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the independence of the country recovered in with Great Britain that was settled in favor of 1640. In 1807 the royal family fled to Brazil, Brazil by the King of the Belgians in 1862. and in 1815 the colony was declared a kingdom. In alliance with Uruguay and the Argentine ReAfter the Portuguese court returned to Europe public he declared war against Paraguay in 1865, in 1821, a national Congress, assembled in Rio de and took part in the first campaign, defeating Janeiro, on May 13, 1822, chose Dom Pedro, the the army with which Gen. Lopez invaded Brazil. eldest son of King João, of Portugal, Perpetual The war was not ended till after the death of Defender, and on Sept. 7 declared the independ- Lopez, when a peace was signed on June 20, ence of the country. On Oct. 12 Pedro was 1870, giving Brazil an aggrandizement of terrielected constitutional Emperor under the style tory. Dom Pedro in May, 1871, sailed for Euof Pedro I. Dom Pedro I, who married the rope, visiting England, France (where he atArchduchess Leopoldine of Austria, abdicated on April 7, 1831, in favor of his son, Pedro II. The infant Emperor's sister had succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 1826 as Maria II da Gloria. Pedro II was declared of age and assumed the government July 23, 1840, and was crowned on July 18, 1841. During his minority the Government was administered at first by a single Regent, Dom Bonafacio de Andrada e Silva, the chief of the Democratic party, and after the defeat of Andrada's party in 1833 by a Council of Regency. He married the Princess Theresa, daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies on Sept. 4, 1843. The Emperor, soon after assuming the government in person, dissolved the Legislature. This measure led to insurrections in São Paulo and Minas-Geraes, the latter requiring the whole military force of the empire for its suppression. From that time Pedro held himself aloof from party struggles. The Democrats rebelled again in 1848 in Pernambuco, but since then the country has been tranquil.

On Sept. 4, 1850, the Emperor issued a decree putting an end to the slave- tended the meetings of the French Geographical trade. He aided Gen. Urquiza in 1852 to over- Society, which had elected him a correspondthrow the dictator Rosas, of the Argentine Re- ing member in 1868), and other countries of public, obtaining for Brazil as the reward for the Continent, and returning to Brazil on March his armed intervention an enlargement of fron- 13, 1872. In 1876 he visited the Centennial Extiers and the right to the free navigation of the hibition in Philadelphia, and subsequently travriver Plate. In 1860 he made a journey through eled through Europe and the East, reaching the provinces, with a view to ameliorating their Rio de Janeiro again on Sept. 24, 1877. The economical condition. His power was greatly Emperor held himself aloof from parties, and strengthened by his firm attitude in a dispute devoted himself to measures intended to de

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DOM PEDRO II., EX-EMPEROR OF BRAZIL.

