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explained, 240 ; exceptions to gen |
eral simplicity of, 241 ; the ex-
pression “Ancilla Dei,' ib.; hopeful
spirit of, compared with pagan
epitaphs, 242, 243; importance of

further research, 249
Christian Sculpture. See Sculpture,

Christian
Christian VII. (King of Denmark,

1719-1775), description of, at his
accession, cxxiii. 494 ; repugnance
to his marriage with Matilda, 495 ;
symptoms of insanity, 497, 498;
his visit to Hanau, 499; Walpole's

description of him in England, ib.
Chrono-lithography, progress of the

art of, cxxv. 186 note
Chronology, method of, in ancient

Rome, cxx. 227
Chrysoberyl, or oriental chrysolite,'

cxxiv. 243; specimens of, ib.
Chrysolite, the mineral described,

cxxiv. 246
Chrysoloras (Manuel, d. 1414), his

arrival at Florence, cxxxvi. 119;

his Greek lectures, 120
Chrysostom (John, Saint, d. 407),

his intercession for Eutropius, cxxi.

legal status of, compared with

Dissenters, 572
Church of England, the 'Vow' re-

solution in the Commons, cxx. 32;
union of civil and ecclesiastical
powers represented by, 287; doc-
trine of eternal punishment in,292 -
296; Article on Justification by
Faith, 297 ; prospects of union, 307

- doctrine of the Crown's su-
preinacy, cxxi. 153; paramount
authority of the law, 154 ; theory
of interpretation opposed to that
of Rome, ib.; on the Decrees of
General Councils, 156 note ; its
relations with the Common Law,
157; arbitrary tendencies of recent
clerical claims, 158; on the Mil-
lenarian doctrine and eternal pun-
ishment, 159; statute authority
of the Crown, 166 (see Ecclesiasti-
cal Courts); validity of lay-baptism
in, 172 note; duty of clergymen
to obey the law, 179; present
religious crisis in, 574; evils of
doctrinal litigation, 576; its mis-
sion to defend Christianity, 578

- official neglect of theology
in, cxxii, 104
- its status under Elizabeth,

cxxiii. 147, 148
_ its alleged latitudinarianism
under Elizabeth, cxxiv. 499, 500

-- its traditions violated by the
* Ritualists,' cxxv. 461; doctrino
of its identity with the State, ib.;
absurd scheme of a Free National
Council,' 463

opportunities of reconciliation
by the Ritual Commission, cxxvi.
504 ; reforms proposed for laity
and clergy, 505-518; the parochial
system, 520; shortcomings of the
clergy, 521. See Rubric, Anglican

fixity of her position since
Establishment, cxxviii.251 ; liberal
principles needed to combat exist-
ing dangers, 252 ; its educational
functions, ib.; arbitrary principles

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Church of England, position of, in

Australia, cxiii. 4; prospects of
religious thought in, 497

- Clerical Subscription in, cxv.
577 ; origin of present regulations
thereon, 582; not obligatory at
first, 585; Elizabeth's Second Act
of Uniformity, 586; burdens im-
posed by Whitgift, 591; declaration
of voluntary assent superadded,
596; the Etcetera Oath, 597 ; strin-
gency of the Act of 1662, 599 ;
treatment of devotional forms as
doctrine, 603; form of assent should
be deferential, 606

-- its outward characteristics of
supremacy, cxviii, 564; those ad-
vantages absent in the Colonies,
565 (see Colonial Episcopate);

of Tudors and Stuarts, 263; change 415; stir for reform among parties
to religious liberty, ib., 254; fal in, 417; advances to Dissenters,
lacies as to Establishment, ib.; 418; alleged tendencies to Dises-
the theological argument exposed, tablishment, 420; deteriorating
ib.; broad principles of Sir G. ! effects thereof, ib.; doctrinal causes
Lewis, 255; viewed as a positive of secession from, 422; prospects
institution, 256; rival theories of of federal union, 425
Hooker and Chalmers on Estab Church of England, moderate spirit
lishments, ib.; nature of Church of compromise at the Reformation,
property, 257; national endowments cxxxiv. 111, 112
not the essential idea of Establish - lifeless state of, in the last
ment, 258; imperfect definitions century, cxxxv. 66; relations of,
of Paley and Sir G. Lewis, ib.: with the Conservative party, 252;
Establishment inseparable from its duration as an Establishment
the idea of law, 259; supremacy depends on public opinion, 253;
of the civil power at the Reform Mr. Miall's recent motion for Dis-
ation, 260; authority of the Crown, establishment, 367 ; future import-
261; spiritual pretensions of the

