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proclamation of the Vice Presi- of Bustamente is to continue, dent. And even this, it is not and whether and to what extent improbable, would have taken his administration is likely to adplace although perhaps not so vance the interests and improve soon, had Guerrero continued to the condition of the people. Up fill the presidential chair. In to the present time (August, 1830) fact the little importance of the everything has gone on well and revolution, as it is called, consid- harmoniously. No incident of imered with reference to its effects portance has occurred since the upon the policy and condition of installation of the new President, the republic, is proved by the and he is rtpresented as popular, facility with which it was accom- and being actively and sucplished, and the remarkably short cessfully engaged in the arduous period in which perfect tranquillity task of restoring the finances, and was restored. It remains to be augmenting the wealth and power seen how long the Government of the republic.

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COLOMBIA. ! Mosquera elected President.

Castillo's project of a Constitution. . Congress convoked on January, 1830. — Attempt to introduce a Monarchy. Revolt of Cordova. Arrival of Bolivar at Bogota. Resigns his office to Congress. Message to Congress ; Character of do. - Separation of Venezuela. Causes of Discontent. - Overthrow of Government. - Negotiations. - Mos

quera chosen by Congress. Commotions at Bogota. Constitution accepted. Sucre assassinated. Movements in favor of Bolivar. Dissolution of the Government. Bolivar reassumes the Government. Bolivar's Death.

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The history of Colombia during country, we will now proceed to the period which falls within the detail. history of this year is so interwov- The Liberator having been inen with former events, that for the vested with unlimited authority, purpose of a full understanding of named a council of State to assist its political relations, it will be him in the administration of the necessary briefly to recapitulate. public affairs, composed of the

In the last volume of the Regis- following inidviduals: ter will be found a detailed account Jose Maria Castillo, President of of the mancuvres which resulted the Council, in the appointment of Bolivar as Jose Manuel Restrepo, Secretary Supreme Chief of the republic. of the Interior, In this station he remained until Gen. Rafael Urdaneta, Secretary the 4th of May, 1820, at which of War, period the Constituent Congress Istanislao Vergusa, Secretary of having received his eighth and Foreign Affairs, last renunciation, elected Senor Nicolos Fanno, Secretary of Joachim Mosquera, President of the Treasury, and Geronimo ForColumbia.

nes, Joachim Mosquera, Jose During this last administration Felix Valdivia, the Archbishop of of the Government by Bolivar, Bogota, Maotin Santiago of Ycusa, certain facts occurred, which as and Colonel Domingo Espinar, having an important bearing on Secretaries. the subsequent history of the Mosquera unwillingly accepted the appointment at the urgent re- that the Colombians had generally quest of Bolivar and after three manifested their opposition to a months sent in his resignation and Senate subject to the pleasure of retired.

the executive, and although it During the first session of the would be joined by a chamber of council, Senor Castillo, submitted duputies, they were few in number the projectofa Constitution, which and utterly disproportioned to the throws some additional light upon population of the provinces. the motives and designs of the Finally he explained the causes, dominant party. According to this which induced him to believe that project the executive power was if such a Constitution were given vested in a President without re- to Colombia, it would produce sponsibility and five ministers of another revolution. State to be appointed by him and The Liberator then said, that responsible for all the acts of the although there was but one vote in executive.

opposition, the reasons advanced The legislative power was to be by Mosquera gave him great pain composed of two chambers, one and he would take time to delibof senators, who were to be ap- erate. pointed by the President, who On the following day he decould remove them at pleasure, clared to the council his opinion and the lower house of representa- agreeing with Mosquera and the tives, one to be chosen by each project was abandoned. province.

The Supreme Chief then pubThere was also to be an exec- lished the organic decree of the utive council of State composed 27th August, 1828, which was to of the Vice President, who was to serve as a provisional Constitution be elected by the Provinces, and until the second of January, 1830, the Secretaries of State and a num- for which period he offered to ber of deputies from the chamber convoke the national representaof representatives. All the coun

. All the coun- tion for the purpose of giving a new cillors, with the exception of Mos- Constitution to the Republic. quera, approved of this basis. After the termination of the Mosquera expressed an opinion war with Peru, by the treaty of adverse to the project founded on peace concluded in Guayaquil on various reasons, of which the prin- the 22d September, 1829, public cipal ones were, that in his judg- attention was directed to the ment, allowing that the acts of the meeting of the constituent Conpeople were the expression of their gress convoked for the 2d of Janfree will, still they had conferred uary, 1830, with the view of giving the dictatorship upon Bolivar, only a complete and efficient reorganiuntil the next assembly of the zation of the republic upon a firm national representation, and that and permanent basis. these words were an express re- On arriving at this epoch, which serve of the right of constituting a has terminated in universal confuCongress of Deputies of their own sion, we will briefly review some free choice. He also observed, of the most remarkable facts which

have thus placed Colombia on the General Urdaneta wrote to brink of ruin and shaken her po- Paez at Venezuela communicating litical fabric to its foundation. to him the designs of the council

