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Schedules calling for data concerning each individual with regard to name, sex, color or race, age, marital condition, nativity, citizenship, language, occupation, education, etc., are circulated, collected, and revised by enumerators working under the direction of supervisors. These schedules are then forwarded to the Bureau. The office work consists of the following steps: (1) A count of the population direct from the schedules for the purpose of determining the pay of the enumerators and—after subsequent careful examination of the schedules to determine their accuracy—for the purpose of announcing the population of the various localities and States, and ultimately the United States as a whole; (2) such editing of the schedules as is necessary to prepare them for the punching clerks, particularly with reference to the returns of mother tongue and occupation; (3) punching of a card for each individual making up the population, showing all the facts appearing on the schedule concerning him, this being done by means of a punching machine; (4) the verification of the cards by means of electrical machines which automatically reject cards in which any of the required holes have not been punched or in which the holes are inconsistent with each other, and the correction of such rejected cards; (5) the sorting of the cards by means of electrical sorting machines into main groups, as determined, for example, by sex, color, or nativity, several different sortings being required at the different stages of the work; (6) tabulation of the facts with regard to the characteristics of the population from the cards by means of electrical tabulating machines, it being necessary to run the cards through the machines several times in order to take off all of the facts; (7) transcribing on large sheets of results from tabulating-machine records, and compilation of statistics for publication.
Decennial census of agriculture.—A separate schedule is provided for each individual farm and contains numerous questions pertaining to the farm and its productions, including the name and address of farmer, his color or race, country of birth, and age; the acreage, value, and tenure of farm; number and value of domestic animals; quantity and value of live-stock products; and acreage, quantity, and value of crops. These schedules are prepared by the enumerators of the population census. The various data are tabulated in the office, chiefly by the aid of adding machines.
Census of manufactures.—The conduct and scope of the decennial and intermediate censuses of manufactures are practically the same. They cover all manufacturing establishments conducted under what is known as the factory system, exclusive of so-called neighborhood, household, and hand industries; also mining and quarrying establishments, and steam laundries. By a special provision of the Thirteenth Census Act, retail slaughtering establishments are also canvassed in order to secure an enumeration of animals slaughtered for food and of hides procured. The inquiry as to manufactures includes character of ownership of the establishment; data as to wage earners and other persons engaged, including sex and age; and with reference to capital, wages, cost of material, other expenses, and value of products. Additional data are also ascertained with regard to the quantity of the principal products manufactured and quantity of principal materials used. This information is collected on schedules by special agents or by clerks detailed from the office, a general schedule for all establishments with the addition of special industry schedules being used. The information on the schedules is examined and tabulated in the office principally by the use of adding machines.
Annual inquiries.—The collection of statistics of cities involves the abstracting, from the office records of municipalities having a population of 30,000 and over, of data relating to the total expenditures for city government and for specified public services and objects; the revenue derived from all sources and from each specified source; and the amount and character of municipal debt. The information is secured on schedules by employees sent from the Bureau to the various cities, the results being compiled in the office. Special inquiries as to the operations of particular branches of city administration—such as sewers, schools, or parks—are made from time to time.
The work of gathering statistics of births and deaths involves the receipt and recording of transcripts of the original certificates of the same, furnished by persons selected for the purpose by the State and city authorities. The transcripts are tabulated in the office by methods similar to those used in the population census. The greater part of this work is in connection with death statistics, which are compiled so as to show general and specific death rates; summaries of deaths, by causes, sex, and age, by color and nativity, and by urban and rural localities; and average death rates in States and cities.
The cotton statistics assembled by the Bureau are collected in the cotton-producing States by local agents, and elsewhere by mail or by employees detailed from the office. The results are issued in annual reports on the production, distribution, and consumption of cotton and cottonseed products; monthly reports showing cotton consumed and on hand in manufacturing establishments and warehouses; and ten summaries compiled during the cotton-ginning season from telegraphic reports showing amount of cotton ginned.
Statistics are also collected and published annually with regard to the production of lumber; and a half-yearly statement is issued showing the amount of tobacco on hand in factories and warehouses.
The work of properly and economically dividing the country into enumeration districts, and of preparing maps, etc., to accompany and illustrate reports, is performed by a staff of employees under the charge of the geographer.
The mechanical appliances used in the census work include a large number of punching, sorting, and tabulating machines, many of which have been devised and wholly or partially constructed, or have been modified, by the mechanical force of the Bureau. This work, with that of maintaining the machines in operation, calls for a considerable amount of expert work, the constant aim being to produce improvements with a view to economizing and accelerating their work. The mechanical equipment used during the Thirteenth Census included 200 hand punching machines, 300 electric punching machines, 17 card-sorting machines, 96 card-tabulating machines, and over 350 adding machines.
The organization of the Bureau is of a twofold nature—one for intercensal years, the other a largely expanded force during decennial "census periods." The former force is provided for by the act of March 6, 1902, establishing the permanent office, and is modified from time to time in annual appropriation acts. Special provision is usually made by Congress for the expanded force during census periods, which cover three years immediately preceding and following the date of enumeration.
