassed by any people. The brain capacity of the skull, 88 inches, is only 2 inches less than the Caucasian". Such men as Joseph and John Brandt, of the Mohawks, are rare, and the American intercourse with every considerable tribe, from the earliest record up to the year 1891, has brought to the front some capable Indians, whose influence, rightly appreciated, educated, and directed, would hasten their people forward in the path of civilized progress. Such men as Cornplanter, the friend of Washington, Governor Blacksnake, and Red

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