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CAUSES OF DEATHS AMONG THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YORK IN 1890, AS FAR AS KNOWN, AND TOTAL NUMBER
At the Com planter reservation, "Warren county, Pennsylvania, the births were i and the deaths were 5. Of the latter 3 were infants under 1 year of age and 2 were adults, 1 from pneumonia and 1 from consumption.
STATISTICS OF CRIPPLES, AND ACUTE, CHRONIC, AND OTHER DISEASES OF THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YORK: 1890.
The statistics of the Cornplanter Senecas in Warren county, Pennsylvania, show 1 person to be defective in sight, 1 defective in mind, and 1 afflicted with rheumatism.
LONGEVITY POPULATION ABOVE SIXTY YEARS OF AGE OF THE SIX NATIONS OF
NEW YORK FOR 1889 AND 1890.
The age of t50 years, the ordinary limit of life assurance, is made the basis of comparison. By the American table of mortality adopted by the state of New York as the standard for valuation of policies, the " expectation " is, at 10 years of age, 48.7 years, or the age of 58.7. More than 5.2 per cent of the living persons given above have passed the age of 60 years.
At the Cornplanter reservation, Pennsylvania, 6 persons were above the age of 60 aud none above 70 years.
MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES AMONG THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YORK FOR 1890.
The special agent in his report explains the difficulties of obtaining complete data and which also attended the recognition of Indian family ties as marriage ties. Many of the nominal marriages amount simply to cohabitation as man and wife during pleasure, without any form of legal union or separation, but an almost universal conviction is gaining ground that marriage must be held binding whatever its form unless a divorce be secured upon separation. The table headings given above are transcripts of the returns made by the enumerator. The several tribes have various ideas of the meaning of the word bigamy, which accounts for the apparent inconsistency in the headings.
Felonies committed by members of the Six Nations are cognizable under the laws of New York or the United States. No felonies were reported during the census year, and but few trivial offenses, except intoxication. The number of Indians in jail or prison for offenses against person or property during the year in an Indian population of 5,133 was as follows: Onondaga, 1 ; Cattaraugus, 9; Tuscarora, 3; Saint Regis, 3; total, 16. These offenses wentried by Indian courts on the reservations, except at Saint Regis.
RELIGIONS AND CHURCH STATISTICS FOR 1890.
The total number of churches on the six reservations is 12. Some congregations, however, worship in private houses or halls. The churches cost $25,400. The total number of communicants in an Indian population of 5,133 is 1,074. The cost of the church service was $6,887, of which the Indians contributed $1,262. 18 ministers and missionaries were engaged in the work during the year. Details are given in the tables on the following page and in Part IV of the accompanying report.
The pagans of the Six Nations assemble for their business, ceremonies, and exercises either in the council houses, one of which belongs to each of the nations (except the Tuscaroras), or in groves or private houses.
STATUS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
The total Indian population of the Six Nations of New York on reservations, excluding the Oneidas (106), who are included in the general census of 1890, is 5,133. Of these 2,844 can speak English and 1,985 can not.
STATISTICS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AMONG THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YORK IN 18!Mi.
On the Cornplanter Seneca reservation, Warren county, Pennsylvania, there are 29 persons over 20 years of age who can read English; 19 under 20 years of age who can read English; 19 under 20 years of age who can write English; 57 who can speak English, and 35 who can not. Children not able to speak a language are not noted, and some absentees were omitted from the non-English-speaking enumeration. Some Indians refused the information to the enumerator.
Part IX of the accompanying report gives the practical working of the public schools on the reservations of the Six Nations. Many drawbacks are mentioned, and Mr. Joseph E. Hazzard, the state superintendent of schools on the Cattaraugus and Allegany reservations, writes that he "can not secure competent teachers at the rate authorized ". This may have much to do with the causes of complaint of lack of sufficient results from these schools. His letter in full will be found under the head of "Cattaraugus reservation ", Part IX.