The permanent force may, briefly, be said to consist of a Director, chief clerk, geographer, four chief statisticians, eight chiefs of division, a small number of expert special agents, and such clerks and mechanical and subclerical employees as may be authorized. The total force at present is approximately 600. There is also a force of special agents, numbering about 700, who are residents of the cottongrowing States, and whose duties (which are occasional) consist of collecting statistics of cotton ginned, consumed, and on hand in their respective localities.
The force during the census period is expanded by the addition of a few officials, such as an Assistant Director, an appointment clerk, and a disbursing clerk, and a large number of employees in the clerical and subclerical grades. During the Thirteenth Census period this force in Washington reached a maximum of nearly 4,000. Supervisors and enumerators, to the number of approximately 330 and 70,000, respectively, were also employed for the actual enumeration in the field.
The force of the Bureau during either census or intercensal periods is divided into groups, according to the nature of the inquiries and statistics which constitute its main functions. These groups are (1) administrative force; (2) Division of Population; (3) Division of Agriculture; (4) Division of Statistics of Cities; (5) Division of Manufactures; (6) Division of Vital Statistics; (7) Division of Publication; (8) Division of Revision and Results; (9) Geographer's Division; (10) mechanical force, and (11) maintenance force.
The work of these divisions is sufficiently indicated by their designations. Their strength, with the exception of the administrative and maintenance forces, varies considerably from time to time, as the amount of work devolving on the divisions increases or diminishes.
Superintendents and Directors of the Census, with dates of service.
three Decennial enu
The actual Enumeration shall be made within Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United constitution, States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, Art-I'sec'tin such Manner as they [Congress] shall by Law direct.
The Census Office temporarily established in the De- ce^^ade *0 partment of the Interior1 in accordance with an Act manent. entitled "An Act to provide for taking the Twelfth and stat.,si)'sec.t subsequent censuses," approved March third, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, is hereby made a permanent office.
The work pertaining to the Twelfth Census shall be car- ?welfth 0611803 ried on by the Census Office under the existing organization until the first day of July, nineteen hundred and two, when the permanent Census Office herein provided for shall be organized by the Director of the Census.
The permanent Census Office shall be in charge of a Director of the Census, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual salary of six thousand dollars. It shall be his duty to superintend and direct the taking of the Thirteenth and subsequent censuses of the United States and to perform such other duties as may be imposed upon him by law.
'The Census Office was transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Commerce by section 4 of the act of February 14,1903. (See p. 21.)
ande^pioySsrers 1 There shall be in the Census Office, to be appointed by ibid., sec. 4.' the Director thereof, with the approval of the head of the Department to which the said Census Office is attached, four chief statisticians, who shall be persons of known and tried experience in statistical work, at an annual salary of two thousand five hundred dollars each; a chief clerk, at an annual salary of two thousand five hundred dollars, who, in the absence of the Director, shall serve as acting director; a disbursing clerk, who shall also act as appointment clerk, at an annual salary of two thousand five hundred dollars; one stenographer, at an annual salary of one thousand five hundred dollars; four expert chiefs of division, at an annual salary of one thousand eight hundred dollars each; six clerks of class three; ten clerks of class two; and such number of clerks of class one, and of clerks, copyists, computers, and skilled laborers, with salaries at the rate of not less than six hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars per annum, messengers, assistant messengers, watchmen, unskilled laborers,2 and charwomen as may be necessary for the proper and prompt performance of the duties required by
burstag cie'k dis" ^aw- The disbursing clerk herein provided for shall, before entering upon his duties, give bond to the Secretary of the Treasury in the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, which bond shall be conditioned that the said officer shall render a true and faithful account to the proper accounting officers of the Treasury quarter yearly of all moneys and properties which shall be received by him by virtue of his office, with surety, to be approved by the Solicitor of the Treasury. Such bond shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Treasury, to be by him put in suit upon any breach of the conditions thereof. compensation' 8 The special agents appointed under the provisions of Mar. s, 1899 (so this Act have like authority with the enumerators in
stiit., 1019), sec. reSpect to the subjects committed to them under this
suuarsV) Mcvo5* and shall receive compensation at rates to be fixed Expenses.' 'by the Director of the Census: Provided, That the same shall in no case exceed six dollars per day4 and actual necessary traveling expenses and an allowance in lieu of subsistence not exceeding three dollars per day during their necessary absence from their usual place of residence: And provided further, That no pay or allowance in lieu of subsistence shall be allowed special agents when employed in the Census Office on other than the special work committed to them, and no appointments of special agents shall be made for clerical work: And provided further,
i Annual appropriations for the Census Office are made in the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation acts. For present personnel and salaries, see current act. During the decennial census period the annual compensation of the officials of the Census is increased, and the employment of additional officers, clerks, and other employees is authorized. (See act July 2-1909, p. 54.)
» As amended June 30, 1902 (32 Stat., 506).
8 Act of March 3,1899, section 17 of which is amended by this section, is repealed bv act of July 2,1909, section 33. The provisions of said original section are reenacted, anil those of the amended section set forth here are to a great extent superseded, by those of section 18 of act of July 2, 1909 (p. 41).
* The appropriation act now provides that the compensation of not to exceed five special agents may be fixed at an amount not to exceed $8 per day.