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and that portion of the State of Colorado lying north of a line drawn east and west through Denver.

Group VIII.—This group embraces the States of Kansas, Arkansas, that portion of the State of Missouri lying south of the Missouri River, that portion of the State of Colorado lying south of a line drawn east and west through Denver, that portion of the State of Texas lying west of Oklahoma, and tho Territories of Oklahoma, Indian Territory, and the portion of New Mexico lying northeast of Santa Fe.

Group IX.—This group embraces the State of Louisiana, exclusivo of the portion lying east of the Mississippi River, the State of Texas, exclusivo of that portion lying west of Oklahoma, and the portion of New Mexico lying southeast of Santa Fe.

Group X.—This group embraces the States of California, Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Washington, the Territory of Arizona, and that portion of the Territory of New Mexico lying southwest of Santa Fe.

Some of the many detailed figures embraced in the statistician's report are here given :

MILEAGE.

The total railway scileage in the United States on June 30, 1896, was 182,776.63 miles, there being an increase of 2,119.16 miles, or 1.17 per cent, during the year. California shows an increase of 202.05 miles; Florida, 125.84 miles; Georgia, 233.77 miles; Louisiana, 130.17 iniles; Michigan, 140.53 miles; Minnesota, 110.43 miles; Ohio, 111.06 miles; Pennsylvania, 168.18 miles; Texas, 144.79 miles; Wisconsin, 115.25 miles, and Indian Territory, 181.66 miles. The increase in mileage in the other States and Territories in which an increase has occurred is less than 100 miles. The aggregate length of railway mileage, including all tracks, on June 30, 1896, was 240,129.12 miles, the increase being 3,234.86 miles. The length of second track was 10,685.16 miles; of third track, 990.45 miles; of fourth track, 764.15 miles. The mileage of yard track and sidings was 44,912.73 miles.

CLASSIFICATION OF RAILWAYS.

The number of railway corporations on June 30, 1896, was 1,985. Of this number, 1,008 maintained operating accounts, 782 being classed as independent operating roads, and 226 as subsidiary operating roads. Of the roads operated under lease or other agreement, 324 received a fixed money rental, and 192 a contingent money rental; 262 roads were assigned for operation under forms of agreement not easily classifiable.

The operated mileage affected by reorganization and other corporate changes during the year ending June 30, 1896, was 13,271.31 miles, of which 11,734,85 miles pertained to reorganized roads.

EQUIPMENT.

The total number of locomotives in service on June 30, 1896, was 35,950, or 251 more than on the same date of the preceding year. Of this number, 9,943 were passenger locomotives, 20,351 were freight loco. motives, 5,161 were switching locomotives, and 495 were unclassified. The number of cars of all classes in service was 1,297,649, indicating an increase of 27,088 cars during the year ending June 30, 1896. The number of cars assigned to the freight service increased 25,768, being 1,221,887. The statistician's office has no record of the number of cars owned by private companies and individuals that are used by railways in the transportation of freight.

From summaries in the report indicating the density of equipment and its efficiency in the transportation of passengers and freight, it appears that the railways in tle United States employ 20 locomotives and 713 cars per 100 miles of line. Referring to the country at large, it is shown that 51,471 passengers were carried and 1,312,381 passengermiles accomplished per passenger locomotive. It is also shown that 37,634 tons of freiglit were carried and 4,681,210 ton-miles accomplisbed per freight locomotive. The number of passenger cars per 1,000,000 passengers carried during the year ending June 30, 1896, was 64, and the number of freight cars per 1,000,000 tons of freight carried was 1,595. This average, however, does not include the freight cars owned by outside parties, for the use of which the railways paid nearly $12,000,000. The total of equipment, including in the term locomotives and cars, on June 30, 1896, was 1,333,599. Of this number, 418,834 were fitted with train brakes and 545,583 with automatic couplers. The increase in equipment during the year was 27,339 locomotires and cars, and while the increase in the number fitted with train brakes was 86,356 and the increase in the number fitted with automatic couplers was 136,727, the comparison shows that much remained to be done before the total cquipment of railways would be furnished with the automatic appliances mentioned.