ance of the question in politics,
High Church party, 262; Presby ib.; reticence of Nonconformists
terian scheme of the Westminster as to Disendowment, ib.; their
Assembly, 266 ; Parliamentary ground of objection to Estab-
controlover, retained by Cromwell, lishment, 369; fundamental legal
ib. ; Episcopal intolerance of dis character of, ib.; the congé d'élire,
sent after 1688, 267; disabilities 370; result of Disestablishment,
of Dissenters removed by Parlia ib.; representatives of various par-
ment, ib.; civil authority over ties in, 373; advantages of legal
Ritualists, 268; advantages of discipline in, ib.; reforms needed
State connexion, 269; spiritual • in Church revenues, 375; value
peers, 271; legal principles of, of Episcopal life-peerages, 376;
violated in the Colonies, 274; evils of a congregational system,
latitude of theological opinion in, 377; former pictures of the paro-
ib. ; is the bulwark of Protest chial clergy, 378 ; 'galloping
antism in Europe, 275; she owes curates,' ib. note ; satires thereon
her position to her legal character, now obsolete, 380; devotion and
276; is the basis of the parochial energy of present clergy, 381 ;
system, ib.; extra-legal meaning their status and usefulness would
of Disestablishment, ib. ; endow be destroyed by Disestablishment,
ments not touched thereby, 278 ; 382; disendowment would follow
its boundaries as a National Church of necessity, 383; Irish parallel
should be enlarged, 285; recent examined, 385; the country not
wise legislation, 286

ripe for the congregational system,
Church of England, services of 386; argument of social inequalities
Nonconformists to, cxxxiii. 408 ; of Dissenters, 388_390; Disestab-
theories of Liberationists cri lishment not the proper remedy,
ticised, 410, 411; importance of ib. ; fallacies on Church and State,
the Purchas and Voysey judg 391 ; progress of voluntary endow-
ments, 412; impartial spirit of ment, 393; recent agitation due
recent legislation, 413; growing to soreness of feeling, ib.
liberality and expansiveness in, | - the Lutheran doctrine of the

Eucharist declared lawful, cxxxvi. 440; of Nicæa, 442; the Arian
292. See Bennett, Rev. Mr.

heresy, 443; superiority of the
Church of England, relations of, with East, 447; election of the hierarchy,

Dissent, cxxxvii. 196 ; recent pub 450 ; value of secular patronage,
lications, ib.; national basis of, at 451
the Reformation, 199; two master Church (Early), transition-period in,
principles gradually established, after the latest events recorded in
202; modern dogma against a the Acts, cxl. 487; originally a
National Church, 203 ; league of Hebrew Church, 495
Nonconformists and High Church Church, the, perverted application of
Liberationists, 205-206; proper the word ' Ecclesia,' cxx. 380
policy of, towards both opponents, | Church and the Age, the,' recent
207 ; a religious census deprecated, High.Church pamphlet, cxxxiii.
208 ; question of utilising Dissent, 417
209; history and services of the Church Discipline Act, the, effect of,
Latitudinarian School, ib.; prac on the Judicial Committee, cxxi.
ticable approaches for Dissenters, 171
216 ; changes suggested in litur Churchill (Charles, 1730-1764), bis
gical forms, 217 ; relaxation of malicious lines on Warburton,
Prayer-Book, 218 ; freer use of cxxii. 7, 20
pulpits by other communions, 219; - Windham's criticism of his
general intercourse and co-opera writings, cxxiii. 573
tion, 220; transient character of Cibber (Colley, 1671-1767), his edi-
present hostility of Dissenters, tion of Shakspeare's Richard III.,
222; national importance of the cxv. 313
Establishment, ib.; ministerial Cicero ®(Marcus Tullius, B.c. 107–
energy the best means of defence, 43), his character, cxv. 475
223

