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plause and gratitude of the country, for may not be inconsistent with the great the prudence with which they had carried object which his majesty has so justly at on the begotiations, and the unexampled heart, of effectually providing for the sesecrecy with which they had concluded curity of all his majesty's dominions :them. He was persuaded that the House That we truly participate in the gratifi. would concur in the satisfaction expressed cation which his majesty has so graciously by his majesty at the convention concluded been pleased to express at the relief which with the Powers of the North. The ter- the bounty of Divine Providence has afmination of the difficulties which had un- forded to his people by the abundance of happily subsisted had been effected, by the late harvest; and we acknowledge providing against the recurrence of the with the utmost gratitude, his majesty's abuses which had taken place in the exer- gracious acceptance and approbation of cise of those rights which constituted the the proofs of that temper and fortitude basis of our maritime greatness. The which have been manifested by all deluxuriant harvest with which the country scriptions of his subjects, under the vahad been last year blessed, would, he rious and complicated difficulties with trusted, not prevent the House from be- which they have had to contend :-That ing actuated by the conviction, that eco- we reflect with sentiments of just exultanomy in the consumption of its produce tion on the distinguished valour and emiwas the only mode of guarding against nent services of his majesty's forces by the danger of scarcity, in future. When sea and land, which at no period have been he looked forward to the blessings of surpassed ; and that we have contemplated peace, he could not help attributing the with the utmost satisfaction the unprecepraise of it to those ministers who, during dented exertions of the militia and fena period fraught with every danger, had, cibles, and the zeal and perseverance of by the vigour of their measures, protected the yeomanry, and volunteer corps of the country, not only from the avowed cavalry and infantry:- That we most attempt of its foreign enemies, but from heartily congratulate his majesty on the the secret machinations of its internal naval and military operations of the last foes. He should conclude by moving, campaign, and in the glorious and suc“ That an humble Address be presented cessful issue of the expedition to Egypt, to his majesty, to return his majesty the marked as it has been throughout by thanks of this House, for his most gracious achievements which in their consequences, speech from the throne: To assure his and by their example, cannot fail to conmajesty that we learn with great satisfac. duce to the lasting advantage and honour tion that the differences with the Northern of this country :--That we cordially share Powers have been adjusted by a conven in his majesty's earnest wishes that his tion with the emperor of Russia, to which subjects may enjoy in their full extent the the kings of Denmark and Sweden have returning blessings of peace, in the proexpressed their readiness to accede, and gressive increase of the national comthat preliminaries of peace have been ra- merce, credit, and resources ; and, above tified between his majesty and the French all, in the undisturbed possession of their republic:- That we acknowledge his ma- religion, laws, and liberties, under the jesty's goodness in having been pleased to safeguard and protection of that constitudirect copies of these treaties to be laid tion, which it has been the great object of before us, and to assure his majesty that we all our efforts to preserve, and which it is shall not fail to apply our immediate atten- our fixed determination, as it is our most tion to the important transactions to which sacred duty, to transmit unimpaired to they relate :- That we are fully sensible our descendants.” of the paternal solicitude which leads his Mr. Wodehouse said, he joined in the majesty to regret the necessity of large general joy expressed upon the subject of additional supplies.

But that while we a treaty of peace with France, in which sincerely participate in that sentiment, we the security of the country was amply feel the indispensable duty of providing provided for, and its interests firmly for the expenses which must for a time be maintained. He rejoiced at the convenunavoidable in different parts of the world, tion with the Northern Powers, in which and of maintaining an adequate establish the rights of Britons were maintained ment on the final restoration of peace :- with undeviating firmness. Every one That we shall be anxious for the adoption must feel elated at the glorious terminaof all such economical arrangements as tion of a war, which was not begun for

