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Frank P. Hastings,
United States Vice-Consul-General at Honolulu.
Author of "The Crest of the Continent."
Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D.,
Editor of the Jewish Messenger.
TROUT, NEW SPECIES OF.
Inspector of Small-arms Practice.
Editor of the Dover (N. H.) Republican.
Henry B. Small,
of Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada.
William Christopher Smith.
ARTICLES ON THE STATES AND TERRITORIES.
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN ARTICLES.
Theodore Hayes Lewis.
Of Department of Agriculture, Fredericton, N. B.
and other articles,
Miss Bessie B. Nicholls.
DAMIEN DE VEUSTER, JOSEPH,
and other articles.
Rev. Jesse A. Spencer, D. D.
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
Of Census Office, Washington, D. C.
Author of "Handbook of Florida."
and other articles.
Editor of the Popular Science Monthly.
ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT, IMAGE FOUND IN IDAHO
18 | THE GREAT EASTERN (2 illustrations) 404, 405 Relics from SUSIANA (4 illustrations) 22, 23 Views in BOMBAY (2 illustrations) 426, 427 RELICS FROM TELL KAHUN (23 figures) 26 | IRRIGATION (4 illustrations)
453-463 Ruins of THAUMEGAS (2 illustrations) 28, 29 JOHNSTOWN FLOOD (map and 2 views) 477–481 MONUMENT IN COLONGA 29 MANDOLIN
525 ECLIPSE OF THE SUN
45 HOUSE OF THE MORẠvian SisteRHOOD 573 RIO DE JANEIRO 81 CANTERBURY COLLEGE
609 BAHIA. 83 JOHN BRIGHT'S BIRTHPLACE
657 Pine Forest, MINAS-GERAÈS
85 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, CINCINNATI 674 CAVE-DRAWINGS (10 illustrations) 118-122 MILITARY RIFLES (20 illustrations) 1735–742 DALHOUSIE COLLEGE 149 St. Mary's Falls CANAL (2 maps)
755 COREAN FLAG 239 SILK-WORM GUT (8 figures)
763 JEFFERSON Davis's RESIDENCE
262 SOLDIERS' HOMES (2 illustrations) 768, 769 PARLIAMENT HOUSE, TORONTO 277 | Fort Bono, IBWIRI
781 ENGINEERING (8 illustrations)
290–296 Trout (4 illustrations) Ericsson's MONITOR (2 illustrations) 298 | UNION JACK
815 MAP OF SELKIRK MOUNTAINS 358 ZITHER.
833 GEORGIA STATE HOUSE
ABYSSINIA, a monarchy in eastern Africa. Bogos for colonization and to concede to Italy The area, exclusive of conquered territories of commercial advantages over other European nathe Somalis and Gallas, is about 175,000 square tions. The King's nephew Debeb, a son of the miles; the population is not more than 3,500,000. widow of Theodoros by her marriage with Ras The ruler bears the title of Negus Negusti, or Salasiem, they also encouraged in his aspirations * King of Kings.” The inhabitants are Coptic to the supreme power, making use of him as an Christians.
ally in the campaign against Ras Aloula until he War with the Dervishes.—The Soudanese went over to the enemy and turned against them dervishes, or Mahdists, invaded the province of the weapons they had furnished. Menelek assemAmhara in 1885, and burned all the churches and bled an army of 130,000 men on the border of houses, carrying the people away into slavery. Shoa to wage war against Johannis. The King In 1886 they devastated the Tshelga province, marched to the south with the intention of forctook many captives, massacred the monks of ing his rebellious vassal and rival into submisMahebera, and burned the monastery. In 1887 sion, but finding the latter intrenched in an the Negus Johannis defeated the dervishes; but impregnable position, he avoided a battle by in 1888, while he was contesting the advance of turning aside with his army, which was already the Italians from Massowah to a summer station partly demoralized and suffering from want of on the border of the Abyssinian plateau, he was food, and, marching to the northwest, began the called away by a new raid of the Mohammedans, campaign against the dervishes. When King who defeated the King of Godjam, and carried John fell, Menelek proclaimed himself Negus off thousands of his subjects to be sold into slav- Negusti, and after securing the adhesion of Ras ery. King Johannis gathered his warriors to de. Michael and the King of Godjam, advanced fend the western country. King Menelek of Shoa, into Tigreh to try conclusions with Degiac who had proclaimed war against his sovereign in Mangascia, a Shoan chief who in 1888 had order to supplant him as Negus, remained idle, fought the insurgent Wollo-Gallas, King John's with his larger army encamped in a strong place nephew and chosen heir, whose cause had been on the bank of the Abai, a confluent of the Blue espoused by Ras Aloula. Several fights between Nile, dividing Shoa and Tigreh, while Johannis the partisans of the rival pretenders took place contended with unequal forces against the fanat. before the rainy season. Debeb entered Tigreh ical invaders who made western Abyssinia a des- from the north with his well-armed troops to ert, put many thousands to the sword, and sent dispute the succession. Mangascia and Aloula the flower of the nobility and of the people as invited