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Representatives of the state. The Gov. The causes for the establishment of unor asserts the duty of the legislature this institution having passed away, the to cherish with parental care such re- Governor is of opinion that good policy sources as may be in their power, for would demand a settlement of its affairs. the encouragement of schools, colleges He thinks it undeniable, that an agriand academies. A fund for the support cultural people cannot afford by the of coinmon schools in this state, to a small profits of their farms, to pay the considerable amount, has been already ordinary interest upon borrowed monset apart. With the amount of capital ey;' and adds, · if this cannot be done now at our command for that purpose, it with safety, the impropriety and bad is not hoped for or expected that a suc- consequences of borrowing from the cessful plan could be immediately put State Bank must be admitted, especially, in operation and sustained; but we if it shall appear that the legal interest should take care not only that there in most instances is not half the charge should be no waste of the original to which its debtors are made liable.' ainount, but that there be a regular and This he asserts to be the fact, from the reasonable increase.

expenses attending the operations of reThe subject of Banks is next taken newal, &c. • Since the adjournment of up, and the complaints that have been the last General Assembly, about three made particularly against the U. States hundred judgments have been taken Branch Bank noticed. Without conced- against debtors of the Bank of Nashville, ing that there is properly any objection and it is not unreasonable to presume against the latter institution, that is not that at least one hundred have been common to all the Banks, the Governor taken at Knoxville. From this statesays: — The good or evil resulting ment it clearly appears that the Bank from banking operations, whether of lo- debtors pay in interest and other charges, cal or national institutions, seems, even at from twelve to twentyfive per cent, this advanced period of our experiments upon every dollar they borrow.' in the science of government, to be still Besides the risk in employing as it too much the subject of honest differ- does, not less than sixtytwo agents, the ence of opinion to justify positive con- annual expenditure of the Bank, agency clusions for or against their general util- included, is a tax on the people of not {ty, and I subuit with great deference, less than fourteen thousand dollars whether in the present posture of affairs, the interest of nearly one half of the it would not comport with the best views whole capital. of our own interests, consistency, and The Governor believes that the numgood faith, to direct the public attention ber of those indebted to the Bank is to the support or opposition, which our likely to increase ; and that, as the ultibest judgments may dictate, on a pro- mate result, the tables of the Legislaposed renewal of corporate powers, rath- ture will be covered with petitions for er than to an unprofitable conflict with relief. He refers to the history of the existing establishments, whose hours last twenty years, in relation to the are already numbered, and whose deal- French Broad and Holston debts, and to ings are unexceptionable. As they the more recent case of the Hiwassee were legally established, so they may at land sales, and says, - Our experience a proper time be legally removed. furnishes but too much proof of the bad

A small part of the Boundary be policy of the state's permitting its cititween the state and Kentucky, remains zens to become its debtors; nor need unadjusted, and the subject is laid before anything more be added to show the to. the legislature.

tal inability of a people engaged in the October. William Carroll was sworn cultivation of the soil, to pay even legal in as Governor of the State, for the en- interest upon borrowed money.' suing two years, on the 1st of October, He therefore recommends immediate and on the 3d inst. he addressed the Leg- measures to investigate and settle the islature in a message of considerable affairs of the State Bank. The attenlength. The first subject considered is tion of the Legislature is then directed the State Bank, established in 1820, for to a revision of the Criminal Jurisprusustaining the credit of the state, at a dence of the State, as he thinks the unperiod of great pecuniary embarrass- necessary severity of the laws destroys ment--the redemption of its notes be- their influence, by too often leading to ing secured by pledging the proceeds of acquittals and pardons. The introducthe sales of unappropriated lands, and Lion of the Penitentiary system on the the ordinary revenue of the state not most approved plans of some of the othotherwise disposed of.

er States, is recommended.

Internal Improvements are next tern District, for internal improvepointed out for encouragement.

ments. The whole to be placed under As the means of the state may not the direction of a Board of six Comjustify the immediate commencement of missioners, two from each district; of such an undertaking, adequate surveys which Board the Governor is to be chairare recommended, as a preparatory step. man ex officio. The propriety of incorporating compa- A law was also passed authorizing any nies for the construction of turnpike man whose wife shall have three or more roads and bridges, after the plans of oth- children at one birth, to take up 200 er states, is also suggested :

acres of the state lands for each of his • It is scarcely necessary to remark, children. says the Governor, that our roads in A bill to establish a penitentiary in the winter season are almost impassable, Tennessee, passed both branches of the and yet we have stone in greater abun. legislature. The sum of $25,000 was dance and more convenient for the con- appropriated, to carry the bill into effect struction of roads, than any other state and commence operations. in the Union.'