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the purpose of gratifying the ambition, | few words, his opinion in concurrence
or extending the territories of Britain: with what had already been delivered on
but which she was compelled to com- the important subject now before, the
mence for the purpose of preserving her House, and upon which he was glad to.
dearest rights. He was convinced of the have the prospect of unanimity, a thing
necessity of a considerable supply, which which was not common even on the first
he had no doubt would be cheerfully day of a session. He said he would not
voted. Gentlemen must be aware, that a enter at large into the transactions now
much larger peace establishment would before the House, and which his majesty
be nécessary than had hitherto been had announced from the throne, either as
known in this country, from the alteration to the pacification which had been con
which had taken place in the face of cluded with the Northern Powers, or the
Europe. He was convinced, however, signature of the preliminaries with France:
that nothing would be asked for by minis. when either of these topics, and particu-
ters, which was not absolutely necessary larly the latter, should be brought forward
to the security of the kingdom. To our for discussion, he hoped he should be.
brilliant : successes by sea and land, he found to agree with the hon. gentleman
must pay his tribute of admiration: they who had just preceded him, and that they
had been most glorious and unexampled. should both express their approbation of
To one man, however, he more particu- that measure, although it was an appro-
larly yielded the palm of admiration : he bation which would proceed, perhaps,
alluded to the gallant Abercromby; to from different reasons. This was not the
whose bravery, judgment, and skill, must season for the regular discussion of either,
peculiarly be ascribed those successes and yet he was anxious to declare the
which immediately led to that happy ter- outline of his sentiments on both these
mination of the war which we were now measures, which he saw, upon the whole,
called upon to celebrate. The achieve- with great satisfaction ; and he would add,
ments of the British arms had imme- that whatever criticism might be applied
diately led to the happy event of peace, to inferior parts of these great transactions,
and ought to be regarded with every or to whatever criticisms they might be
testimony of applause and approbation. liable, they were, on the whole, such as
Peculiar praise was also due to those who afforded matter of great joy to the coun-
had seized the happy moment for nego try, and entitled the government which
tiation, and who, without being elated concluded them to esteem and thanks.
by success, had founded upon it claims There was another topic on which he
that at once united a proper dignity and would slightly touch the termination of
a happy moderation. The advantages the war had been accompanied with
which would accrue to the people of honour to us; for it had given proofs of
England from the measures which bad vigour and energy beyond any former
been pursued, were obvious. Their war, and of achievements more splendid,
commerce would be enlarged, their if possible, than any which adorned our
interests benefited, and their prosperity history before this period.
and happiness materially increased. Mr. Windham said : Sir, it is a very

Mr. Fox said, he wished it distinctly to painful task to me to declare my sentibe understood upon. what ground he ments in opposition to those with whom I should that night give his vote. What have long agreed. But as the address ever difference of opinion there might take proposed to the House does not go to place relative to the terms of the peace, pledge us to any specific approbation of or its general tenor, or the manner of the measure of peace, it is not now my concluding it, he most cordially and une- intention to enter into a consideration of quivocally joined in the general joy and the question of the terms; especially, as exultation to which the conclusion of future opportunity will be presented, peace had given rise. He congratulated when I may state to the House those that House, and the country, on the reasons upon which I found my disappro. happy event which had taken place, and bation of them. It is not, therefore, my which had called forth a general sentiment intention this day to give my negative to of applause. He only wished to add, the proposed address, but to wait for the that he should give his decided approba- day of discussion, when I shall go more tion of the address by his vote.

fully into the subject; at the same time : Mr. Pilt said, he rose to deliver, in a wishing to be understood, that, in agreeing

to the motion of to-day, I do not feel the joyous' ringing of the bells.

But, myself pledged to support any future were they the signs of any real good motions upon the subject. This point the effects of any well-founded national being secured, Sir, I should be inclined joy? or rather, were they not the lights to leave my opinion, and the reasons that were to light up our sepulchre, and which are to support it, to be stated in the knell which was tolling us to our that debate which may be expected graves? I cannot consent to appear in shortly to take place, if the declarations iny wedding-garment, until I know wheof opinions in favour of the peace did not ther the feast to which I am invited, be seem to me to require similar declarations really a wedding or a funeral. Sir, I on the part of those who find themselves speak in perfect plainness and sincerity, compelled to condemn it. Other reasons from the bottom of my heart, and with also make it necessary to say a word or the solemnity of a death-bed declaration two even in the present stage of the (a situation much resembling that in which business. To dissent from any prevalent we all stand), when I declare, that my opinion, to be a solitary mourner in the hon. friends, who, in a moment of rashmidst of general rejoicing, 'tó wear the ness and weakness, have fatally put their face of sadness while the countenances of hands to this treaty, have signed the others glisten with joy; to be sunk in death-warrant of their country. They dejection and despondency, while others have given it a blow, under which it may are animated with the most brilliant languish for a few years, but from which hopes, is to be in a state which every one I do not conceive how it is possible for it must be anxious to explain, so far, at ever to recover. I feel how very unplea-least, as to make known the general sapt it is to deal in predictions, which I -nature and character of such an extraor- who make them most devoutly wish may dinary difference. The House has seen, never prove true. I know also the unand can perfectly understand that those certainty of all human affairs, and am not who are united in feeling may, neverthe- profane enougli to set bounds to the disless, be perfectly opposite in sentiment. pensations of Providence; but as far as Ao instance, Sir, may be seen this very any hope now appears, -any hope which night: the hon. gentleman opposite (Mr. can be rationally acted upon such as Fox), and my right hon. friend near me, any man would venture i to avow, I can both agree in rejoicing and exulting in see, though anxiously I look for it, no the present peace, though, I presume, on possible means of escape. There is but reasons widely different. It is my for one thing which could enable this country tune, on the other hand, to agree with to counterbalance the power of France the hon. gentleman opposite in his opi- on the continent; and this is our navy, nions, but to differ from him wholly in which depends upon our commerce and his feelings. I do think, with him, that navigation, as these do upon our colonial this is a glorious peace for France; but I possessions. 'On the other hand, there is nevertheless do not agree in feeling either but one thing wanting to them to make with that_hon. gentleman or my hop. their empire universal as well by sea as friends. This, Sir, may serve to explain by land; and that is, that they should the cause of that diversity.which I unhap- have our commerce and navigation, and pily find between my own opinions and through that, a mean of re-establishing those more generally prevalent in the their marine; this is now given into the country. If I have not partaken in the hands of France, and the consequence rejoicings, it is because I have not been seems to me inevitable. Only one thing able to convince myself that there are more, Sir, I shall notice, which is drawn any real or solid causes for rejoicing: it is from me by what has fallen from the hon. because I fear, that, before many years mover or seconder, and is, I believe, also shall pass over our heads, this rejoicing to be found in the address. It is the will be turned into repentance and bitter calling of this an honourable peace. I sorrow; it is because I dread that the would suggest to the hon. gentleman, and advantages which peace may bring will all who are to talk in future upon the