him to an interview at Makalle, and when slaves to Mecca or Khartoum. The Abyssinians he came they treacherously made him a prisoner. fought bravely, but were defeated in the princi- The three Abyssinian abounas-Petros of Aspal battles. On March 10, 1889, the Negus at- mara, Lucas of Godjam, and Matheos of Shoatacked the dervishes' stronghold at Metemneh, recognized Menelek as Negus, and most of the on the frontier of the Soudan, but was driven chiefs south of the Takaze gave him their alleback. The Negus himself was mortally wounded. giance. Mangascia's money did not long hold On the 12th the dervishes followed up their out, and when he was deserted by most of his success, attacked the King's camp, and completely men except Aloula's force, he entered into negorouted his army. Ras Area and Ras Ailu fell in tiations with the Italians. Before September all the engagement, while Ras Michael fled with the Abyssinia had submitted to Menelek's rule, with remnant of his command to Magdala, and Ras the exception of a small portion of Tigreh. King Aloula retreated to Tigreh.
Menelek was the son of King Haelou of Shoa by The Contest for the Throne. When the a slave-woman, and was selected by his father to Italians found they could not obtain from King succeed him. The new ruler of Abyssinia has John the footing in Abyssinia that they desired, had men of ability among his generals and counthey entered into negotiations with King Men- selors, most of whom are hostile to Europeans. elek of Shoa, whom they supplied with firearms But such is not the character of Menelek. He in return for promises to give them a part of is well disposed to white people, except mission
VOL. XXIX.-1 A
aries, and is an admirer of European produc- be educated in the International College at tions, especially mechanical inventions. In Sep- Turin. tember the new King was crowned at Adua, the Asmara is the place that Ras Aloula chose for sacred city of Abyssinia, by Bishop Matheos. his residence when he advanced from Zazega to
Italian Annexations.-Although the auspi- oppose the Italian occupation of Keren. It was cious moment had arrived for carrying out the formerly a wretched village, but is well situated carefully arranged plans of the military authori- in an undulating plateau, 2,327 metres above the ties to occupy the cool and healthful plains near sea, 90 kilometres from Massowah, on the road Massowah, which would afford a summering- that passes through Mukulu, Dogali, Sahati, place where the troops could escape the fatal Ailet, Sabarguma, Baresa, and Ginda, and is near climatic conditions of the coast, and also a gate the sources of the Mareb and other streams. In way for spreading Italian influence into Abys- conjunction with Keren it commands the northsinia, yet the Italian Cabinet was at first unwill- ern border of Tigreh, and with Zazegra controls ing to assent to Crispi's proposal to occupy the all the routes between northern Abyssinia and coveted positions in the highlands, because the the sea. The neighboring valley of Anseba, Premier had not long before promised that no through which passes the road to Keren from more money should be sunk in African under- Abyssinia, is adapted to agricultural colonizatakings. The Minister of War reckoned the tion, and the table-land is nowhere unfruitful. cost of occupying Keren and Asmara with two The fort at Asmara was rendered impregnable regiments at 6,000,000 lire, while for an extended without the aid of artillery, barracks and magaoccupation of Bogos 20,000,000 lire would be re- zines were erected, and other places in the Haquired. The Italians have had to support an massen district were fortified during the summer. expense of 20,000,000 lire per annum and the The Shoan Mission.-Anticipating the ultidislocation of 7,000 or 8,000 of the best of their mate accession of the ambitious Menelek to the troops to retain possession of Massowah and a supreme power, the Italians had cultivated triangle of coast territory which is of no practi- friendly relations with him and favored his precal benefit, since the blockade has stopped all tensions. Count Antonelli, the Italian envoy to trade with Abyssinia. Therefore, they were Shoa, accompanied Menelek as far as Egyn, leavdriven to make a choice between going forwarding him when he had obtained his signature to a
а or retiring from Africa. Moreover, considera- treaty embodying the more important demands tion of the health of the troops was a pressing that the Negus Johannis had rejected when prequestion. The forces in and near Massowah in sented, in 1887, by the English embassy in a letter the spring of 1889 consisted of 7,800 Italian sol- from Queen Victoria, and later in the peace nediers and 4,160 Bashi-Bazouks, or native irregu- gotiations with Gen. San Marzano when the lars, without counting the bands of Abyssinians Abyssinians confronted the Italian encampments in Italian pay:
