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tactics of the Federals at, cxxi. ' Chemistry, revolution in, caused by 256

E spectrum analysis, cxvi. 302 Chaucer(Geoffrey,1328–1400), habits

its wide functions as a science, of home travel illustrated in his cxx. 489, 490 "Canterbury Tales,' cxviii. 241

- application of molecular sci- his poetic character.cxri 298; 1 ence to, cxxx. 142

M. Taine's translations from, 299 1- knowledge of the earth's - tales of, borrowed from Orid, crust derired from, cxxxi. 51; cxxv. 225; recent French editions application of, to planetary science, of, 231 ; Thynne's Animadversions ! on, 251

- foundation of, as a part of - recent editions of his text, physicial science, cxxxii. 155; its cxxxii. 1; want of a critical and rast domain, ib.; the atomic theory illustrative edition, ib.; his Shak regarded as the modern basis of, spearian qualities, 2; dramatic pow 156; recent researches in, ib., er and happy expression, ib. ; early 161; want of a single system of, popularity of, 3; text of 'Canter 162 bury Tales' still imperfect, 5; the Chenevix (Dr.),Bishop of Waterford, Chaucer Society, 6; first edition his friendship with Lord Chesterby Thynne, 8; Stowe, Speight, field, cxvi. 239 and Urry, ib., 9; Dr. Morell, 10; Cherbourg, immense naval resources rules of versification, 11; services of, cxiii. 298 of Tyrwhitt, 12; the Harleian Cherubini (Maria Luigi, 1760-1842), MS., 13; Mr. Morris' edition quarrel of Berlioz with, cxxxii. 47 thereof, 14; need of further col Chesney (Major G.) his · Indian lation, 16; comparison of Society's Polity,'cxxix. 200; his able surrey text, 17; emendations, 20; defec- | of Indian government, 228 tive readings in Harleian text, 21; Chesterfield (Philip Dormer Stanallusion to seamanship, 25; to hope, Earl of, 1694-1773), his natural science, 26; words ex friendship with Dr. Chenevix,cxvi. plained, 29; his knowledge of 239 literature, 33; need of verbal Chetham Society, the, cxxv. 233 interpretation, 34; illustrated by Chevalier (Vichel), his work on the contemporary writers, 40; phrases Protective System, cxi. 277 needing explanation, 42

on the probable fall in the (Thauvelin (Germain Louis de, 1685 value of gold, cxii. 1 899.; limited

1762), bis scheme of Italian scope of his inquiry, 4; predicts independence, cxxv. 478; Fleury's excess of gold supply, 10; and jealousy of, 480 ; exiled, ib.

paper currency in trade, 11; unCheapen, Shakspeare's use of the derestimates retail absorption of verb, cxxx. 104

metal, 14 ; fallacy of his argument Cheapside, origin and early history on the gold price of silver, 21; of, cxxxi. 171

on change of monetary standard Cheer, to, early use of the word, in France, 27 cxi. 403

- his proposal of a monetary Cheltenham, insufficient water-sup alliance between England and ply of, cxxiii. 387

France, cxxiv. 389 Cheltenham College, classical and

his letter on the Ballot in modern departments of, cxx. 176 France, crxxi. 551

Chevreuse (Duchess, de),her hostility

to Buonaparte, cxi. 226
Chiari, battle of (1701), cxvi. 512
Chiarini (Abbé L.), his brilliant

translation of the Talmud, cxxxviii.

Child (Dr.), his experiments on spon-

taneous generation, cxxv. 405
Childers (Right Hon. Mr.), bis naval

administration attacked by the
“Quarterly Review,' cxxxiii. 122;
his conduct| vindicated, ib., 144.
See Admiralty, Board of
- his retirement from the Cab-

inet, cxxxiv. 569
Chillingworth (William,1602–16-44),

his doctrine of religious belief,
cxxi. 442
- his criticism of Infallibility,

cxxxii. 402
Chimpanzees, at the Zoological Gar-

dens, cxi. 177; short life of, 179
China, state of affairs in, on Lord

Elgin's arrival, cxi. 97 ; practical
nullity of treaties with, 103 ; De
Tocqueville on the natural degra-
dation of, 105
- geographical knowledge of,
cxii. 317