Mr. T. W. Jackson, enumerator and United States Indian agent, in his report for 1890, in speaking of the schools on the Six Nations reservations, says:
Front a careful examination of the reports of the local superintendents of Indian schools made to the superintendent of public instruction of the state of New York, I am led to believe that there is a continued improvement of the schools on the Indian reservations.
Sufficient wages should be paid to secure teachers of brains—teachers who have common sense and who are able to devise means by which not only the scholar can be interested and encouraged to attend the school, but the parents must also be interested in the work.
The pay for teachers on these reservations varies from $250 to $276.50 per year. The total number of teachers is 28; schools, 27; children of school age on the reservations, 1,429; largest daily attendance, 714; average attendance, 306; school accommodations, 1,025. The total cost of these schools to the state of New York for the year is placed approximately at $8,360.69, or an average of $27.32 for each of the 306 in attendance. The Indians' contribution to the expense of these schools is in labor and wood, and is mentioned in Part IX.
Under the heads "Education", "Schools", and "Language" detailed statements show that the record of school attendance for some portion of a year would include attendance even for a day, and that a large number of children were present but a few days during the entire school year. In this connection the attendance for 1 month or more is indicated respecting each school, with notice of exceptional cases of remarkable punctuality, in one case of an attendance with but 1 day's absence, unless sick, for more than 7 years. As the New York school age is from 5 to 21 years, the attendance is indicated of pupils under 6 and over 18 years of age, as well as that usual throughout the country.
STATISTICS OF SCHOOLS AMONG THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YOKK FOR 1890.
a These two items, number of weeks taught and cost per annum, are from the official reports of the state of New York.
Adding the number reported as under 6 and over 18 years of age increases the substantial attendance to 770. The data are from reports of superintendents, examination of the registers, and personal visits to the schools. The large percentage of children of school age among the Saint Regis Indians is due to the remarkable size of families on that reservation, there being now, as reported under the head " Saint Regis families ", 194 children living out of 254 born in 24 families. 107 children under 16 years of age were also educated at the Thomas Orphan Asylum, viz: From Onondaga, 6; Tonawanda, 6; Tuscarora, 13; Allegany, 20; Cattaraugus, 57, and Saint Regis, 5. Considering the fact that the state of New York has no compulsory school-attendance law, the Six Nations present a fair average attendance of children of school age. The state of New York pays the expense of the Indian schools. The Indians supply fuel and care for the schoolhouses and the state attends to the repairs.
The following statistics show that 1,703 of the Six Nations work for a living, of whom 696 males are laborers, and 578 males are farmers. Many minors were enumerated as laborers and farmers. The column of occupations gives details of all callings.
STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS.
Bows and arrows, snow shoes, etc
Canes, whipstocks, etc
Fishing, hunting, and trapping...
Music and school teachers
Storekeepers, grocers, etc
a Among the Saint Regis Indians many children are basket makers. The adults of both sexes engaged in basket making do not number more than 50. b Housekeepers are generally widows or housekeepers for widowers.
At Complanter reservation, Pennsylvania, the occupations are given as follows: Housewives, 3; laborers, 16; farmers, 12; musician, 1; ferryman, 1; lumberman, 1; traveling agent, 1.
THE AREA AND CONDITION OF THE RESERVATIONS.
PROPOSED SIX NATIONS ALLOTMENTS AND LAND IN SEVERALTY—EXISTING LAND TITLES—METHOD OF ACQUIRING
The subject of breaking up the Six Nations reservations and investing the Six Nations Indians with citizenship and covering them as other citizens of New York with the general laws of the state is often mentioned. In breaking up Indian reservations, usually recorded or personal land holdings and titles are not found. Allotments and assignments to tracts proceed on the order of the allotting agent. No old and settled occupancy titles are in the way. No allotment can be made of the Six Nations lands, nor can an assignment in severalty of them be had on the basis of a common and general division or absolute removal, as is usual with ordinary reservation Indians. The present occupancy or recorded titles would prevent this, and the courts would undoubtedly protect them.