The official report of the revenue of The Message closes with proposing the state of Tennessee for 1829, exhibmeasures of relief to the purchasers of ited an unappropriated balance of $57,Jand at the Hiwassee sales, and the 467 40 cents. - citizens residing south of French Broad May 31, 1830. Accounts from Sheland Holston, in their debt to the colleges byville and Charlotte, describe a very and academies of the state, which has violent and destructive tornado, which been a source of much perplexity for visited those places on the night of the twenty years; (and in both which cases 31st .- We quote from them as follows: the inability to comply with their en- · Shelbyville is in ruins. On Mongagements has grown out of the unfa- day night, about 12 o'clock, it pleased vorable circumstances in which the Providence to visit this place with a most debtors have stood) -- with suggestions devasting hurricane. The Court-house, for the preservation of the 5000 stand of Market-house, Methodist Church, the arms owned by the state, suffering inju- brick Hotel, the Bank, and inany other ry and loss by the present regulations of valuable buildings were prostrated in an loaning them to volunteer companies -- instant. Five young men were killed, and with congratulations on the prosper. and many others bruised and wounded. ity of the state and the Union.

About thirtyeight stores and shops, and October 16. Felix Grundy was elect- ten or fifteen dwelling-houses were overed Senator in place of John H. Eaton, thrown. I shall not attempt to describe appointed Secretary of War. The vote the scene. No one heard the fall of a stood for Grundy 31, Anderson 17, tree, or fence, or house. It was one Brown 12.

constant, monotonous, shrill roar -- the The House of Representatives pre- voice of the tempest : the lightning was sented articles of impeachment against a constant flash, rendering everything Nathaniel W. Williams, one of the visible: the earth was covered with a Judges of the Circuit Courts of the sheet of water. From the Public Square state.

east, all is in one undistinguished mass of They substantially accuse the Judge of ruins. culpable neglect of official duty in sleep- Charlotte, June 1. About 10 last ing at different times on the bench dur. night, our village was visited with a ing the arguing of causes — being influ- tornado, the violence and the destructive enced by prejudice and partiality in his effects of which no tongue can describe. judicial decisions, and especially of im- The wind approached the village from proper conduct in relation to the private the southwest ; although the appearance examination of Mrs Taul, respecting of the sky was frightful, and one con. her signature to a deed for the convey- stant glare of lightning inspired awe ance of a lot of land in Nashville. and alarm, yet no one anticipated, none

After a long trial during which strong could anticipate, and even now it is difpolitical excitement was developed ficult to realize what the ravages of five against the Judge, he was finally acquit- minutes have produced. The only house ted.

in the town that entirely escaped injury LEGISLATION. The Legislature at is that occupied as a store by James this session passed a law, appropriating Steel & Co.; and, with the buildings $60,000 to East Tennessee ; 60,000 to destroyed, nearly all their contents were the Middle, and $30,000 to the Wes- swept away and lost. The Court

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house, a substantial brick building, is a mountains are composed. These rocks heap of ruins. — The Jail is nearly lev- belong to the series of transition or rather el with the ground. The public records to the clay slate forination. This slate are lost, and the fragments of the build- has been filled with small tubes of iron ings are scattered through the country pyrites which are now nearly all in a for miles.'

state of decomposition, leaving these Under date of the 9th inst. the Nash- cavities filled with the yellow iron ochre. ville paper adds : — Accounts continue These pyrites are often auriferous, and to reach us of the destructive effects of the gold not being susceptible of decomthe tornado on the night of the 31st ult. position remains unaltered, and is disUpwards of fifty houses in Rutherford seminated through the soil by the disincounty, were either blown down or un- tegration of the rock, the lighter partiroofed ; and although many persons have cles of which are carried away by the been terribly wounded, yet no deaths in rains, &c, leaving the heavier ones still that county have yet been heard of.' remaining among other gravel. This

June. SPRINGS. - An explosion took seems to have been the case with the place in the bed of a Creek, about 12 gold region this state, because the gold iniles from Nashville, on the 20th of is not only found in the small rivulets or June. The noise resembled that of brooks, but also on the declivities of the blowing rocks; and on examination it mountains, and near their very summits; was found that the rocky bed of the so that this district may prove an inexCreek was cracked and shivered to a great haustible source of wealth not alone for extent. Pieces weighing 2 or 300 pounds those who are collecting the metal, but were broken off, and the carth and rock particularly to the farmers of the surtogether were parted in a fissure extend rounding country, who will find a maring near 40 yards. A spring issued from ket for their produce among the people the edge of the Creek - the water, in who are working these mines. In fact taste and smell, resembling that which produce has already risen in price in runs through a bed of stone coal.

