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children mostly located in the rural districts. Many of these children suffer from handicaps of such a character as prevent their attendance upon school and the consequent inability therefore of acquiring such training as the public school has to offer.

Since in innumerable cases these handicaps are removable and when removed enable these children to acquire the education, either general or vocational, or both, to which as children of a Republic they are entitled, it is apparent that every effort should be made to accord them such opportunity.

A pressing need at this time is for some action by the Congress indicating whether or not the Federal Government's participation is to be continued. Progress in the future will depend largely upon what action is taken by the Federal Government.

The programs of vocational education, rehabilitation, and the restoration of the physically handicapped children of the Nation and the development of those programs indicate conclusively that although we have at times regarded this form of service from the viewpoint of the economic in terms of dollars and cents they nevertheless involve a far greater and more fundamental concept-namely, the conservation of the human resources of the Nation and the welfare and happiness of the men, women, and children of the Nation. Education designed to confer upon the masses of the people the ability to secure the blessings which must come from gainful and stable employment, the training of the youth of the Nation in the means of making a livelihood, and the restoration to health and earning capacity of those who through no fault of their own have become dependent, are primary considerations.

The results of these programs speak for themselves in terms of human happiness, welfare, and the removal of such social injustice as may arise not from unequal distribution of wealth but from an unequal distribution of opportunity. Each of these programs represents an attempt on the part of the Congress, acting in cooperation with the States, to correct a situation of obvious social disparity. Each of these programs also represents the assumption on the part of the National Government of its proper share of responsibility for remedying these situations.

The Congress has been confronted within the year with problems affecting directly the welfare and happiness of the people. As never before the Congress has been made pertinently familiar with the distress and unhappiness resulting from a lack of knowledge of our economic structure and our industrial organism, and in its attempt at solution has sought aid upon all sides. Here indeed is strikingly revealed a fundamental interrelationship between education and physical capacity and gainful occupation which has been but partly recognized in the past. The demand has arisen from the people themselves, and such expenditures as Congress has made in the past, but a small part indeed of the total can be regarded but as an investment in the human resources of the Nation itself. The Nation, the States, and the local governments are all interested in the education of our citizenship for vocational efficiency, in the vocational rehabilitation of our disabled civilian adults, and in the restoration of our physically handicapped children. The Nation must participate liberally in the promotion of these programs and their more liberal maintenance in the future. The work should be stimulated and encouraged by a propriate legislation.

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No. 310

3d Session

STATISTICS OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC WAGES, PRICES, FREIGHT AND TARIFF RATES. AND OF

DOMESTIC EXPORTS

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FEBRUARY 17 (calendar day, FEBRUARY 26), 1931.-Ordered

to be printed

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INTRODUCTION

The following compilation presents statistical information obtained during the consideration by the Senate of the tariff act of 1930, by Senators William H. King and Alben W. Barkley, members of the Senate Committee on Finance.

Chapter I compares wages and labor productivity of the United States, Great Britain, and Germany.

Chapter II compares prices in the same countries.

Chapter III enumerates some of the difficulties, aside from labor cost, which are met by United States manufacturers of certain articles. Such difficulties include natural disadvantages, adverse freight differentials, and high proportions of hand labor.

Chapter IV lists a number of United States manufactures whose exports exceed imports.

Chapter V shows the tariff rates charged by a number of foreign countries on their principal imports. Because of the complexity of tariff rates as given in the laws, the foreign rates have been reduced to an equivalent ad valorem basis. They may thus be easily compared.

The purpose of this compilation is to present a general survey of the subjects mentioned above. The information given with respect to any specific commodity is, of course, insufficient on which to base conclusions as to the tariff treatment it should receive. The tariff treatment it should receive. The tariff treatment of nearly every commodity embraces many individual problems which can not be discussed in a general survey.

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