be transient and unsubstantial, and be subject, that the less is said of the honour followed, ati no very distant period, by of the thing the better. It is, besides, the commencement of endless calamity highly impolitic in the hon. gentleman in and ruin. I have seen all around me another view. They are undertaking bonfires and illuminations ; I have heard more than they are required to do.

Much as I think of national honour tuous guardian of the constitution, and to esteeming it as I do the very life and whom the country was under deep oblisoul of the politics of all great countries-gation for many great services, particularly I will, for the sake of argument, in the when he warned that country of its danpresent case, lay it entirely out of the ger when its safety was at stake. His question. I will be content if the hon. right hon. friend had said, that we ought gentleman will show me, that this is a to consider the extension of our commerce safe peace. Give me safety, and I will as the only counterbalance in our power ask nothing more. If, however, my hon. against the extension of territory of the friends were driven to it by fatal neces. French republic. He would not now sity, it must be a sufficient justification. refer to the terms of the peace; but he Whether such imperious circumstances would aver, that all that we had given up, existed, we shall hear on the day of dis. would have afforded to us no sort of secucussion. It will certainly be wrong to rity against the danger which was apprecondemn it prematurely; I shall therefore hended by his right hon. friend. He did wait patiently for that discussion, which not agree with his right hon. friend oo the will clear up the matter to the satisfaction subject of the extent of the power of of the House.

France, and of our mode of balancing Mr. Chancellor Addington said, he that power; for he thought the best hoped that his right honourable friend counterpoise of this country, against the would pardon him, if he expressed an opi- growing power of France, was in the prenion that he had gone into rather more servation of our constitution. To our inminuteness than the question now before dustry and skill, to our frugality and the House called for, even in his view temperance, much was to be also conof it. The observations of his right hon. fided ;-to the right direction and preserfriend were (he would pardon him for vation of what remained of the faculties, saying so) a little premature ; that subject abilities, and resources of the country was not now before the House; even in (and happily much indeed remained of his majesty's speech from the throne, there such resources), much was to be looked was expressed no other sentiment on the for as a security for us in time of peace, peace, but such as was conveyed by these for a continuance of its blessings. It newords: That his majesty trusts the ver was in the contemplation of those who arrangement “ will be found conducive had the honour of advising his majesty to to the substantial interests of this country, sign the preliminaries of the peace, that and honourable to the British character." what they did was the effect of necessity. In this address there was no reference His right hon. friend had stated, that some whatever even to that sentiment so con- unknown necessity might have been the veyed, from the throne. Indeed, it would cause I disclaim that plea (said Mr. be irregular and indecorous to ask of the Addington)-I will be no party to such a House an opinion upon a subject not fully statement. I do not seek my own justifi. before it. His right hon. friend very well cation, nor will my colleagues, I am perknew the preliminaries of peace had been suaded, seek theirs in any such way-that signed on the part of his majesty and the would be really undervaluing the resources French republic, but the terms were not of our country. If instead of acceding to before the House. His right hon. friend the terms agreed upon, and which are had entered into the subject of the peace, likewise soon to be finally settled, the however, and had expressed some lamen- enemy had made it necessary for us to tation over it. He should not now follow continue the contest, we should, I am him in answer to what he urged ; although confident, have continued the contest ; and he might, in some measure, regularly do I am confident also, that we should bave