- - his opinion of Lucretius,
- duties of, since the late Edu cxxii. 245
cation Act, cxxxix. 229

-- his bust at the Vatican au-
- abolition of separate taxation thenticated, cxxiv. 353; his treatise

of the clergy, cxl. 431; reforms De Gloria, 356 ; plagiarism of his
in the present century effected De Officiis, 357; M. de Conches
without Convocation, 443; position on his Letters, 377; his character
of the clergy and laity in, 444; by Napoleon III., 414; unfairly
no necessity for a separate Council accused of cowardice, 415; and of
of, 448 (see Convocation); its complicity in the death of Clodius,
national character, 450

416; his character vindicated by
Church (Early), revolutions in the Mr. Newman, 418

4th century, cxi. 422; materials - earliest MSS. of, cxxxvii.
for history of that epoch, 425 ; 64, 65; Petrarch's copy of his
need of caution in using them, Epist. ad Fam., 72 ; his Orator,'
426; social revolution under the 73; Edilio princeps of his collected
Roman Empire, 432; phases of works, 90
persecution, 433 ; Constantine's Cimabue (John, 1240-1300), story
opportune conversion, 435; ques of his mode of study, cxxii. 85;
tion of his spiritual authority, 437; his altar-piece of S. Maria Novella,
schism of the Donatists, 439 ; in ; his conventional treatment,
Cæcilian, ib.; Council of Arles,

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Cintra, Convention of (1808), cxii. | Clarence (Duke of, d. 1478), story of
54

his murder, cxv. 303
Ciphers, use of, by the Romans, Clarence and Richmond district
cxxiv. 354, 355

(Australia), rival claims to, cxviii.
Circeo, Cape, naval defeat of the 308; its annexation to Queensland
Saracens off, cxviii. 368

desirable, 309
Ciudad Rodrigo, capture of, cxvi. 58 Clarendon (Earl of, 1800–1870),
Civilisation, its supposed require his qualifications as Foreign Min-

ments of centralisation, cxv. 331 ister, cxxiv. 297; his retirement
- Mr. Gladstone on the two in 1866 a misfortune to the
factors of modern, cxx. 165

country, ib.
Civil Service, the, value of perma - his negotiations with Russia

nent officials in the conduct of respecting the Black Sea, cxxxiii.
government, cxxxvi. 91 ; evils of 267, 268
open competitive examinations, Clark (G. T.), manager of the Dow-
108

lais Ironworks, cxxx. 400; his evi-
- cry of ' Administrative Re dence on Trades' Unions, ib.
formers' in 1855, cxxxix. 72 ; ob Clarke (Algernon), his report on
jections to official reports on con-| Steam Culture, cxxiii. 200
duct of subordinates, 89, 90; nom Classical busts and statues, question
ination and competition compared, of their trustworthiness, cxxiv.
357; evils of surrendering patron 351; risks to which they were ex-
age, ib. 358; recent dissensions in posed, ib.; specimens of, 353
public offices, 556

Classical education, imperfections
Civitali (Matteo, Tuscan sculptor), of, in public schools, cxxvii. 150.

his different styles of sculpture, See Public Schools

cxxi. 544 ; his figure of Faith, ib. Classical Manuscripts, relative value
Civita Vecchia (Centumcellæ), cap of existing MSS., cxxxvii. 57; lost

tured by the Saracens, cxviii. 366; autographs, ib. 58; the mass not
inhabitants removed to Leopolis, older than 9th century, ib.; de-
ib. note; origin of its present generacy of language a safeguard
name, ib.

against forgeries, ib.; external evi-
Clancarty (Donough Macarthy, Earl dences of genuineness, 59; long con-

of), episode of, described by, Ma cealment no disproof, 60; abundant
caulay, cxiv. 309

evidence furnished by tradition, ib.;
Clapham (Surrey), early history of, remoteness of textual error proved
cxxxi. 161

by early misquotations, ib.; au-
Clare, Earls of, early residence of, thority of age, 62; groups in rela-
in London, cxxxi. 178

tion to lost archetype, 6:3; MSS.
Clare, Viscounts, early history of, older than the 7th century, ib.;
cxiv. 384. See O'Briens

antiquity of biblical MSS. com-
Clare (Fitzgibbon, Earl of, 1749– pared, ib. 64; testimony of colo-