- De Tocqueville on the Brit-
ish war in, cxiii. 415
- the language classified, cxv.
- Roman Catholic missions to,
crvič. 560

varieties of pine-trees intro-
duced from, cxx. 372

- recent civil war in, cxxii.
176 ; abortive attempts to nullify
treaties, 180 ; origin of the insur-
rection, 181 ; loose system of
centralisation 183; choice of a
capital, 184 ; offer of Russian
intervention declined, ib., 185;
measures of regeneration, ib. ;
steamers and railways, 186, 187;
question of standing army, 188;
need of consolidation, ib. ; argu-
ment for European reforms, 189; 1

strong central government required,
191; rights of Europeans, 192;

position of the Taepings, 193
China, popularity of devil-worship

in, cxxix. 329 ; paradoxes of
Chinese character, 330 ; Lord
Elgin thereon, 331 note ; prospects
of regeneration, 332
- increased intercourse with,
cxxxiii. 176 ; national traditions of
self-assertion, 177; neglected study
of the people, ib. ; modern changes
not realised by them, 178 ; shock
to their pretensions, 179; commer-
cial importance of, undervalued,
180; Report of Shanghai Chamber
of Commerce, 181; direct trade
with England in 1868, ib., 182 ;
coasting trade, ib. ; British and
Indian Revenue returns, 183;
distribution of exports, 184; in-
crease shown by statistics, 185;
question of the opium trade, ib.;
attempted revision of the Treaty
of Tien-tsin, 186; hindrances to
trade, 187; problem of 'pushing'
trade, 188; grievance to merchants
from excessive inland taxation,
189; merchants' demands, 190;
difficulties of foreign interference,
ib. ; obstacles to inaterial progress
come from without, 191; native
antipathy to foreigners, 192; hos-
tility of mandarins, ib., outrages
at Tien-tsin, 194; the Missionary
question, 195; proximity of Russia,
ib.; anti-foreign influences on the
Government, 196 ; the Burling-
hame Mission, 197; English policy
examined, 198; intervention should
be limited to protection of property
and treaty rights, 202 ; native
absorption of trade, ib. ; question
of naval protection, 203; Tsăng-
kwo-fau, ib.; Li-hung-chang, 204;
recent hostility to the French,
205; position of, compared with
Turkey, 206

- introduction of Christianity,

cxxxv. 23, 24; the Singanfu in- |

scription, ib., note
China, rarity of horses in, cxxxviii.

China (Western), routes to, cxxvii.

357 ; recent rising of the Mahom-
edan Dungens, 358; province of
Yunnan, 359; extinction of over-
land trade with Burmah, 364;
province of Szechuen, 365; Tufeh
robbers and rebels, 366; Colonel
Sarel's expedition, ib.; mission-
aries at Chung-king, 369; relations
with Thibet, 370; origin of the
Nepaulese embassy, 371; the Toon-
ganees or Dungens, 375 ; their
religious organisation, 380; terri-
tory of Ili, 381 ; origin of the
Dungen insurrection, ib.; the
Sarts, ib. and note; spread of the
rising, 382; Eastern Toorkistan
described, 385 ; establishment of
Chinese power therein, 387; resist-
ance of the Khojas, ib. ; betrayal
of Jehangheer Khan, 388 ; ferocity
of Wulee Khan Turra, ib. ; arrival
of Toonganee rebels, 389; their
massacre at Kashgar, ib. ; Boyz-
urg Khan, governor of Kashgar,
390 ; succeeded by Yakoob Beg,
ib. ; the town lost to the Chinese, 1
391 ; struggle between the Toon-
ganees and Kokandee adventurers,
ib.; Mr. Johnson's reception at
Khoten, ib.; victories of Yakoob
Kooshbegee, 392 ; wise neutrality
of Sir John Lawrence, 393 ;
prospects of British trade, 394 ;
Russian policy of observation,
395; their occupation of Eastern
Toorkistan should be no cause of
alarm, 396 ; probable collapse of
Chinese power, ib.