velop the resources and advance the prosperity in November, 1889, a delegation waited on Peof Brazil. His high intelligence and prudent dro II at his palace at Petropolis, near Rio de statesmanship made him one of the most popu- Janeiro, and told him that his estates would be lar sovereigns in the world. The great act of left to him and his civil list continued if he his reign was the abolition of slavery. Through would sign an abdication. He said he would his influence the Parliament in August, 1871, yield only to force, and repeated it when the gave its approval to a preliminary measure for same offers were inade to him in prison in Rio its gradual extinction. · Broken in health and de Janeiro. At length, with his wife and daughapparently destined soon to die, he left Bra- ter and her husband and two children, he was zil in 1886 for medical treatment in Europe, re- placed on a steamer, and under the escort of a signing the Government into the hands of his man-of-war was taken to Portugal, where soon elder daughter, Isabel, who was the heir-appar- afterward the Empress died. ent, the two sons of the Emperor having died in The ex-Emperor is noted for his scientific and infancy. The Crown Princess, whose husband, literary accomplishments. He has been a memLouis Philippe d’Orleans, the Conde d'Eu, was ber of the French Academy of Sciences since commander-in-chief of the military forces, but 1877. He is proficient in English and German, very un popular in the army, was esteemed for as well as in Portuguese, Spanish, and French, her good qualities of heart, but was dreaded and and has always been a liberal patron of art, scidisliked by all classes of Brazilians on account ence, and literature, and has taken a deep interof her religious and political prejudices. Unlike est in mechanical progress and in industrial an, the father, she insisted in interfering in political commercial matters. questions. Pedro had put an end to the politi- PENNSYLVANIA, & Middle State, one of cal influence of the clergy and destroyed their the original thirteen, ratified the Constitution pretensions to domination by his vigorous atti- Dec. 12, 1787; area, 45,215 square miles; poputude toward the bishops in 1874, two of whom lation according to the last decennial census, were imprisoned for two years. He had signed (1880), 4,282,891; capital, Harrisburg. decrees banishing the Jesuits and other orders, Government. The following were the State and ordaining that the great possessions of officers during the year: Governor, James A. the monasteries should eventually escheat to the Beaver, Republican; Lieutenant-Governor, Willstate. His daughter recalled the Jesuits, who iam T. Davies; Secretary of State, Charles W. were not legally permitted to reside in Brazil, Stone; Treasurer, William B. Hart, who died on and other expelled orders, secured for them the Nov. 8, and was succeeded by William Lirsey; charge of education, gave foreign Jesuits a con- Auditor-General, Thomas McCamant; Secretary trolling influence, not only over the court, but of Internal Affairs, Thomas J. Stewart; Aitoralso over the secular clergy, who resented their ney-General, W. S. Kirkpatrick; Superintendent censorship and espionage. The Republicans, of Public Instruction, E. E. Higbee, who died who have long formed a majority of the domi- on Dec. 13 ; Insurance Commissioner, J. M. nant class, although the electoral machinery did Forster; Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court. not admit of their playing an important part in Edward M. Paxon; Justices, James P. Sterrett. Parliament, which has always been made up Ilenry Green, Silas M. Clark, Henry W. Willalmost entirely of representatives of the party iams, James T. Mitchell, and J. B. McCollum. that happened to be in power and in control of Finances. — The balance remaining in the the elections, declared that the empire was safe treasury on Dec. 1, 1888, was $3,687,035.65; for as long as Pedro lived, but that there would be the year ensuing the total receipts were $8,465.no third reign in Brazil. A measure of the Re- 399.22, of which $6,528,956.91 accrued to the gent Isabel precipitated the revolution in No- general fund and $1,936,442.31 to the sinking vember, 1889, after the return of the sick Emperor fund: the expenditures for the same time were to Philippopolis. The slaves, many of thein be- $8,182,847.34; the balance remaining in both lieving that they were legally free but were held funds on Nov. 30, 1889, was $3,969,587.53. The in bondage by their masters without warrant of expenditures from the general fund were larger law, encouraged by the abolitionists, began to than in any previous year, and exceeded the rerun away in great numbers, causing social and ceipts by $66,281.76. This excess was caused commercial confusion. The Regent, in order to by the large appropriations, including $2,000,put an end to this disturbed state of things, and 000 for support of schools. at the same time perforin a meritorious act, Among the tax receipts were the following signed a decree of general emancipation. The items: On corporation stock and limited partplanters, who form the ruling class in Brazil, nerships, $1,952,771.54; on gross receipts (corpowere prepared for emancipation, but not until rations), $517,256.34; on gross premiums, $19.they haud carried their measures to obtain com- 906.64; on the stock of bank, safe deposit, and pensation. By the act of the Regent the ferment trust companies, $469,900.82; tax on net earnwas extended to the upper class, the dominant ings or income, $71,668.19; tax on loans—county political element. A Republican meeting in Rio and municipal, $144,788.79 ; private corporade Janeiro was broken up by the Regent's house- tions, $103 530.41. hold troop of negro soldiers, called the Black The following were the more important er. Guard, and all the newspapers cried out against penditures: Senate, $180,740.95; House of Rerthe suppression of free speech. The soldiers and resentatives, $436,754.85; judiciary, $508,468.94: officers of the army had lately shown great laxity public printing, $241,807.14 ; loans redeemed, of discipline, and when the ministry attempted $881,950; interest on loans, $619,606.04; State by disciplinary measures to compeľ subordina- College, $111,440; charitable institutions, $700,tion they were driven over in a body to the Re- 982.80; indigent insane, $319,043.49: penitenpublicans. When the republic was proclaimed, tiaries, $144,723.75 ; Huntingdon Reformatory,