The Italians made an unsuc- in March, 1888. The treaty was conveyed to cessful attempt in 1888 to seize Keren, which is Italy by an embassy of twenty Shoan chiefs, who on the edge of the salubrious table-land. Subse- arrived at Rome in August. King Menelek quently they purchased the allegiance of Baram- agreed to recognize the sovereign rights of Italy baras Kafel, an Abyssinian chief, who collected over the places actually occupied by Italian 2,000 men, and by means of 600 breach-loading troops, and for that reason the military authorrifles tyrannized over the entire plateau of Bo- ities made haste to raise the Italian flag over gos. When ordered to restrain his men from Keren and Asmara. The Italians agreed to open plundering, Kafel invited Ras Aloula to join him the port of Massowah to the unrestricted comin expelling the Italians. The latter knew of merce of the Abyssinians, in return for special the treacherous scheme, and while Aloula was facilities in comparison with other nations. Menon the march with 8,000 men, laid their plans elek accepted an Italian protectorate over the to frustrate it before he arrived. Gen. Báldis- whole of Ethiopia. The treaty was made by sera, governor of Massowah, sent a detachment Count Antonelli on May 5, and was ratified by of scouts and Bashi-Bazouks with a mountain King Umberto on Sept. 25. On Oct. 3 a supplebattery under Major Dimajo, who, with the co- mentary conyention was signed at Naples by operation of Debeb's army of 1,500 men, sur- Signor Crispi and Makonen, chief of the Shoan rounded and surprised the faithless ally, ar- Mission, providing for the termination of the rested him and five of his principal chiefs, blockade, and for the establishment of commerdisarmed his freebooting band, and on June cial relations between Italy and Abyssinia. It 2, 1889, took formal possession of Keren, hoist- also makes provision for the appointment of an ing the Italian flag over the fort. Senahit, an- Italian consul-general in King Menelek's dominother important place on the Abyssinian front- ions and for mutual defense against a common ier, was occupied subsequently. On Aug. 4 enemy. On Oct. 13 the Italian Government deGen. Baldissera took possession of Asmara, clared a protectorate over all Abyssinia. which he fortified. Ras Aloula attempted to op- The Sagallo Incident. Nicholas Atchinoff, pose the Italian advance, but was put to flight calling himself Hetman of Free Cossacks, is a by Major Dimajo at the head of a detachment Russian adventurer who has visited Abyssinia of chasseurs and irregulars. Debeb had held the and aided the Negus Johannis in his warfare district since early spring, having again entered against the Italians, and who, according to his the Italian service after deserting to the enemy own story, fought with the Mahdi against Gorwith arms and baggage the year before, giving don at Khartoum, and with Osman Digma against his infant brother and uncle into their hands as the English at Suakin. By taking some Abyshostages, and proving his fidelity by defeating sinian priests to Russia, he interested the Slavonic the Abyssinian governor of Asmara. Debeb's committees in a scheme for assimilating Abysbrother, Ligg Abraham, was taken to Italy to sinian Christianity to the doctrines and worship of the Orthodox Church and privately aiding the cial flag. He said that he expected other cargoes Negus in his conflict with the Italians, in the ex- of arms from Odessa. In answer to further depectation of gaining for Russia the ascendancy mands of the French governor he refused to in Abyssinia and the commercial and political recognize any authority except that of the Emfoothold in Africa that Italy with heavy sacrifices peror of Russia. M. Goblet apprised the Russian had failed to attain. With pecuniary contribu- Foreign Office of this state of affairs, and received tions of the Panslavists, Atchinoff fitted out an the assurance that, as soon as the imperfect comexpedition, consisting of 146 persons, the public- munications would permit, a Russian war-yessel ly announced purpose of which was to make would be sent to bring Atchinoff to reason. Sapropaganda for the Greek religion in Abyssinia gallo is the starting-place of a caravan route into by establishing schools and churches. The party the interior; but Atchinoff was not able to open consisted of Capt. Atchinoff, Archimandrite communications with Abyssinia and send on the Paissy, 9 popes, 20 military officers, a band of 40 missionaries and the munitions, for the reason South Cossacks-artisans and cultivators, who that passage through Aoussah was denied at the were likewise acquainted with military duties, behest of the Italian authorities, the Sultan deand the wives and children of many of the emi- taining as hostages two Tadjurah chiefs who were grants. The disguised purpose of the expedition, sent to treat with him in behalf of Atchinoff. that of assisting the Abyssinian belligerents with According to French accounts, Atchinoff