On June 30, 1896, the total number of passenger locomotives in service was 9,943. Of this number 9,816 were fitted with train brakes and 4,503 with automatic couplers. The total number of freight locomotires was 20,351, of which 17,921 were fitted with train brakes and 3,373 with automatic couplers.

The total number of passenger cars in service on June 30, 1890, was 33,003. Of these cars 32,413 were fitted with train brakes and 31,846 with automatic couplers. The total number of cars in freight service on the date named was 1,221,887, of which 379,058 were fitted with train brakes and 500,233 with automatic couplers.

EMPLOYEES.

The number of men employed by the railways of the United States on June 30, 1896, shows an increase of 41,586, being 826,620, which, assigned on a mileage basis, gives 454 men per 100 miles of line. The corresponding figures for the year ending June 30, 1893,. were 873,602 and 515. The assignment of employees corresponding to the four main divisions of the classification of operating expenses were as follows: General administration, 31,792; maintenance of way and structures, 243,627; maintenance of equipment, 167,850; conducting transportation, 373, 747; unclassified, 1,609.

A summary presented in the report gives a statement of the average daily compensation of the eighteen classes into which employees are divided for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive.

For the first time, a summary showing the amount of compensation paid to the several classes of railway employees is presented in this report. It includes the compensation of over 99 per cent of the employees for 1895 and 1896. The aggregate amount of money paid in wages and salaries, as shown in the summary, for the year ending June 30, 1896, was $468,824,531, or 60.65 per cent of the total operating expenses of railways. The aggregate compensation for 1895 was $445,508,261, or 61.38 per cent of the total operating expenses.

CAPITALIZATION AND VALUATION OF RAILWAY PROPERTY.

The amount of railway capital on June 30, 1896, was $10,566,865,771, which, assigned on a mileage basis, shows a capital of $59,610 per mile of line. It should be noted, however, that these figures do not include current liabilities, which, if included as a part of capital, as in former years, would increase the amount of outstanding capital about $613,000,000, making the amount per mile of line $63,068. The amount of capital stock was $5,226,527,269, of which $4,256,570,577 was common stock and $969,956,692 preferred stock. The funded debt was $5,340,338,502, consisting of bonds, $4,517,872,063; miscellaneous obligations, $157,735,531; income bonds, $314,425,977, and equipment trust obligations, $50,304,931. The amount of stock paying no dividend was $3,667,503,194, or 70.17 per cent of the total outstanding. The amount of funded debt, not including equipment trust obligations, which paid no interest, was $860,559,442. Of the stock-paying dividends, 1.68 per cent of the total stock outstanding paid from 3 to 4 per cent; 5.55 per cent of this stock paid from 4 to 5 per cent; 6.82 per cent paid from 5 to 6 per cent; 3.91 per cent paid from 6 to 7 per cent; and 4.37 per cent paid from 7 to 8 per cent. The total amount of dividends was $87,603,371, which would be produced by an average of 5.62 per cent on the amount of stock on which some dividend was declared. The amount of bonds paying no interest was $515,029,668, or 11.40 per cent; of miscellaneous obligations, $68,918,680, or 15.05 per cent, and of income bonds, $276,611,094, or 87.96 per cent.

PUBLIC SERVICE OF RAILWAYS.

The number of passengers carried during the year ending June 30, 1896, was 511,772,737, being an increase of 4,351,375 as compared with the year ending June 30, 1895. That year, however, showed a decrease of 33,266,837 as compared with 1894. The number of passengers carried 1 mile during the year was 13,049,007,233, showing an increase as compared with the previous year of 860,560,962. For the year 1995 as compared with 1894 a decrease of 2,100,999,622 was shown in this item. The number of passengers carried 1 mile, assigned on the basis of operated mileage—that is, the figure indicating the density of passenger traffic during the year ending June 30, 1896—was 71,705, an increase of 3,133 in this item being shown. The corresponding decrease, as shown by the report of 1895, was 12,761. The number of tons of freight carried during the year under consideration was 705,891,385. This is the largest tonnage ever reported for railways in the United States. The increase during the year was 69,130,214. The number of . tons of freight carried 1 mile was 95,328,360,278, there being an increase of 10,100,844,387. The density of freight traffic is shown by the number of tons of freight carried 1 mile per mile of line operated, which was 523,832. These figures, as compared with those of the preceding year, show an increase of 44,342 ton-miles per mile of line.