$152,350; House of Refuge, $95,000; Morganza coal region, and provides that no one shall be Reform School, $37,373.17; Soldiers' Home, $94,- allowed to engage as a miner in any anthracite 250; soldiers' orphans' schools, $300,228.86; coal mine unless he has been granted a certificommon schools, $1,072,865.54; National Guard, cate by such board. No one shall be granted a $391,784.83; Gettysburg monument, $83,500. certificate unless it is shown that he has had two

The State debt on Dec. 1, 1889, was $13,856,- years' practical experience as a mine laborer. 971.28, having been reduced during the year The annual appropriation for public schools was $881,950 by the retireinent of bonds represent increased from $1,500,000 to $2,000,000. Other ing that value. The assessed valuation of per- acts of the session were as follow: sonal property liable to the State tax for 1889

Providing that no minor shall work in any manuwas $446,815,803.16, the three-mill levy on which facturing establishment longer than sixty hours a yielded a revenue of $1,340,447.40.

week; that no child under twelve years shall ever be Legislative Session.—The regular biennial employed in such places ; that well-holes and masession of the State Legislature began on Jan. chinery shall be properly protected; that at least 1, and adjourned on May 9. Early in the ses- forty-five minutes shall be allowed employés for their sion the two proposed constitutional amend

noon meal ; that proper heat, light, ventilation, and ments adopted by the Legislature of 1887 were

sanitary arrangements shall be furnished ; and that a readopted, and provision was made for their sub- factory inspector shall be appointed by the Governor. mission to the people at a special election on ployés for their mutual aid and benefit in their trade

To authorize the chartering of associations of emJune 18. These amendments prohibit the man- concerns. ufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors, abolish To punish persons that unlawfully use or wear the the poll-tax qualification for voting, and reduce insignia of the Loyal Legion or the Grand Army of the length of residence in any election district, the Republic, or the Union Veteran Legion. required of voters, from two months to thirty of a nautical school at Philadelphia for the training of

Providing for the establishment and maintenance days. A new revenue law, passed at this session, youth in navigation, on some vessel furnished by the provides for a State tax of three mills, to be State or the United States. Also, to provide for the levied on “all mortgages, all moneys owing by organization of a naval battalion, which shall form a solvent debtors, whether by promissory note, or part of the State militia. penal or single bill, bond, or judgment; all ar- Giving persons on bicycles and tricycles the same ticles of agreement and accounts bearing inter- rights and duties on the public highways as persons est; all public loans, except of the Common- in carriages drawn by horses. wealth or the United States; all loans issued by, day, to be known as Labor Day.

Making the first Monday in September a legal holior shares of stock in, any bank, corporation,

Assenting to the act of Congress establishing agriassociation, or limited partnership, except such cultural experiment stations, and appointing the Penrias are hereafter mentioned as liable to or exempt sylvania State College to receive the benefit of the act. from a tax on their capital stock; “all moneys Enabling State banks to become national banks. loaned or invested outside of the State ; and all Providing a new law regulating escheats, other moneyed capital in the hands of individ- Prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to persons under ual citizens of the State.” The same rate shall sixteen years of age. be assessed upon vehicles used for hire, and upon the Gettysburg battle-field, ceding jurisdiction over it

Consenting that the United States may purchase annuities over $200. These taxes shall be col- when purchased, and exempting it from taxation. lected and paid over by the counties to the State Appointing a commission to find some means of retreasurer, who shall refund to them one third for ducing or utilizing the waste of coal-mining. the expenses of collection. All corporations, To prevent discriminations between insurants of the joint-stock associations, and limited partner

same class in life-insurance policies. ships, except banks, savings institutions, foreign private banking or savings institution who receives

Providing that the officer or agent of any public or insurance companies, and manufacturing corpo- deposits, knowing that the institution is insolvent, rations, shall pay a tax of half a mill or three mills shall be guilty of embezzlement. upon their capital stock, according as their total Punishing persons defacing or injuring public statannual dividends reach or fall short of 6 per cent. ues and monuments. on the stock. Railroad, pipe-line, canal, steam- Providing that payments, rentals, or royalties boat, express, palace and sleeping car, and certain charged on coal or mineral land may be mortgaged in other transportation companies, and telegraph, the

same manner as the land itself. telephone, and electric light companies shall pay savings-banks and institutions without capitul stock

