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tion of the Supreme Court, 570; ib. ; Lee adopts the defensive,
theory of the sovereignty of the 277; series of skirmishes, 278;
people, 571 ; desirability of sepa value of the Sanitary Commission,
ration discussed, 574; hostility to 281 and note; battle of Cold Har-
England ascribed to Southern bour, 28.); siege of Petersburg,
policy, 576; despotism of the ib. ; results of the Virginian cam-
Washington government, 578; paign, 284; Sherman's capture of
Northern hatred of England ex Atlanta, ib. 286; and of Saran-
plained, 580; progress of the war, nah, 287, 288; cruel treatment of
582; its increasing atrocity, 584; prisoners by the Confederates,
financial policy of the North, 585; 445 note
improbability of re-union, 586 ; | American War of Secession, intro-
futility of foreign recognition of duction of tirailleur practice from,
the South, 590

cxxiii, 117; cause of indecisive
American War of Secession, three battles in, ib.; use of mounted in-

degrees of recognition open to fantry, 124; and of fieldworks,
England, cxvii. 298; historical 125; its military lessons, 127; its
precedents, 299; the question one unexpected result, 524; questions
of expediency, not of principle, decided by the contest, 529; con-
304; ill-timed proposal of the sequent diminution of State-rights,
French, ib.

531; Mr. Johnson's terms of re-
European contempt of Ame admission to the Seceded States, 536
rican strategy, cxxi. 252; McClel. - importance of the navy in,
lan's Anaconda strategy, 253, 254; cxxiv. 185; failure to relieve
capture of Vicksburg, ib.; Grant's Fort Sumter, 186; the Merri-
relief of Rosencrans, 256; his mac' seized by the Confederates,
brilliant tactics at Chattanooga, 192; Confederate privateers, 195;
ib.; he defeats Bragg at • the mixed operations in Albemarle
Clouds,' 257; opening of the 1864 and Pamlico Sounds, 196; Du-
campaign, 259; gloomy prospects pont's services at the mouth of
of the Confederates, ib.; Federal the Savannah, 197; Farragut's
transport of supplies, 261, 262; operations against New Orleans,
Sherman's expedition to the Ala 198–209; importance of its cap-
bama frontier, 263; demeanour of ture, ib.; the Confederate iron-
the slaves, 264; Federal forces clad · Arkansas,' 211; attack on
concentrated, 265, 266; double Vicksburg, ib.; the battle of
operations against Richmond, ib.; Hampton Roads, 213; Federal
battle of Pleasant Hill, 267; the failure against Fort Sumter, 216;
Confederate ram “ Albemarle,'ib, victory of the Weehauken' over
and note; routes to Richmond, the Confederate 'Atlanta,' 219,
268; different views of McClellan 220; action in Mobile Bay, 221;
and Lincoln thereon, ib. 269; surrender of the Tennessee,' 223;
triple plan of invasion by Grant, the ram · Albemarle' sunk by a
272, 273; simultaneous Federal torpedo, ib.; Porter's success
advance, ib.; first contest with against Wilmington, 224; Con-
Lee, 274; normal character of federate piracy, ib.
battles in the war, 275; Federal - the battle of Belmont, cxxix.
use of breastworks, ib. 276; battle 236; new phase of, in 1862, 237;
of the Wilderness' contin ued the spring campaign of that year,

238; position of the Confederates, . ib.; their interest in the study of
ib. ; Federal capture of Fort Donel I the English language, 145
son, 239, 240; battle of Pittsburg, Amethyst, an alleged antidote to
24+-247; desperate nature of the wine, cxxiv. 237
war thereafter, ib.; Confederate Amphictyonic Council, the, origin of,
scheme of Northern invasion, 248; cxii. 392
Grant's capture of Vicksburg, 250– Amravati, the Tope of,—the Mack-
252; investment of Chattanooga, enzie marbles of, in the Indian
253; unfinished work of Colonel Museum, cxxx, 484; discovery
Badeau on, 256; the affair of Cold of the ruins of, 506; Sir W. El-
Harbour, 260; Lee's position at liot's excavations, 507; Græco-
Richmond, 263; Confederate de Bactrian colony at Amravati, ib.;
sertions, 264; surrender of Rich Mr. Fergusson on the age of the

mond, 268. See Grant, General Tope, 508
American War of Secession, Ameri Amsterdam, Bank of, cxv. 24

can claims against England aris Anacreon (6th century B.c.), the
ing out of, cxxxv. 550 (see Genova reputed author of light lyrical
Arbitration); the contest not an poetry, cxl. 356
ordinary insurrection, 555

