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ing difficulties in the way of the free by the present treaty, to the defensive alliance trade; but he rather thought that their which has just been concluded between his readiness to grant facilities produced un- majesty the Ottoman emperor and the empereasonable demands. On the whole, he ror of Russi :, as far as the stipulations thereof was decidedly against the motion.
are applicable to the local circumstances of After some farther conversation the And his majesty the Ottoman emperor enters
his empire, and of that of the sublime porte: previous question was put and carried.
reciprocally by this treaty into th
gagements towards his Britannic majesty, so Copy of the Treaty of Alliance between that there shall exist for ever between the Great Britain and the Sublime Porte. ] three empires, by virtue of the present defenNov. 24. Lord Hawkesbury presented sive treaty, and of the alliances and treaties the following
which already subsist, peace, good under
standing, and perfect friendship, as well by TRANSLATION of TREATY of ALLIANCE be- sea as land, so that for the future the friends
tween his Majesty and the Ottoman of one of the parties shall be the friends of Porte; sigued at Constantinople, January the two others; and the enemies of one shall, 5th, 1799.
in like manner, be considered as such by the
others. On this account the two high conIn the Name of Almighty God!—The contracting parties promise and engage to come stant and uninterrupted good understanding to a frank and mutual understanding in all afwhich has ever subsisted between the august fairs in which their reciprocal safety and trancourt of London and the sublime Ottoman quillity may be interested, and to adopt, by Porte, as well as the circumstances and situa- common consent, the necessary measures to tion of the war in which the two sovereigns of oppose every project hostile towards themthe British and Ottoman empires arc engaged, selves, and to effectuate general tranquillity. in consequence of the perfidious and nume- 2. In order to give to this alliance a full and rous aggressions of the French, have inspired entire effect, the two high contracting parties those sovereigns with a mutual desire to draw mutually guarantee to each other their posstill closer their ancient bond of friendship : sessions ; His Britannic majesty guarantees And a definitive alliance having already been all the possessions of the Ottoman empire, concluded between the Sublime Porte and his without exception, such as they stood immemajesty the emperor of all the Russias, the diately before the invasion of ihe French in friend and ally of his Britannic majesty, by Egypt: And his majesty the Ottoman empewhich alliance, founded on the basis of a mu- ror guarantees all the possessions of Great tual guarantee of their empires, of the re- Britain, without any exception whatever. establishment and consolidation of general 3. Notwithstanding the two contracting tranquillity, and of the preservation of the parties reserve to themselves the full right of other powers, it is agreed that his Britannic entering into negotiation with other powers, majesty shall be invited to accede to it: Their and to conclude with them whatever treaties said majesties, namely, his majesty George their interests may require, yet they mutually 3rd, king of Great Britain, &c. &c. &c. and bind themselves in the strongest manner, that his imperial majesty sultan Selim 3rd, the such trcaties shall not contain any condition most mighty Ottoman emperor, equally de- which can ever produce the least detriment, sirous of contributing to the safety and to the injury, or prejudice, to either of them, or affect interests of their respective subjects, and to the integrity of their dominions; on the conthe re-establishment of the generaltranquillity trary, they promise to regard and preserve, to of Europe, have, for these purposes, named their utmost, their reciprocal honour, safety, for their plenipotentiaries; viz. the king of and advantage. Great Britain, on his part, sir William Sidney 4. In every case of an hostile attack upon Smith, knight, commander, grand cross of the dominions of one of the contracting parthe royal military order of the Sword, and ties, the succours which the other is to furnish commodore of his squadron actually in the shall be regulated by the principles of good seas of the Levant, and John Spencer Smith, faith, and in conformity with the close friendesquire, his minister plenipotentiary actually ship subsisting between the two empires, acresiding