East Tennessee since the working of Gold Mines. — The gold region of these mines in the neighboring state of this state is described in the following North Carolina. manner, by Prof. Troost.

• The local situation of the present er. *I have visited the Tennessce Ophir, plored gold region is not well calculated which I believe contains more gold than for the operations of washing on a large the African Ophir. - It is situated about scale. The water is not sufficienily ten or twelve miles to the south of the abundant, and, judging from surroundTilico plains near the Unika mountain, ing circumstances, I am induced to bein the Cherokee Indian settlement. The lieve that it never will be, so that should gold occurs in small grains, generally my suggestions respecting the abundcalled gold dust, and is obtained by the ance of the metal prove true, it may be washing of a stratum of 10 or 12 inches found necessary to transport the gravel of soil. Judging from its local situations, about two miles, where there is a fire this gold is not brought from a distance, stream of water sufficient for every pur. but seems to have been produced by the pose.' disintegration of the rock of which these


December, 1829. The Legislature met those favorable to a convention, was the at Frankfort on the 7th Dec. John adoption of certain provisions by which Breathitt, Esq. Lt. Governor, took the slavery might be gradually, bui finally, Chair in the Senate, aud James Stone- abolished in that commonwealth. street was re-elected Clerk. In the 1830. A law was passed January 28th House of Representatives, John J. Crit. making it punishable with imprisoninent tended was chosen Speaker, and Robert of not less than 2 nor more than 20 S. I'odd, Clerk.

years to entice a slave to leave his master A bill providing for calling a conven- to go out of the State. tion to amend the constitution of the Slaves ill treated by their owners state, after having passed the House, were authorized to be sold by order of was rejected in the Senate, 18 Ayes, 19 the Court, alter proof of the facts. Nays.

A common school system was also esOne of the objects contemplated by tablished by law, passed January 29. By this law the county Courts are au- · chandise, of foreign nations; and that thorized to divide their respective coun. the acts of Congress usually known by ties into school districts, in each of which the name of the tariff laws, are not onthree commissioners are to be elected by ly constitutional, but are founded upon the legal voters annually. These Com. principles of policy demanded by the missioners are to apply the moneys raised best interests of the people of these within the district to the use of public states. schools, and are to be considered as a 2. Resolved, That Congress does poscorporate body and empowered to hold sess the power, under the constitution, property to an amount not exceeding to adopt a general system of internal $50,000 to the uses of the school diso improvements, as a national measure for trict.

national purposes. The Commissioners are also to assess 3. Resolved, That this report and the the voters in their respective districts accompanying resolutions, be forwarded from the tax list, and to divide the by the governor of this commonwealth, amount collected into 4 parts, each part to the respective governors of the states to be appropriated to a quarter of the of South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia and teacher's wages. A poll tax not exceed- Mississippi, as the expression of the ing 50 cents, may also be levied on each views of the General Assembly of Kenwhite male over 21. Widows, femes tucky, on the constitutional power of sole and guardians of infants owning Congress over the subjects of domestic property within the district, are authors manufactures, and internal improve. ized to vote in person or proxy for Com- nents; and for the purpose of ascer. missioners, &c. The tax on property is taining the views and opinions of the not to exceed 6 1-4 cents on $100. Ap- several states of the United States on peals may be had from the school dis- the subjects. trict meeting to the county Court. 4. Resolved, also, That the governor These district meetings are empowered of the commonwealth be requested to to lay such tax as is deemed necessary

forward them to the governors of the for the purposes of education - to de- other states of the union, respectively, signate a site for school — to authorize a to be laid before the legislatures of those school to be built, repaired &c.

states, for their consideration. No person is liable to school tax in a A substitute was proposed for the 1st district where he is not a resident. resolution in these words :

January, 1830. PUBLIC INSTRUC- · Congress derives no power from the TION. – The Louisville Advertiser an- constitution to lay duties or imposts with nounces the establishment by that city of a view to prohibit importations, (either a school at the public expense, stated to partially or generally,) thereby destroy. be the first south of the Ohio. It is ing both trade and revenue, only intendopened to the children of all the citi. ed to be regulated; and that the powers zens. The number of pupils entered is of Congress are not general, but special, 300.