not arms and military instructors, was as widely only incited hostile and rebellious feelings against bruited as its ostensible religious mission. The the protecting power among the natives, but only ports giving access to Abyssinia are Mas- through his brutal tyranny came into conflict sowah and Obock. Atchinoff and his backers with them and with his own followers, producreckoned on opening an avenue into Abyssinia ing a situation that compelled the naval authorfrom French territory, expecting public opinion ities to take measures to avert disturbances in France to commend a breach of the neutrality without waiting for the promised interference of laws in favor of a Russian enterprise aimed the Russian Government. On Feb. 17 Admiral against the ally of Germany. The expedition Olry sent the Cossack leader an ultimatum to the passed through the Suez Canal and the Red Sea effect that if he did not lower the Russian ensign in an Austrian packet to Jeddah, followed by an and give up his mitrailleuse and boxes of rifles, Italian aviso, the “ Barberigo.” Slipping past except such as were necessary for personal prothe Italian vessel and a French cruiser that was tection, the fort would be bombarded in twentywatching, under cover of the night, the Austrian four hours, whereas if he complied with French ship took the party down the blockaded coast laws the religious mission would be granted faand landed it, with its chests of arms, on the cilities to penetrate into Abyssinia, and the shore of the Bay of Tadjurah, which is under others might colonize Sagallo or go forward the protectorate of France.
unmolested. On the 18th the French commander, The doings of Atchinoff have repeatedly been wishing to avoid a hand-to-hand combat with the subject of diplomatic correspondence between the Russians, having an insufficient landingthe French and Russian governments since 1886. force, fired shells into the fort, killing five perIn the spring of 1888 the Cossack adventurer sons and wounding as many more.
Some one had negotiated with the Sultans of Tadjurah for inside then displayed a white flag, and the Rusa grant of land on which he had left seven com- sian colors were hauled down. The Frenchmen panions, forming what he called a Russian colony landed and took the whole Russian party. The of the name of Moskva. As he failed to return ecclesiastics, as well as the others, preferred being before the promised term of three months with sent back to Russia instead of going to Abyssinia. more settlers, arms, and provisions, the deserted They were forwarded to Suez, and there given colonists escaped to European stations, and were into the custody of the Russian authorities, and assisted on their way back to Russia. Russian conveyed on a man-of-war to Odessa. diplomatic agents in Paris and Cairo, in reply to Unfortunately, among those who were hit in French interrogatories, gave official contradic- the bombardment were women and children, tions to Atchinoff's assertions at Port Said and owing to Atchinoff's cruel order forbidding any Jeddah that his enterprise was under the patron- person to retire from the fort. The Sagallo inage of the Czar. When the expedition landed cident produced a painful impression in Russian at Tadjurah, on Jan. 18, the governor of Obock patriotic circles, although the Russian Governsent an otlicial to inquire his intentions of Atch- ment, in an official communiqué, threw the blame inoff, who said he had come to found a colony, upon Atchinoff, and declared that it would have and would remove in a few days to Sagallo, a no influence on the existing relations between district outside French jurisdiction over which Russia and France. M. Spuller, the new French he had acquired sovereign rights by treaty with Minister of Foreign Affairs, defended his predethe native chiefs. He was told that by virtue of cessor in a semi-official note and in the Chamber, prior treaties and formal acts of occupation, the while the responsibility for the affair rested with territory was subject to France, but that he was M. Goblet. T'he anti-Republican and Boulangist at liberty to establish a Russian settlement if he factions embraced the occasion for Chauvinistic would acknowledge French sovereignty and con- attacks on the Government, which led to the form with the regulations by delivering up super- suppression of the League of Patriots and refluous arms, as the importation of firearms as an markable political consequences. (See FRANCE.) article of commerce was interdicted on protected ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. The staterritory.
tistical reports of this denomination, made to the Atchinoff departed with his companions for General Conference in October, 1888, give for the Sagallo, and there took up his quarters in an old thirty-two conferences and five mission fields : fort, on which he hoisted the Russian commer- Number of ministers, 232; of licentiates, 168; of