Providing for the incorporation and regulation of eight mills on their gross receipts from traffic or

established for the encouragement of saving money, business wholly within the State. Domestic in- Establishing a commission to care for and maintain, surance companies shall pay the same rate upon at the expense of the State, all soldiers' children the gross premiums and assessments received who shall remain in the soldiers' childrens' homes on from business in the State, and foreign insur- June 30, 1890, the date at which such homes shall be ance companies 2 per cent. of the gross premiums closed by law, and to continue such care till the chilfrom business in the State. Banks and savings dien reach the age of sixteen years. institutions that elect to pay a six-mill tax on Education. For the school year ending in their shares shall be exempt from local and State 1889 the following are the statistics : Districts, taxation, except for real property held by them. 2,317; schools, 21,889 : graded schools, 10,117; Otherwise their shares will be liable to the three- male teachers, 8,191 ; female teachers, 15,726 ; mill State tax, besides local taxes. The net earn- monthly salary, male teachers, $39 ; monthly ings or income of certain other corporations or salary, female teachers, $30.31; pupils enrolled, limited partnerships shall be subject to a tax of 954.409: average attendance, 687,355 ; tuition, 3 per cent.

$6,669,797.51 ; new buildings and rent, $2,054,An act for the protection of miners establishes 004.39: total cost of schools, $ 11,902,260.82. “miners' examining boards” in the anthracite At the twelve State normal schools the number of students in 1888 was 5,845, and in 1889, 6,278. lower court (“ Weekly Notes of Cases,” vol. xxiv, Of these, 1,320 in 1888 and 1,373 in 1889 were in p. 177), held that the issuance of a license to the model schools, and 4,533 in 1888 and 4,969 such wholesale dealers—those who sell not less in 1889 were in the normal departments. The than a quart-as have fulfilled the form of the expenditures for 1888 were $487,632.36, and for law, is mandatory. The phraseology of this de1889 $551,808.71. The State appropriation for cision, perhaps not less than its conclusions, led 1888 was $85,000, and for 1889 $138,750.

the lower court to the unusual course (* Weekly Charities.-In the State hospitals 1,523 in- Notes of Cases,” vol. xxiv, p. 198) of making a sane patients were admitted during the year public reply. The effect of the decision was an ending Sept. 30, 1888, and within the same period immediate impairment of the force of the law, 1,173 were discharged, showing an increase of but it suggested a remedy. The Law-and-Order but 350 during the year.

Society of Philadelphia publish statistics of the The number remaining in the hospitals at the first ten months' operation of the law, which close of the year was 4,572. There were at the show a decrease in the commitments to the county same time 541 patients in private hospitals and prison of 37 per cent.; and, according to the offihouses, 744 in the Philadelphia Hospital, 588 in cial records of mortality, the deaths from alcoalmshouses, and 65 in prisons. In 1883 there holism within the time of the operation of the were 1,510 insane persons in the almshouses. Brooks law have been reduced 60 per cent., and The reduction since that time has been caused from mania a potu more than 50 per cent. largely by the efforts of the Commission of Luna- Prohibitory and Poll-Tax Amendments. cy to secure transfers to the State hospitals. -Soon after the action of the Legislature, in

Prisons.-For the fiscal year 1888 the popu- passing the prohibitory amendment, rendered it lation of the two State penitentiaries shows the certain that the question of constitutional profollowing changes: Eastern Penitentiary-num- hibition would be submitted to the people this ber of convicts at beginning of year, 1,053; re- year, a State Prohibition Convention was called, ceived during year, 570; discharged, 509; re- to meet at Harrisburg on Feb. 18, for the purmaining at close of year, 1,114. Western Peni- pose of organizing for the canvass. There were tentiary-convicts åt beginning of year, 679; 774 delegates, representing every county in the received during year, 248; discharged, 274; re- State. A State Amendment Canvass Conmittee maining, 653.