at the sublime Ottoman Porte; and cording to the nature of the case. his imperial majesty, on his part, the most ex- 5. Whenever the two contracting parties cellent and most honourable Esseid Ibrahim make common cause either with all their Ismael Bey, distinguished by the title of Cazi forces, or with the succours furnished by virAsker of Romilio, and formerly cadi of Con- tue of this alliance, neither party shall make stantinople, and Ahmed Aatiť Reis Effendi, either peace, or a durable truce, without comwho, after having reciprocally communicated prising the other in it, and without stipulating their full powers in good and due form, have for its safety; and in case of an attack against agreed upon the following articles:
one of the two parties in hatred of the stipuArt. 1.--His Britannic majesty, connected | lations of this treaty, or of their faithful exealready with his majesty the emperor of Rus. cution, the other party shall come to its assissia by the ties of the strictest alliance, accedes tance in the manner the most useful and the most conformable to the common interest, , in the same seas, a naval force always equal according to the exigency of the case. to that of the enemy, to annoy them; and to
6. The two high contracting parties have act in concert with the fleets of his allies, in agreed and resolved, that when their fleets, order to impede the execution of their plans, squadrons, ships, and other vessels of war, and especially to prevent any attack upon shall meet, they shall salute each other, at- the dominions or provinces of the Ottoman tention being paid on both sides, in order to empire, begin the salute, to the superiority of rank of 11. In as much as the presence of the Brithe commanders, manifested by the fag of tish forces in the seas of the Levant has for command;
and in case of an equality of rank its principal object the defence of the Ottoman no salute shall be made. The salute shall be coasts, and that desertion by weakening the answered by the same number of guns as means, must unavoidably hurt the cause, the were fired by the party first saluting. Boats two high contracting powers promise not to shall be reciprocally sent upon these occa- tolerate it under any pretext or motive. sions for the purpose of concerting the mode 12. Notwithstanding the two high conof salute, in order to avoid all misunderstand tracting parties desire to maintain these ening.
gagements in force as long as possible, never7. The trophies, and all the plunder taken theless, as circumstances might in time refrom the enemy, shall be the property of the quire some change, it is agreed to fix the troops making such capture.
term of eight years for this definitive treaty 8. The two high contracting parties being of defensive alliance, to be computed from the actually engaged in war with the common day of the ratifications being exchanged. At enemy, have agreed to make common cause, the expiration of this term, the two parties, and not to conclude any peace or truce but by shall enter into amicable explanations for the common consent, as it has been stipulated in renewal of it, conforming themselves to the the fifth article, so that on the one side the then situation of affairs. Sublime Porte, notwithstanding the cessation 13. The present treaty of defensive alliance of the actual attack directed against her domi- shall be ratified by his majesty the king of nions, shall be bound to continue the war,
Great Britain, and his majesty the emperor of and to remain attached to the cause of her the Ottomans; and the ratifications shall be august allies, until the conclusion of a peace exchanged at Constantinople in three months, just and honourable, as well for thein as for or sooner, if possible. herself; and, on the other side, his Britannic
In Witness whereof, we, the undersigned majesty, shall be equally bound not to make peace with the common enemy without pro
ministers plenipotentiary aforesaid, have viding for the interests, the honour, and the
signed the present treaty of alliance; and
have affixed to it the seal of our arms, safety of the Ottoman empire. 9. The two allies, making thus common
together with that of his Britannic ma
jesty's legation at the Sublime Ottoman cause, promise to communicate to each other their intentions relative to the duration of the
Port. Done at Constantinople the fifth of
January 1799. war, and to the conditions of peace, governing themselves by just and equitable principles,
(L. S.) William SIDNEY SMITH. and having an understanding with each other
(L. S.) J. SPENCER SMITH. in this respect.