territory of Yun-nan, cxxxvii.
296; survey of Emperor Kang-hi,
ib. ; reports of Jesuit missionaries,
297 ; natural resources, ib.; Ma-
homedan revolt of 1856, 298;
success of Tu Wên-giu, 299; ex-

plorations of Dr. Clement Williams,
300; intercourse with Burmah,
ib. ; Capt. Sprye's proposed trade
route, ib. ; emporium of Bhamó,
301; Major Sladen's expedition,
302; the Shans, 304; "Kingdom
of Pong,' 305 ; Kingdom of Tay-
yay, ib.; the Koshanpyi or nine
Shan States, 306; character of
the Kakhyens, 307 ; government
of Bhamo, ib. ; opposition to
Major Sladen, 308; interview with
the Tsaubwa of Ponline, ib. ; town
of Manwyne, 311 ; Shan women
described by Dr. Anderson, 312;
Muang-la, 313; suspension-bridges,
314; town of Momien, ib.; return
journey, 316; accession to know-
ledge from the expedition, 318;
problem of the upper waters of
the Irrawaddy, ib.; difficulties of
penetrating Thibet, 320; embassy
to England from the Sultan of
Ta-Li Fu, ib.; downfall of Pan-
thay rule, 321; appointment of a
Political Resident at Bhamo. 322;
French colony on the borders of
Siam, ib.; abandonment of French
Cochin-China, 324; expedition of
Captain de Lagrée, 325; Lieut.
Garnier, 327; feasibility of trade-

routes, 329
Chinchona, cultivation of, in India,

cxviii. 507; introduced by Mr.
Markham from Peru, 508; its
febrifuge properties known to the
Indians,, ib.; brought to Spain by
Ana, Countess of Chinchon, 509;
called after her by Linnæus, ib.;
the French expedition of 1735, ib.;
expedition of MM. Ruiz and
Pavon, 510; species of, enumera-
ted in the 'Nueva quinologia,' ib.;
its medicinal merits compared
with quinine, 511 and note; dis-
covery of chinchonidine, ib.;
neglect of, in Peru by the Spanish
Government, ib.; mission of Dr.
Weddell, 512; efforts of the

Dutch, ib. and note; introduction into India recommended by Dr. Royle, 513 (see Markham, Clements); the Chinchona Succirubra in Ecuador, 515; the Greybarks in Northern Peru, 516 ; the Chinchona Condaminea brought from Loxa, ib.; its successful cultivation at Ostacamund, 517,518 ; first bark sent from India to England by Mr. Howard, 519; its cultivation at Kew, 520; and in

Ceylon, ib.
Chinese Tartary, description of,
cxxv. 34; nominal rule of the

Chinese in, ib.
Chinese, their bad faith respecting

treaties, cxi. 103; their filthy
habits contrasted with those of
the Japanese, 108

- their fondness for secret societies, cxvi. 407 - thuir jealous preservation of writings, cxxiv. 358; respect for autographs, 359; importance attached to handwriting, 360; their style of painting, ib.

-- immigration of, to Australia, cxxix. 468 Chladni (1756–1827), bis theory of meteoric light, cxxv. 264

-- his optical exhibition of the vibrations of sound, cxxvii. 317,

118 Chlorine, absorption of heat by,

cxxx. 145
Chloroform, use of, as an anæsthetic,

Choiseul-Amboise (Étienne Fran-

çois, Duke de, 1719-1785), brought
into the Ministry by Madame de
Pompadour, cxxv. 507; his ad-
ministration, ib.; influence over

the King, 509; his dismissal, 510 Choke-damp, origin of, cxvii. 415 Cholera, outbreak in Arabia in 1854,

cxxii. 513 - epidemic of 1853-4 in London, cxxiii. 406; effects of sewage 1

pollution on, ib. 407; the Broad

Street pump, 420
Cholera, its contagion explained,

cxxxvi. 234, 235
Chorizontes, ancient school of Ho-

meric critics, crxxiii. 360; their arguments of dual authorship ex

amined, ib. 398. See Homer Christ (Jesus), uninspired materials

for the history of, cxix. 580; M. Rénan's conception of, 595; conclusive Scriptural evidence of the Resurrection, 601

- His Person the central figure in Christian art, cxx. 94, 99; Catholic tradition of His falling beneath the weight of the Cross, 101; unreality of patriarchal types of, 102; paintings of incidents in the life of, 108; the Crucifixion a favourite theme for painters, 109; His figure in Leonardo da Vinci's *Last Supper,' 111