was appointed, containing one representative The Brooks High-license Law.- Under this from each county, and resolutions were adopted law, which went into effect June 1, 1888, appli- declaring the entire unanimity of all Prohibications for license are advertised and must be tionists in this movement. The committee gathmade at least three weeks before the first day of ered funds, brought speakers from other States, hearing; the application must be accompanied and made provision for a thorough and systemby the bond of two persons not engaged in the atic canvass. But the amendment received at liquor business, in $2,000 each, and by the in- the June election but slightly more than one third dorsement and petition of twelve reputable elect- of the entire vote cast. The exact vote was: ors of the same ward. The fee is $500. Vio- Yes, 296,617; no, 484,644. lation of the provisions of the law includes For the amendment abolishiug the poll-tas imprisonment as a necessary part of the penalty. qualification for voters, and reducing the time of Licenses are granted only by the Court of Com- residence in any election district required of voters mon Pleas; and, after all these conditions have from two months to thirty days, no special efforts been fulfilled, the court still has unlimited dis- were made by any organized committee or party. cretionary power. The enactment of this law This proved to be even more unpopular than the aroused the deepest feeling. When, therefore, prohibitory amendment, receiving only 183,371 in the spring of 1888, the licensing court began affirmative to 420,323 negative votes. its hearings, it was in the midst of an intense Floods.—The ruin wrought in Pennsylvania general interest, especially in Pittsburg and by the floods in the last days of May and the Philadelphia, where it soon became evident that early ones of June, 1889, was not confined to the judges intended to exercise their discretion- Johnstown and the valley of the Conemaugh (see ary power to its full extent. In Philadelphia the Johnstown). Great havoc was effected over an number of licenses granted the year before the extended region in the central and western parts enactment of the Brooks law was 5,773. The of the State. Next to Johnstown, the loss at licensing court in 1888 granted but 1,347, and in Williamsport, on the west bank of the Susque1889 only 1,205. Through the State there was hanna, was most notable. The flood here rose to no such marked effect, because, except in the two the height of thirty-four feet, and the great Suscities named, the special feature of the law (li- quehanna boom of 200,000,000 feet of logs and cense by the court) had existed before; and as 40,000,000 feet of sawed lumber was scattered in the principle of the new law was not essentially one great wreck over the country. Mills and different, neither was the manner of executing other industrial establishments were utterly it. The best results in the cities named are di- ruined, and not a few lives lost. The flood-mark rectly traceable to the large discretionary power was seven feet higher than ever known before. that the law confers upon the court. High-license The streams had risen steadily during four days. fees alone would not have effected the great re- and reached the full flood-mark on Saturday duction in the number of saloons, as was shown night, June 1st. For many miles the adjacent by the fact that at both sessions of the court the valley was a great lake, and fully three quarters number of applications was between 3,000 and of the city was submerged from three to five feet. 4,000. But, in an appeal of the Prospect Brewery The main element of the business interests of Company, which had been refused a license, the Williamsport, which is that of lumber, was for Supreme Court, reversing the decision of the the time ruined. Many of the scenes of danger, exposure, and rescue were almost as thrilling as adopted a platform which contained, among those of Johnstown, but the loss of life was others, the following declarations : comparatively small. The railroad tracks and bridges of the Pennsylvania Central and North

If protection to American industry be the cornerern Central roads were all swept away. There who fought in defense of the Union is its capstone.

stone of our political faith, then protection to those was great destruction to property and con- We advocate such amendments to the pension laws as siderable to life through the entire Juniata val- will make adequate provision for all honorably disley, in the central part of the State. The worst charged veterans of the late war, whose advancing ruin occurred between Tyrone and Lewiston, es- years, wounds, or other infirmities disable them from pecially about Huntingdon City. At this point nation from dissolution should be saved by the nation people had been compelled to flee for their lives from penury,

and we heartily commend the

wise and on the night of May 30, and at daybreak only the friendly liberality shown by Con missioner Tanner to chimney-tops were visible over the raging waters. his brother soldiers in the conscientious discharge of The only fragment of a bridge left in the county the duties of his office. was that of the Huntingdon and Broadtop Rail- The Republican party having in 1886 declared in road. The loss of values in railway bridges favor of the submission of the question of the prohibialone reached $200,000. In Clinton County, of tion of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors which Lockhaven is the principal town, there Legislatures, through 'the methods ordained by the

to a vote of the people, and having, in two successive were twenty-seven lives lost, but in Lockhaven Constitution and in spite of Democratic opposition itself people had minded a timely warning and provided the machinery for reaching a fair expression removed their furniture and household gear to of the public sentiment, and the vote, to secure which high ground. The aggregate of lives lost in the it was pledged, having been taken, declares that it has numerous small towns of the Juniata and Sus- fully and honorably fulfilled its compact. quehanna valleys was, however, not inconsider