(L. S.) IBRAHIM ISMAEL BEY. 10. In order to render more efficacious the (L. S.) AHMED AATIFF Reis EFFENDI. succour to be furnished on both sides during the war, according to the spirit of the present
On the 15th of December, both Houses treaty of alliance, the two high contracting adjourned for a week, and which mode parties will concert together upon the opera- was continued until the 19th of January, tions most suitable to be made in order to 1802, without any business of importance render abortive the pernicious designs of the being agitated. On that day, the earl of enemy in general, and especially in Egypt, Carlisle, in the Lords, pressed upon the and to destroy their commerce in the seas the Levant, and in the Mediterranean; and attention of that House, the very great for this purpose his majesty the Ottoman ein
uneasiness which these short and repeated peror engages not only to shut all his ports, intermissions of the meetings of parliawithout exception, against the commerce of ment had upon the people at large. He the enemy, butlikewise to employ against them insisted, that it was the duty of ministers in his dominions and in order to prevent the to assign their motives for adjourning execution of their ambitious projects) an army, that House so often. He wished to be consisting at least of 100,000 men, and even informed, whether ministers had known to augmentit, in case of need, to the extent of of the intention of France to send a vast his whole forces; he shall also put his naval forces in a state of preparation to act in con
armament from that country to the West cert with those of his allies in the seas above. Indies before the signing of the definitive mentioned ;—and his Britanic majesty, on his treaty of peace? Whether that was done part, reciprocally engages himself to employ in consequence of an agreement between the two countries? and, whether his ma- secured the vast cessions which the preli. jesty's ministers had taken the necessary minary treaty had proposed that we should precautions to guard against the conse- | make them. Until then, France might quences that might follow from the French allow us to enjoy peace, while we should having such a force in the West Indies ? be obliged to keep up an expensive estaBut it was not alone the great accession blishment in the West Indies, to guard of force to France in that quarter of the against her machinations,
" Such was world which was to be dreaded, the power the peace we were to enjoy; a peace deof Spain would be vastly augmented; five lusive and insecure; a peace which would Spanish ships of the line sailed from operate to put France in possession of Brest with the French fleet, and under that which she had so long sought, a naval the protection of its fag; which, added force, which he much feared would ento nine, the Spanish force at the Havan- able her to accomplish that in which all pah, would render that power truly for her hopes and wishes centered; that midable. And all this was done before which all her exertions, intrigues, and it was known whether Great Britain had state papers for years back have been conmade peace with Spain or not; because, trived and calculated to produce; namely, his lordship added, for any thing we knew what she called the liberty of the seas; to the contrary, we were still at war with but which would be, in fact, the annihilathat power. He could find no document tion of the commerce and consequence of by which he was to conclude that we were Great Britain.” Mr. Chancellor Addingai peace with her; and that, therefore, he ton and lord Hawkesbury reduced the dewished his majesty's ministers would sa fence of the measures of administration, tisfy the public upon that head. He on the point alluded to, to two heads; wished then to ask ministers, whether we first, that the sailing of the French fleet were at peace with Spain or not? To manifested no hostile purpose, and that that part of the preliminary treaty by previously to its having sailed, that there which the island of Trinidad was ceded to had been a communication with the Bri. this country, it did not appear that the tish government upon the subject; and, consent of Spain had either been asked or secondly, that ministers bad not negobtained. No negotiation was carried on, lected to take every precautionary meanor treaty entered into between any Spa- sure to guard against any prejudicial efnish and British minister. Was it not fects that might be apprehended. For necessary then to know how we actually the fact of both these assertions, they stood with respect to that country?-_Lord claimed the confidence of the House, as Pelham, in reply, informed the House, at present it was too delicate a matter that it was in consequence of a previous upon which to enter into a full explanaunderstanding between Great Britain and tion.-Repeated adjournments of the sitFrance, that the armament lately sailed ting of parliament still continued to fill from Brest ; that that fleet had a parti- up the anxious interval which occurred cular destination and a specific object in until the signature of the definitive treaty. view, and that it could not be contrary to The death of the earl of Clare, lord high the interests of Great Britain if it suc-chancellor of Ireland, caused a vacancy in ceeded in its object.-Mr. Elliot, in the the chair of the House of Commons, his House of Commons, on the same day, majesty having been pleased to appoint and upon the same grounds with lord Car- sir Jolin Mitford, the Speaker, to fill up lisle, attacked the ministry. He took a that high office. view of the consequences which the sail. ing of the Brest feet was likely to pro- Mr. Speaker Mitford resigns.] Feb. duce on the progress and conduct of the 9, 1802. Mr. Ley, the clerk at the table, pending negotiation. Should war recom- acquainted the House, that he had, mence, he said, the French might strike this morning, received a letter from Mr. an immediate and dangerous blow in some Speaker ; which he read to the House as of our most important colonial posses- follows: sions. They had now the means of doing