During the absence of Bolivar of ministers, and as will presently in the South, the administration of appear, produced an excitement, the Government was placed in the which was only quieted by the hands of his council of Ministers.' separation of that ancient province

It had before been suggested, from the Republic of Colombia. that the most appropriate form of Meanwhile, Jose Maria Cordogovernment for Colombia, was a va, generalofdivision, arrived from Monarchy, and the present mo- the South and placing himself at ment wrs seized upon to effect the head of some patriots in the the change.

province of Novita, raised the cry M. de Bresson and the Duke of of liberty. The Governor of the Montebello had just arrived at Bo- province of Novita followed his gota as Commissioners of the King example; but the movement was of France, and the project was partial and ineffectual. proposed to them, with the under- The council of ministers, standing that if France would ren- knowing the intrepidity and patrider her assistance, they would otism of Cordova had prepared propose the coronation of a themselves for the emergency. French Prince.

And a strong column was immeThis treasonable project was diately despatched from Bogota mainly supported by Gen. Rafael against him, headed by General Urdaneta, a member of the coun- O'Leary, by whom he was defeatcil and Istanislao Vergusa, Secre- ed, and mortally wounded, not tary of Foreign Relations.

without suspicions that his wounds The French Commissioners were not received in battle. merely replied that they would Bolivar, who was still in the inform the government of the pro- South, and who knew full well posal, as they had no authority to the disposition of Cordova, receivact in an affair of this character, ed from him a letter in which he and the French Government up declared with frankness and enerto this period has not interfered.


his firm resolve to die if necesThis affair constitutes one of sary in defence of the liberty of those blots in the career of Bolivar, his country and the republican which the memory of his good system. deeds is scarcely sufficient to The inflammatory state of Venefface.

ezuela and the causes which were That Bolivar knew of the pro- there preparing another revolution ject there is no doubt, that he dis- were equally known to him, and approved of it is equally true ; but filled with alarm and disquietude, his subsequent conduct clearly he set out on his march for the indicates that his disapproval was Capital. The precarious situation grounded not on his opposition to of public affairs and the increasing a monarchy but to a French mon- distrust of his own motives and arch.

designs, at length determined the

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Liberator again and for the last • If it had not been my lot to time to retire from the civil com- possess the honorable advantage mand, still however offering to of calling upon you to represent sustain with his sword the Consti- the rights of the people, that in tution which the new Congress conformity with the wishes of should give to the republic. your constituents, you might re

In the department of the South, model our institutions, this would the popular choice fixed upon be the place to exhibit to you the Mosquera, who was then in Pa- fruit of twenty years' exertions payan, having withdrawn himself consecrated

to the service of my from public affairs since his retire- country. But it is not for me to ment from the office of State point out what all the citizens have Councillor. Bolivar on his march the right to demand from you. from the South visited Mosquera I alone am deprived of this civic in Papayan and urged upon him privilege, because having called his wish, that he would consent you together and explained your to become a candidate for the duties, it is not permitted me in chair of State.

any manner to influence your It was said, that Mosquera at counsels. It would be superflufirst declined the dangerous hon- ous to repeat to the delegates of or, pleading his ill health and his the people what Colombia has repugnance to undertake so ar- written in characters of blood. duous a charge as that of re- My only duty is reduced to unreconciling the discordant materials stricted submission to the laws of which Colombia was com- and the magistrates you may beposed.

stow upon us, and my fervent asIt certainly was a difficult mat- piration is that the will of the ter for a single citizen to under- people may be proclaimed, retake to quiet the tempest then spected and fulfilled by its deleraging in the republic, and how- gates.' ever highly we think of the patri- After recommending in the otism and talents of Mosquera, strongest terras the necessity of we are disposed to question his naming another individual for the power to have controlled the in- chair of State, he proceeds. dependence of the immense · Believe me, a new magistrate is number of military chieftains indispensable for the republic. with which the country was ha- • The people wish to know if I rassed, and which had in fact ren

shall ever

cease to command. dered it a military republic. Show yourselves, citizens, worthy

Bolivar arrived at Bogota on of representing a free people by the 15th of January, 1830, and on banishing every idea that upthe 26th of the same month in- poses me necessary to the repubstalled the Constituent Congress lic. of the republic.

• A state dependent on one man In his message to Congress of ought not to exist, and will not the same date, he makes use of exist. Hear my supplicators these remarkable words: Save the republic! Preserve my

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