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offense; and, on application made by the shipping-commissioner, shall be further punished, in the discretion of the court, as in other cases of contempt of the process of the court. So much of the Act approved June nineteenth, eighteen Estimates for

1 compensation rehundred and eighty-six (Statutes at Large, volume quired. twenty-four, page seventy-nine), as makes a permanent stat.,7783.

a moles normenont June 25, 1910(36 indefinite appropriation to pay compensation to shipping commissioners and the clerks of the shipping commissioners for services under said Act is hereby repealed, to take effect from and after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eleven; and the Secretary of Commerce shall, for the fiscal year nineteen hundred and twelve, and annually thereafter, submit to Congress in the regular Book of Estimates detailed estimates for compensation of such commissioners and clerks.

Shipping Service: For salaries of shipping commission- mSalaries of comers in amounts not exceeding the following: At Balti-ited.

Mar. 4, 1911 (36 more, one thousand two hundred dollars; at Bath, one stat., Ti229). thousand dollars; at Boston, three thousand dollars; at Gloucester, six hundred dollars; at Honolulu, one thousand two hundred dollars; at Mobile, one thousand two hundred dollars; at New Bedford, one thousand two hundred dollars; at New Orleans, one thousand five hundred dollars; at New York, five thousand dollars; at Norfolk, one thousand five hundred dollars; at Pascagoula, three hundred dollars; at Philadelphia, two thousand four hundred dollars; at Portland, Maine, one thousand three hundred dollars; at Port Townsend, three thousand five hundred dollars; at Providence, one thousand eight hundred dollars; at Rockland, one thousand two hundred dollars; at San Francisco, four thousand dollars; in all, thirty-one thousand nine hundred dollars.

1 Clerk hire: For the compensation to be fixed by the Salaries, of Secretary of Commerce not to exceed one thousand six Mar. 4, 1911 (36

Stat., 1230). hundred dollars per annum to each person, of clerks in the offices of the shipping commissioners, thirty-three thousand dollars.

(Under the authority of the annual appropriation acts, Radio inspectoemploy such persons and means as may be necessary” to enforce the act approved June twenty-fourth, nineteen hundred and ten, entitled “An Act to require apparatus and operators for radio communication on certain ocean steamers,” radio inspectors are appointed by the Secretary.]

[The field force of the Bureau of Navigation, in addition Collectors and to shipping commissioners and radio inspectors, consists toms." of collectors and surveyors of customs, with their deputies and inspectors. Customs officers, although they perform certain duties in connection with the administration of the navigation laws, are officers of the Treasury Department. Their duties are fully set forth in the volume entitled “Navigation Laws of the United States.”]

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1 A similar provision is contained in the appropriation act of August 23, 1912 (37 Stat. 408-409).

BUREAU OF STANDARDS.

The Constitution vests the Federal Government with power to “fix the Standard of Weights and Measures," and from the beginning of the Republic many of the foremost statesmen and scientists have worked assiduously to bring our system of weights and measures to a more satisfactory and scientific condition. Washington recognized this as one of the important subjects committed to Congress by the Constitution, and repeatedly urged the necessity for uniform and reliable standards. In 1790 Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, was directed by Congress to investigate this subject, and after a most careful consideration submitted a report in which he suggested important reforms, which were not, however, adopted.

A reference to the subject of weights and measures appears in the act approved March 2, 1799 (R. S., 2627), where it was ordered, among other things, that the surveyor of each port of the United States should from time to time, and particularly on the first Mondays of January and July in each year, [examine and] try the weights, measures, and other instruments used in ascertaining the duties on imports, with standards to be provided by each collector.” Apparently this act was not enforced, probably for the reason that no standard had been adopted by Congress or by the Treasury Department. In 1817 President Madison reminded Congress that nothing had been accomplished in reforming and unifying the weights and measures, whereupon the whole subject was referred to John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State. Mr. Adams, after four years of research, prepared a report which has become a classic in metrology; in it he advised the adoption of a universal standard by international agreement.

By Senate resolution of May 29, 1830, the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to have an examination made of the weights and measures in use at the principal customhouses, and, as was expected, large discrepancies were discovered. As a consequence, the Secretary of the Treasury directed that standards be adopted by the Treasury Department, and that copies be made and distributed to the various customhouses. The avoirdupois pound was adopted as the standard of weight, and the distance between certain lines on a brass bar in the possession of the Department, and supposed to conform to the English yard, was taken as the standard of length. In June, 1836, Congress directed further that the Secretary of the Treasury should furnish each State with copies of these standards.

By act approved July 28, 1866, the use of the metric system of weights and measures was legalized, and the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to furnish each State with a set of standard weights and measures of this system.

In 1875, more than half a century after Adams had recommended a conference between nations for the purpose of establishing world-wide uniformity in standards, such a conference was held, and as a result there was established in Paris a permanent International Bureau of Weights and Measures. The bureau thus established undertook the construction of prototypes of the metric standards, and in 1889 these were ready for distribution among the seventeen nations represented at the international conference. Two meter prototypes (standards of length) and two kilogram prototypes (standards of mass) were sent under seal to the United States by special messengers, and were opened at the White House in the presence of the President, the Secretary of State, and a distinguished company of scholars.