“ Palace-yard, 9th Feb. 1802. so, though it was probable they would “Sir; His majesty having been gracia delay the execution of their hostile de- ously pleased to signify his intention of signs. They would probably postpone appointing me chancellor of Ireland, it the accomplishment of their ulterior ob- has become my duty to resign the chair jects of aggrandisement, until they had of the House of Commons; which I request you to communicate to the House, | abounds with knowledge and ability of at their meeting this day. I must entreat every description. Yet I believe that, on you at the same time to express to them, such occasions as the present, gentlemen in the strongest terms, the regret with naturally turn their thoughts towards a which I quit the high situation to which few, as more peculiarly qualified, by their their favour had raised me; and my grati- studies, and pursuits, for the discharge of tude for their constant and kind assistance the duties of the Chair. Among those to and support, in my humble attempts to dis- whom our attention is thus directed, it charge the arduous duties of that impor- may not be easy to find decisive motives tant office. I have the honour to be, &c. of preference; but by our choice, it is “ John Ley, esq. John MITFORD." eminent, not exclusive fitness that is im&c. &c. &c."
plied. From our selection of one,
it is After which, and before any member not to be inferred, that there are not spoke, the mace was brought into the others who would honourably and ably House by the serjeant, and laid under the discharge the same trust if they were table. Then Mr. Chancellor of the Ex-invested with it. If a knowledge of the chequer acquainted the House, that his laws and constitution of our country-if majesty, under the circumstances referred a thorough acquaintance with our parliato in Mr. Speaker's Letter, gives leave to mentary history, and with those records this House to proceed to the choice of a in which are treasured up, as well the new Speaker; and that it is his majesty's rules and usages that govern our proceed. pleasure that this House should presentings, as the principles and practices which their Speaker on Thursday next, in the have gradually developed themselves in House of Peers, for his royal approbation. the admirable constitution we now enjoy
-if a constant endeavour to direct the Mr. Abbot Chosen Speaker.]. Feb. 10. attention of the House to measures of The Serjeant having brought the Mace, great national utility, and an active and and laid it under the table,
persevering industry in carrying those The Master of the Rolls (sir W. Grant) measures into effect when adopted by the rose and said :-Mr. Ley; the event Housc-if a firmness and an integrity which was yesterday announced to the that ensure upright conduct and impartial House renders it necessary for us to sup- decision-if these be qualifications for the ply the vacancy, in the office of Speaker, high station which is now racant, I am which that event has occasioned. It is convinced that the gentleman whom I impossible not to regret that we should mean to propose for the consideration of 80 soon be deprived of the services of one, the House possesses eminent fitness for who, in the short time that he has filled that station-for that these qualifications the Chair, has so amply justified the do belong to him will, I hope, be admitted, choice that placed him in it. Indeed, when I say that Mr. Abbot is the gentlewith knowledge so various and so pro- man to whom I allude. All who have found, with information at once so accu- sat in the House with that right hon. rate and so extensive, as he possessed, he gentleman, have witnessed the extent and could not fail to do credit to that situa- the value of his labours. They have seen tion, even difficult as his predecessor had that his parliamentary life has been one made it for any man to appear in it to ad- continued series of useful exertion. To vantage. It is some consolation, that, if that exertion the public is already indebthe be lost to our immediate service, a greated for several beneficial arrangements. and valuable portion of the empire is In collecting the materials, and laying the about to enjoy the benefit of his talents foundation of many others, he has been in its first place of judicial magistracy. mainly instrumental. If such have been How he will fill that place, can be no the spontaneous efforts of his zeal as a doubt with those who know, that in the private member of parliament, what may whole compass of legal science, there is we not expect from that zeal, when dinothing which his capacious mind has not rected to the performance of high official embraced, from the minutest rules of fo- duties, and stimulated by the animating rensic practice, to the most enlarged influence of illustrious examples ? I move, principles of general jurisprudence. For- Sir, “ That the right hon. Charles Abbot tunately for the country the talents it do take the Chair as Speaker." produces are adequate to the various ser- Mr. Baker took great pleasure in sevices which it requires. The House conding the motion. He had witnessed