1802), his career at the Irish bar, phons, 65; MSS. of Tacitus, Livy,
cxxxiv. 65; made Attorney-Gen and Virgil, 66; evidence derived
eral for Ireland, 66; Irish Chan from corrections, ib.; from draw-
cellor, ib.; his character and ings and handwriting, 67; errors
talents, ib. 67

of author's amanuensis, 68; varia-
- his appearance and character, tions in autograph, ib.; imperfec-
çxxxix. 487

tions and unrevised originals, ib.
69; theory of two recensions by Classical study, decreasing import -
author, ib.; mistakes of contem ance of,cxx. 158; dominant system
porary copyists, 70; similarity of of, at public schools, 160; Mr.
writing in early MSS., ib. ; imita Gladstone's defence of, 163
tions of old copies in Middle Ages,

present efforts to popularise,
ib.; common parentage of later cxxiii. 365 ; modern Greek verses,
copies ascertained by collation, 366; defects in classical transla-
71; MSS. between revival of tions, 367 ; excellence of modern
learning and printing, ib.; parent scholarship, 383; necessity of
MSS. found, 72; Poggio's dis combining modern languages, ib.
coveries, ib.; rarity and corrupt pretended indifference of the
state of discovered archetypes, ib.; age to, cxxxiii. 530; influence of,
authority of transcripts therefrom, on recent English scholarship, ib. ;
73; pedigree traced by colophons, broader view taken of the life of
74; difficulties of determining antiquity, 631 ; essential to general
their relative value, 75; confusion culture, ib.
introduced by conjectural emenda Claude (Lorraine, 1600–1682), his
tiong, ib.; undue authority at picture of the Sermon on the
tached to numbers, ib.; corrup Mount,' cxx. 107
tions of copyists caused by igno Claudius (Tiberius Drusus, Roman
rance, 76; by wrong division of Emperor, B.c. 9-A.D. 54), his lost
continuous writing, 77; fancied work on Carthage, cxiv. 65
poetic licenses, 78; abbreviations, Clausewitz (General, 1780-1831),
ib.; differences of spelling a stum his intelligent system of strategy,
bling-block, 79; errors due to cxxxiii, 583
caligraphy, 80; sciolism of scribes | Claverhouse, John Graham of. See
and correctors, 81; intentional per Dundee
versions of text, ib.; early origin of Clayton (Mr.), his treaty with Sir
textual criticism, 83; corruptions H. Bulwer, cxv. 21
of false critics, ib. ; interpolations Clayton and Bell (Messrs.), their
of commentators, 84; glosses, ib.; painted window at Doncaster,
depravations of scholastic teachers, cxxv. 181; windows at Lincoln,
ib.; looseness of æsthetic criticism, 184; and at Windsor, 185
84; Italian ignorance of Greek at Cleasby (Richard, 1797-1847), Ice-
the revival, 86 ; license of con landic-English Dictionary of, com-
jecture, ib.; false authority at pleted by G. Vigfusson, cxl. 228;
tached thereto, 87; testimony of his parentage and education, ib.;
first editors as to their materials, Dr. Dasent's memoir of, 229;
ib. 88; their fragmentary and cor foreign travels, 230; attends lec-
rupt character, ib.; their insuffici tures at Edinburgh, 232; at Leip-
ency proved by later research, 91; | sig, ib.; friends at Munich, 233;
modern discoveries, 92; difference his return to England, 235; visit
between authentic and genuine, ib.; to Upsala and inspection of the
authority of first editions,' 93; Codex Argenteus, 236; death of
progress of error checked by print his brother, ib. ; his theological
ing, 94; analytical treatment by studies, 237 ; works at German

subsequent critics of the text, ib. philology at Munich, ib.; at the
• Classical Museum,' the, started by Queen's Coronation at Guildhall,
Sir Cornewall Lewis, cxviii. 164 ib. ; revisit to Upsala and collation

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