EARNINGS AND EXPENSES.

The operat

The gross earnings of the railways of the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were $1,150,169,376, having increased in comparison with the previous year $74,797,914. The sources of the income comprised in gross earnings from operation during the year were: Passenger revenue, $266,562,533; increase, $14,316,353; mail, $32,379,819; increase, $1,410,073; express, $24,880,383; increase, $595,875; other carnings, passenger service, $6,691,279; increase, $576,493; freight revenue, $786,615,837; increase, $56,622,375; other earnings, freight service, $3,885,890; decrease, $254,960; other earnings from operation, $28,574,237; increase, $1,485,250; unclassified, $579,398. The expenses of operation for the year covered by the report were $772,989,044, being greater by $47,268,629 than the preceding year. ing expenses were assigned as follows: Maintenance of way and structures, $160,314,950; increase, $16,368,606; maintenance of equipment, $133,381,998; increase, $19,593,289; conducting transportation, $442,217,582; increase, $11,068,619; general expenses, $36,083,285; increase, $176,268; unclassified, $961,229. A comparative summary giv. ing a detailed analysis of operating expenses for 1896 and 1895 appears in the report.

The income from operation—that is, the amount of gross carnings remaining after the deduction of operating expenses-was $377,180,332, which exceeds the corresponding item for 1895 by $27,529,285. The income from other sources, mainly from leases and investments, was $129,024,731, which, added to the income from operation, makes a total income of $506,205,063. The total deductions from income were $416,573,137, so that the net income out of which dividends and surplus were declared was $89,631,926. This amount is $33,515,667 larger than the corresponding one for the previous year. The dividends declared were $87,603,371, leaving a surplus of $1,534,169 aster the satisfaction of adjustment claims amounting to $494,386. This sinall amount of surplus, however, shows an improvement, since the results

of railway operations during the years 1895 and 1894 showed deficits of $29,845,241 and $45,851,294, respectively.

An analysis of the total deductions from income, $416,573,137, shows that they were composed of the following items: Salaries and maintenance of organization, $545,468; interest on funded debt, $249,624,177; interest on interest-bearing current liabilities, $8,469,063; rents paid for lease of road, $92,972,322; taxes, $39,970,791; permanent improvements, $5,162,240. other deductions, $19,829,070.

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS,

The statistics submitted show that the number of railway employees killed during the year ending June 30, 1896, was 1,861, and the number injured was 29,969. These figures indicate an increase of 50 in the yumber killed and of 4,273 in the number injured, as compared with the preceding year. The number of passengers killed was 181, and the number of passengers injured, 2,873, being an increase of 11 in the number killecl and of 498 in the number injured. The number of persons other than employees and passengers killed was 4,406, and the number injured 5,845. These figures include casualties to persons reported as trespassers, of whom 3,811 were killed and 4,468 were injured. From summaries showing the ratio of casualties it is found that for every 444 men employed on railways 1 was killed, and for every 28 men employed 1 was injured. A similar comparison as to trainmen shows that 1 trainman was killed for each 152 trainmen employed, and that 1 trainman was injured for each 10 trainmen employed. The pumber of passengers carried for 1 passenger killed was 2,827,474, and the number of passengers carried for 1 passenger injured was 178,132. As showing in another way the immunity of passengers from accidents, the report gives ratios based upon the number of miles traveled, from which it appears that 72,093,963 passenger-miles were accomplished for every passenger killed and 4,541,945 passenger-miles for every passenger injured.

STATISTICIAN'S RECOMMENDATIONS.

In the conclusion of his report the statistician repeats the recommendations contained in previous reports, to the effect that reports should be secured from express companies engaged in interstate traffic; that reports should be secured from corporations and companies owning rolling stock which is used in interstate traffic, and special reports from corporations and companies owning depot property, elevators, and the like, and that reports should be secured from carriers by water, so far as their business is interstate traffic.

The report closes with extracts from recommendations adopted at the National Convention of Railroad Commissioners, held at St. Louis in May last, in support of the proposition to establish a bureau of statis. tics and accounts in connection with the Interstate Commerce Commis.

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