not omnipotent, but limited, and defined February. The Legislature having by the constitution.' incorporated a company to construct a This substitute was rejected, 82 to 12. ! Rail Road from Lerington to the Ohio, The following substitute was proposed

which river it is to strike at Louisville, for the 2d resolution : the books for subscription were opened · That Congress has no power to esat Lexington on the 9th inst. and $310,- tablish roads and canals in the several 000 were immediately subscribed. $300,- states, other than post or military roads, 000 was the sum required before the and on those roads have no power to charter could take effect. The distance erect toll gates.' is represented to be about sixty miles. To this it was proposed to add the

A report was brought in, January 27th, words, without the consent of the 1930, in relation to the resolutions of S. states.' Both the substitute and amendCarolina, accompanied by the following ment were rejected, 54 to 37. resolutions :

The remaining resolutions were not 1. Resolved, by the General Assem. contested. Some debate arose on the bly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, preamble, particularly in reference to That it is a constitutional exercise of ihe following sentence : power on the part of Congress, to en. . And the General Assembly of Ken. courage and protect the manufactures of tucky cannot omit to avail itself of an the United States, by imposts and re- occasion so appropriate, to call to its aid strictions on the goods, wares and mer- the oft repeated sentiments of their


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most distinguished fellow citizen, Henry A bill was reported for the repeal of Clay, whose zealous and able exertions, the law allowing pay for slaves exeand whose eminent services in support cuted,' the discussion of which caused of both measures, have been only equal.. much excitement. In the course of the led by his ardent patriotism and un- debate, it was averred by a member, bending integrity.'

that the state of Kentucky contained Several attempts were made to ex- one hundred and sixty thousand slaves, clude or inodify this clause, but it was while only one-fifth of the tax paying finally retained by a majority of 18 whites were their entire owners, and votes.

that $68,000 had already been paid from A Committee was also appointed to the state treasury as indemnity for slaves inquire into a practice prevailing in cer. executed. The bill was finally laid upon tain towas on the Mississippi of exact- tho table, to make room for a substitute, ing wharfage froin the boats on that riv. imposing a tax of one fourth of one per er. This Comınittee reported that Con- cent upon the value of all slaves in the gross had the right to regulate commerce stale, for the creation of a fund to meet between the several states and that such disbursements. Both bills, after these exactions were unequal, oppress- much debate, were lost, leaving in force ive and contrary to the constitution. the old law as it originally stood, and This resolution was passed and the causing great dissatisfaction among the governor was directed to transmit it non-slave-holding population. A bill with the report to the governors of Mis- subsequently passed to a third reading sissippi and Louisiana.

in the house, prohibiting the bringing A resolution also passed authorizing into that state any slave for sale or as the burning of $270,414 of the notes of merchandise, which did not however be. the bank of the commonwealth reclaim. come a law. ed from circulation.


Steam Boats. The improvement calculating any artificial canal in the ac. of the western country has been, for count, 50,000 miles. This immense althe three or four past years, without a luvial valley, probably the most extenparallel in the history of new settlements. sive and fertile known on the earth, is Causes of great magnitude and power all the theatre of steam-boat navigation. generally operate slow results. In noth- Steam vessels traverse it in every di. ing has this been seen more clearly, rection, and form by far the most general than in the results of the application of and important facilities of transport and steam power to transportation on the travel for great distances, which the western waters. This power, of im. country offers. Had it not been for the mense influence everywhere, from the invention and application of steam to physical conformation of the western propelling boats on the water, the westcountry at once promised a bearing up. ern country would have been at this on the interests of the west, which, per. time, a vast extent of sparsely peopled haps, exceeded that which it could have forest, cultivated by farmers, of habits, upon any other country of equal ex. and in a state of improvement, like the leot. The rivers in those states are of people of western Virginia, and those of immense length, compared with those of the interior of the western states. It most other countries. They have for would, perhaps, have contained 1,000,the most part calm and unbroken, but 000 people - uniting the habits of huatstrong and powerful currents. They ing, pastoral, ard agricultural life, equal. are almost interminable natural canals, !y happy, it may be, with the present in. interwoven by a complicated tissue of habitants — but much more rude, simple hundreds of boatable lateral branches. and hunter like in their modes and appearNo other river, it is believed, on the globe ance. The dense population, the large waters so many and sn remote shores, as towns, most of the manufacturing estabthe Mississippi. Nor can any other be lishments, the municipal improvements, eompared to it, in regard to the extent the advances, real or pretended, in literaof its steam navigation. Taking lakes ture, the taste for inodes, finery and and all sorts of boatable waters into the ways of living, now witnessed in the computation, it is believed, that the western states, identifying the appear. Mississippi and its waters offer, without ance and wants of their population with

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