The custody of the standards referred to above, and the execution of the provisions made by Congress, remained until July 1, 1901, under the direction of the Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Treasury Department, in his capacity as Superintendent of the Office of Standard Weights and Measures. The facilities of the latter office were exceedingly limited, and the exercise of its functions confined to departments of the General Government and the States.

The act of March 3, 1901, established the National Bureau of Standards and made it an independent bureau of the Treasury Department, where it remained until, on July 1, 1903, it became a part of the Department of Commerce, under the provisions of the law establishing the Department. The name “Bureau of Standards” was adopted by order of the Secretary on July 1, 1903.

Since 1901 the Bureau has grown as funds were provided to enable it to take up more fully the functions prescribed in its organic act. The relative urgency of the several lines of activity fixed the order and extent of their development. The scope of weights and measures had broadened in recent times to include power, light, heat, electricity, refrigeration, and services of other kinds, which must be measured and for which standards and methods of measurement are needed. Not less urgent are standards of quality, which rest upon the properties of materials, and which for certain materials are partially defined in “specifications." Units and standards are here needed relating to physical and chemical properties in addition to those of dimension and weight. The Bureau aims to meet this need by the development of standard materials, standard specifications, and standard methods of test for the properties of materials.

Few subjects directly affect more people than weighing and measuring, since practically all products involve measurement, whether

grown in the soil or manufactured. Construction, commerce, and daily trade are based upon measurement. Measure and money are the two factors which fix price, and measurement is the basis of science and technology. The Bureau's functions touch closely all who design and make, buy and sell, transport, or utilize materials, energy, or other services which require accurate standards and measuring instruments.

The Bureau has taken up as fully as possible the special functions prescribed by law, which may be summarized as follows:

(1) The custody of the standards, which involves their care and preseryation and the varied researches necessary to maintain their constancy.

(2) Comparisons of standards for States, municipalities, institutions, and the general public, including those used in commerce, manufacturing, and science, assuring to the public accuracy at its sourcein the factory and the industrial laboratory.

(3) The construction of new standards demanded by scientific and technical progress on the basis of the best available data and new researches at the Bureau, and whenever practicable by international agreement.

(4) Standardization of measuring instruments for manufacturers as a test of their output, or for the user that he may verify instruments or materials independently.

(5) Technical research on problems connected with standards— research which in many cases limits the rate of progress in a given field.

(6) The determination of physical constants and the properties of materials—the exact data relating to materials and energy which underlie technical and industrial work, and for which direct reference to the fundamental standards is highly desirable.

(7) The determination of the properties of materials, such work being based upon the modern view that quality may be measured and standardized exactly as dimension and weight may be, although the problems may be difficult and require advanced research.

The organization of the Bureau is a practical grouping of the several classes of work-scientific, clerical, and mechanical. The divisions of the scientific work are electricity, weights and measures, heat, light, and chemistry. The technical operations also include: engineering instruments and the investigation of materials. The clerical work comprises publication, records, library, accounts, certificates and correspondence, stores, and shipping. The mechanical staff has the operation of the engineering plant, care of buildings and grounds, construction in the instrument shop, cabinet shop, and the shop for glass blowing and glass working. The Bureau aims to attain steady progress in experience and knowledge among the em

ployees in its several lines by a series of graded positions, and by providing facilities and opportunities, such as a technical library, journal meetings, and encouraging evening study to supplement their practical experience. This policy stimulates interest and efficiency.

The work of the Bureau has its main sanction as the legal custodian of the standards and also on account of the fundamental character of the investigations undertaken and the precision attained in such researches. In all of its work the Bureau aims to cooperate fully and directly with all interests concerned, since only in this manner can all points of view and sources of information be regarded.

When international standards are involved, the Bureau cooperates with the standardizing institutions of other countries and with the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. The international agreement as to the precise value of the candlepower as a unit of light is an example. While such fundamental standards are still relatively few, the derived standards, such as standards of light, color, composition, combustion, efficiency, and other quantities which are developed as industrial and scientific needs multiply, steadily increase in complexity.

Sets of the national standards have been supplied to every State of the Union, and these are verified from time to time at the Bureau of Standards. These sets serve to regulate the local measures used by county sealers for inspection of trade weights and measures. In all of such work the Bureau cooperates with State governments and officials by holding annual conferences, assisting in the technical details of the inspection service, and giving advice concerning new legislation.

The Bureau also cooperates with the national technical societies in developing uniform standard nomenclature, improved specifications, more exact methods of measurement, and more reliable and convenient forms of standards. The manufacture of measuring appliances is now a large group of industries, and in testing the standards used to make measuring appliances the Bureau is indirectly distributing precision in all branches of commerce and trade. To the general manufacturer the Bureau makes available its facilities by standardizing the measures by which he makes his product and upon his request the product itself may be tested. Manufacturers also refer technical problems to the Bureau, and wherever possible the Bureau aims to serve as a clearing house for technical information upon subjects within its field. The large number of inquiries by mail afford another medium for giving information upon these subjects—data which often may be directly applied in commerce, manufacturing, research, and daily trade. The need for a clearing house for such information needs no emphasis.

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