in the right hon. gentleman proposed to the certainty of being appointed to hold a fill the chair, the most careful investiga. nomination equivalent to an election. It tion of subjects the most intricate and is not so honourable in the House to seem laborious, and the frequent exertion of to accept their Speaker from the nominaqualities the most essential to the dis- tion of a minister. I wish that we should charge of the high duty which he was now stand free from the suspicion, and choose proposed to fill. He came most happily for ourselves; and I have no doubt that recommended by the temper, moderation, we can find persons fully qualified to fill and steadiness with which he had not only the chair, without looking to that legal made the arrangements he had engaged knowledge which is by no means requisite in, but with which he had met the difficul- in order to fill it with dignity and imparties and the objections which he had to tiality. I have no doubt that we can find encounter in their prosecution. There persons so qualified, independent of the was another circumstance which should crown, and free from party connexion. also recommend him to the choice of the As to age, that indeed would be a material House ; Mr. Abbot was at a time of life recommendation of the right hon. gentlewhich permitted the House to look for his man, if death alone were to remove him continuing long in the office; a circum- from the chair ; but we have now had stance which should not to be overlooked, sufficient experience of the gentlemen of as frequent changes were apt to obstruct the law, to know that, though they call the progress of public business.
this the height of their ambition, yet, if Mr. Sheridan said :- When the right if any thing higher should be offered to hon. gentleman, now appointed to a very them, they leave us to lament the loss of high office, was named as a proper person their experience and abilities. It is under to fill the chair of this House, 'I had the these impressions, that I propose Mr. misfortune to differ from those by whom Charles Dundas; at the same time assurhe was proposed, and I proposed another. ing the right hon. gentleman proposed on I will not mention the removal of that the other side, that if he shall be elected, person without joining in the commenda- as, from the quarter from whence he is tions bestowed on him, or without declar- proposed I have no doubt he will be, his ing that I think his present appointment exertions in the chair shall have my cora public benefit. Having, been of a dif- dial support. ferent opinion from those by whom that Lord George Cavendish seconded the gentleman was proposed, I should act motion. He acknowledged that Mr. Abwrong if I did not now hold a similar bot possessed all the qualifications that conduct; for the same motives remain. had been ascribed to him, but he objected In pursuing this conduct, I disclaim all to his election, because he had so recently personal opposition. I join most warmly held an office under the crown. The in the praises bestowed on the right hon. same objection could not be urged against gentleman already proposed; but I cannot his hon. friend, whose other virtues and help condemoing the practice of looking qualifications were so well known, that it only to the law for persons to fill our was unnecessary for him to detain the chair. It was anciently the custom to House by enumerating them. look to individuals not holding offices de- Mr. Courtenay was glad to see the mopendent on the pleasure of the crown. It tion seconded by the noble lord, and is the undoubted right of the crown to disa fully concurred in the eulogium bestowed pose of all offices dependent on the crown ; on the late Speaker, whose conduct in but it is the right of the House to ap- the chair had acquired him the upanimous point its Speaker, and the House ought approbation of the House. Neither did to be jealous of the disposal of an appoint- he doubt but that the learned gentleman ment peculiarly its own. If the House who was proposed to succeed him, would concurs always in appointing persons exert similar abilities, when once placed holding offices under government, it seems in office. His occult qualities might then to me to be in some degree deferring to burst forth in all their lustre, though no the crown. I believe the right hon. gen- person before had suspected their exista tleman now proposed holds a place under ence. Yet, with all these qualities to re. the crown; but possibly he has resigned commend him, he could not help thinking it. I have at one time said, that such re. that there was another gentleman in the signations were not quite 80 decorous. House (Mr. Addington) who possessed It seems to be presuming too much on still more appropriate talents for the office,