In view of the result of said election and having reable. In the latter-named region, next to Will- gard for the preservation of the purity of the homes of iamsport and Lockhaven, the places that suf- high-license law, and recommend such amendments

our Conimonwealth, we heartily indorse the Brooks fered most in property loss were Clearfield, thereto as will tend to its proper and progressive imTyrone City, Mill Hall, and Renovo. Sunbury, provement, and also bring within its scope the control which is at the junction of the two branches of of wholesale liquors. the Susquehanna river, is a great center of the iron, coal, and lumber industries. The loss of

The Prohibitionist State Convention met at the life here was fifty, and that of property enor

same place on Aug. 28, and nominated J. R. mous, reaching nearly $3,000,000.

Johnston for State Treasurer. The platform de

The main havoc was wrought in Clearfield, Clinton, Ly- and of more rigorous naturalization laws. Since

clares in favor of the Australian ballot system, coming, Elk, Cameron, Northumberland, Centre, both the Republican and Democratic parties are Indiana, McKean, Somerset, Bedford, Huntingdon, Blair, and Jefferson counties, aside from pledged to the legalization of the liquor-traffic, Cambria County, where the Johnstown disaster good citizens of whatsoever previous party affiliadwarfed all others. In the Alleghany valley, in tion, who favor the abolition of the drink-traffic the vicinity of Dubois, Red Bank, New Bethle- by legislative and constitutional enactments, are hem, and Driftwood, the loss was also very large, invited to unite with the Prohibition party. as it swept away every saw-mill from one of the Harrisburg on Sept. 4, and selected Edmund A.

The Democrats met in State Convention at leading lumber regi of the State. The earlier Bigler as their candidate. The resolutions adopt. and exaggerated estimate of loss to the State, in- ed demand a revision and reduction of the tariff cluding the damage done to corporations, was

taxes, condemn all forms of “trusts,” oppose $40,000,000. More careful and conservative computation, estimating salvage, reduces these fig. the indiscriminate granting of pensions, and in

clude the following: ures to nearly $25,000,000, though exact statements have been difficult to obtain. The total We accept the decision of the people of Pennsylvaloss of life in the State by the floods (exclusive nia rendered by the ballot on the probibitory amendof Johnstown and the Conemaugh valley) was

ment as a declaration in favor of a reasonable, just,

and effective regulation of the traffic in ardent spirits. about two hundred. The pathway of destruction in the State was

We hold the Republican party, responsible for the

failure to pass any law for the relief of the manual lamainly along the route of the Pennsylvania Rail- borers of the State of Pennsylvania, and we recomway and its branches, the Northern Central and mend the enacmentt of such laws as will give equal Philadelphia and Erie. The actual mileage of protection and equal opportunities in every branch of breaks and washouts was a little over thirty-six industry to all citizens irrespective of race, religion, or miles, though these extended over a total length nativity:

We favor the Australian ballot system. of nearly two hundred miles. No official statement has ever been made of the losses to the At the election in November, Bover received Pennsylvania Railroad, nor is it possible to obtain 341,244 votes, Bigler 280,318, and Johnston 22,them. These must reach several million dol. 401. The total vote was more than 100.000 less lars, as much more expensive bridges have been than that for Treasurer in 1887, and nearly 150,erected in many cases than those existing before. 000 less than the total vote on the prohibitory To any estimate of loss must be added, too, that amendment in June. which is caused by interruption of traffic—a Philadelphia's New Charter. - The new widespread and serious one.

city charter, known popularly as the “ Bullitt Political.—On August 7 a Republican State bill,” and technically as An act to provide for Convention was held at Harrisburg to nominate the better government of cities of the first class a candidate for State Treasurer. The convention in this Commonwealth,” became a law in 1885, selected Henry K. Boyer by acclamation, and and by ordinance of councils became operative

VOL. XXIX.-44 A

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