-- Byzantine representation of, cxxi. 471 - alleged letter of, to Abgar, Prince of Edessa, cxxiv. 347; account by Procopius, ib.; copies of the letter, ib.; the supposed letter of Lentulus, giving His portrait, ib., 348; opinions of the early

pearance, 349; ancient representations of, ib.; recent Lives of, 450; difficulty of presenting His human life in an historical shape, 451; His baptism by John, 458; His Galilæan ministry, ib. 459; viewed as the Incarnation of Divine Reason, 462; His veracity the strongest proof of miracles, 470; His character and ministry in ` Ecce Homo,' ib. 475

— narrative respecting, in the Apocryphal Gospels, cxxviii. 95; Greek legend of His descent into Hell, 99

- legends of His later appearance on earth, cxxxvi, 272, 279

Christ (Jesus), His support of the

oral law of Moses, cxxxviii. 52 ;
date of the Crucifixion, 53

figurative worship of His
body, cxxxix. 246, 270. See

Sacred Heart
Christianity, triumph of, over

heathenism under Constantine,
cxi. 435. See Church, Early
- formed a new epoch in in-
ternational law, cxii. 398

- influence of, on monasticism,
cxiv. 324; Latin and Teutonic,

contrasted, 315
--- best appreciated by a study
of other religions, cxv. 379

--, its spread ascribed by
Gibbon to natural causes, cxvi.
- described by M. Salvador as
a compromise between Mono-
theism and Heathenism, cxvii.
200, 205; its relations with mo-
dem Judaism, 203

- preparation of the world for,
cxix. 158; its relations with Mo-
saic revelation, 164

- ascetic idea of the efficacy of
physical pain, cxx. 108; Mr. Glad-
stone on the ancillary relation of
the classics to, 163

-'supernatural basis of, cxxi.
431; M. Guizot's Meditations on,
553; exaggerated dangers of mo-
dern scepticism, 562
- Asiatic conceptions of, cxxii.
178; view of, by the Roman em-
perors, 179
- early failure of, in Arabia,
cxxiv. 13; its truth essentially an
ethical question, 455; its reception
prepared by history, 457; futile
substitution of Reason for, 461,
462; the assault renewed by means
of the Imagination, ib. (see
Rénan, Ernest); authority of the
Gospel narrative, 464, 465; moral
aspect of, in Ecce Homo,' 468;
Faith considered as a test of, 473

Christianity, itsennobling conception

of morality, cxxx. 42; Mr. Lecky's
views of, 46; its regeneration of
society, 50; its influence on the
relations of the sexes, 54
- Apostolic controversies re-
specting, cxxxi. 492

effects of Roman superstition
on, during the first three centuries,
cxxxvi. 276

- modern tendencies to apos-
tasy from, exxxviii. 556, 569

struggle between Petrine
and Pauline elements in, cxl. 495
Christian Art, oldest remains of,

cxxii. 81; wall-paintings in Cat-
acombs, ib.; mosaics in basilicas,
82 ; old Italian sculptures, 83;
craving for reality in the Floren-

tine school, 88
Christian inscriptions, discovery of,

in the Roman Catacombs, cxx.
219; early study of, 220; MSS. at
Einsiedeln and Kloster-Neuberg,
ib.; collection by Pietro Sabini
chiefly mediæval, ib. 221; Aldo
Manuzio the younger, 221 ; loss of
Boldetti’s manuscript on,223; other
epigraphists, ib.; polemical clas-
sification of, by Zaccaria and Den-
zetta, 224 ; labours of Marini, ib.,
225; historical importance of fixing
dates of, 227 (see Rossi, J. Bapt.
de) ; earliest specimen of, coeval
with Vespasian, ib. ; fragment with
monogram usually ascribed to Con-
stantine, 228; Rossi's hypothesis of
the earlier date of the monogram,
229 ; use of dates in, ib., 230 :
tests for determining undated epi-
taphs, 230; specimens of, in Gaul,
231 (see Blant, M. Edmond de);
rare use of Greek on Roman epi-
taphs, 232; Latin solecisms, 234,
235 ; disuse of the Roman three
names' on, 235, 236 ; fanciful
epitaphs, 237-239; proportion of
Christian soldiers at Rome, 239;
rare allusions to slaves or freedmen

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