Nor should he enter into any dispute proved to the world that we have still now upon the general proposition "laid sufficient faculties and resources to maindown by his right hon. friend; not be- tain the honour and preserve the security cause he was unprepared, but because of the British empire. I could not forbear another opportunity would offer for that saying this; for the purpose, chiefly of purpose. He should then enter on the disclaiming that species of justification discussion with his right hon. friend ; but which my right hon. friend supposed to he should do it under a painful feeling; arise out of necessity. I hope my justififor painful it was to differ in opinion from cation, and that of my colleagues, will be one who had proved himself to be a vir- found in the actual state of things, in

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whích, I trust, it will appear, we have had punishment those who had plunged the & prudent regard to the true interest of country into the war and brought the con. our country; and I aver also, that if we stitution into danger. had not advised his majesty to conclude The motion was agreed to nem. cor. these terms we should not only have been wanting to our constituents, but have been

The King's Answer to the Commons' Ad. guilty of a gross dereliction of our duty to dress.] To the Address of the Comhis majesty

mons, his Majesty returned this Answer : Mr. Sheridan said :-I shall certainly

“ Gentlemen, I thank you for this du. vote for the address which has now been tiful and loyal address. The sentiments moved, because, it was not, as is usual on it conveys are fresh and satisfactory proofs such occasions an exact echo of the speech of that attachment to my person and go. from the throne. The speech contains vernment, and of that regard for the hodistinctions and characters of the peace, nour and interests of this country, by which, if they had been re-echoed in the which your conduct has been invariably address, I, for one, could not have distinguished." supported. The Address as it now stands does not appear liable to any great objection, and I have no wish to disturb the Oct. 30. Lord Hawkesbury presented, by

Copy of the Convention with Russia.] unanimity of our vote. Notwithstanding his Majesty's command, the following the unanimity, however, I sincerely be. lieve, that if this were the time for men to TRANSLATION of CONVENTION between his deliver their opinions, there never was a Britannic Majesty and the Emperor of period of less real unanimity. The right Russia, signed at St. Petersburgh the hon. gentleman (Mr. Pitt) has spoken of

5-17 June 1801. the peace in terms to which I can by no In the Name of the Most Holy and Un, means agree. I differ from him in every divided Trinity..--The mutual desire of his expression by which he characterised the majesty the king of the United Kingdom of peace as glorious and honourable. Still Great Britain and Ireland, and of his majesty more do ì differ from those who contend the emperor of all the Russias, being that it was inexpedient to make peace at between themselves with respect to the

not only to come to an understanding alt. This, Sir, is a peace which every differences which have' lately interrupted man ought to be glad of, but 'no man can the good understanding and friendly rela. be proud of. It is a' peace involving a tions which subsisted between the two degradation of the national dignity, which states; but also to prevent, by frank and preno truly English heart can feel with cise explanations upon the navigation of their indifference. It was a peace, which the respective subjects, the renewal of similar war had a tendency to lead to, as its ne altercations and troubles which might be the cessary result The war was one of the consequence of them; and the common object

of the solicitude of their said majestics being worst wars in which this country was ever to settle, as soon as can be done, an equitengaged: and the peace is, perhaps, as able arrangement of those differences, and good as any man could make, under the an invariable determination of their principles circumstances in which the country was upon the rights of neutrality, in their appliplaced.

cation to their respective monarchies, in order Earl Temple, though not thinking that to unite more closely the ties of friendship there was any reason to rejoice at the and good intercourse, of which they, acknowterms, said, he nevertheless agreed in the ledge the utility and the benefits, have named

and chosen for their plenipotentiaries; viz, general sentiment of the propriety of waiv. his majesty the king of the United Kingdom ing, for the present, the discussion of the of Great Britain and Ireland, Alleyn lord terms of the preliminaries, and of support- baron Saint Helens, his said majesty's ing the Address. But in giving his sup- privy counsellor, and his ambassador export to the Address, he by, do means traordinary and plenipotentiary to his mapledged himself to support the peace, jesty the emperor of all the Russias; and which, considering its terms, he certainly his majesty the emperor of all the Russias could not approve of.

the sieur Nikita count de Panin, his privy Mr. James Martin concurred in ap: ment of foreign affairs, present chamberlain,

counsellor, minister of state for the depart, proving the peace; but begged it might Knight Grand Cross of the Orders of Saint be understood that neither this approba. Alexander Newsky, and of Saint Anne of the tion; nor this vote, was meant to convey First Class, of that of Saint Ferdinand, and of an'idea, that he did not wish to bripg to Merit, and of the Red Eagle, and of Saint (VOL. XXXVI.]


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