Anæsthetics, use of, in surgery,
- battle of Bull's Run, cxxxvii. I cxxxvi. 490
374; its unimportant results, 375; | Analogy, argument of, applied to
McClellan in Western Virginia, geology, cxviii. 258
ib.; Federal programme in the Anaximander (b. B.c. 610), his
spring of 1861-2, 376; battle of notions of Transcendentalism,
the Seven Pines, 377; Lee's vic- cxxiv. 301
tory on the Chickahominy, 380 Anaximrenes (d. about B.C. 546), his

- Mr. Grote's views on, theories of the universe, cxvi. 91
cxxxviii. 243

Anchor Ice,' cxiii. 77
- frightful mortality of the Ancona, suppression of its municipal
Confederates, cxxxix. 135; Fede- ' rights by Clement VII., cxii. 122
ral employment of runaway ne Ancren Riwle,' the, early English
groes, 137; demoralising effects text, cxxv. 236

of, on society and public life, 150 | Andaman Islands, curious skeleton
Americans, their passion for tracing discovered in, cxvi. 172.

Old World pedigrees, cxx. 189; Anderson (Dr.John), his ‘Expedition
instability of their social life, 468 to Western Yünan,' cxxxvii. 295–

- their genuine attachment to 330
the mother country, cxxix. 456 | Andorre, Republic of, its history,

-- causes of French sympathy compiled from original records,
with, cxxx. 63

cxiii. 345; antiquity of its inde-
-- their humour of exaggera pendence, 347 ; simple form of
tion accounted for, cxxxii. 282 government, ib.; evidences of tra-
- instance of their pride of dition, 349; genuineness of Char-
English pedigree, cxxxv. 389

lemagne's charter, 351; War of
— as Continental tourists, Independence, 352; its constitu-
cxxxviii. 497

tion finally settled, ib.; primitive
- foreign influences on their life of the magnates, 354; general
language, cxl. 144; distinctive ignorance of the people, 355; their
features of Anglo-American speech, l field sports and religious fêtes, 357

André (Bernard), his account of

Perkin Warbeck, cxxi. 205; his

merits as an historian, 222
André (John, 1751-1780), story of

his being jilted by Miss Sneyd,

cxxvi. 462
Andrews (Dr.), his recent researches

in chemical science, cxxxiii. 161
Andronicus II. (Palæologus the Elder,

Emperor of Constantinople, 1260–
1322), his quarrel with Athana-

sius, cxxi. 482
Angarville (Richard, alias de Bury,

Bishop of Durham 1287–1345),

his book collections, cxxxix. 14
Angel, use of the word, by Shak-

speare, cxxx. 97, 98
Angelico (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole,

1387-1454), character of his

paintings, cxxii. 97
Angelo (Michael de Buonarotti,

1474–1564). See Michael Angelo
Anglesea, etymology of, cxi. 361
Anglican Rubric. See Rubric, An-

glican
Anglican Synod, proposal of, for Sep-

tember 24, 1867, cxxvi. 121;
doubtful advantage of the scheme,

123
Anglo-Saxons, the phrase criticised,

cxxi. 37; M. Taine's description of,
295, 296

- influence of Northern cos-
tumes on, cxl. 251, 254; their

meagre literature, 255
Angus (or Forfar), County of, cxx.

309; interest attached to, ib.; in-
dustrial revolution in, 310; early
accounts of, ib.; four natural di-
visions of, 311; the Braes of
Angus, ib.; Strath Mohr, Sidlaw,
and the maritime district from
Gowryburn to the Northesk, 312;
geology of, 313; the Forfarshire
Fishbed, 314; supposed Druidical
remains, 315; ancient human ha-
bitations, 316; early fortalices, ib.;
Roman antiquities, 317; sculp-
tured stones, ib.; Cathedral Church

of Brechin, 318; history of the
town of Forfar, 319; the borough
of Montrose, 320; Abbey of Ar-
broath, ib.; legendary notice of
Dundee, 321 ; condition of, in the
time of Bruce, 323; the battle of
Harlaw, 324; lords of the soil in,
326; Norman and foreign pro-
prietors, ib.; effects of the Refor-
mation in, 327; scholars exiled
from, 329; condition of, under the
Covenanters, 330; fines imposed by
Cromwell on the gentry of, 331;
tranquil during the Restoration,
ib. ; vccasional Highland raids in,
ib.; effects of the Revolution,
332; confiscations after the two
Rebellions, 333, 334; industrial
history of, 335; linen trade with
the Low Countries, 336; spinning-
mills in, 339; architectural fea-

tures of, 344
Animals, acclimatisation of, cxi. 161;

scientific value of menageries,
162; rare additions to domesticated
animals since the Christian era,
163; primary objects of the Zoolo-
gical Society, ib.; the Societé
d'Acclimatation, ib.; the vivaria at
Paris, 164; importation of foreign
deer to England, 165; and of
elands, 167, 169; the koodoo, ib. ;
the spring-bok, 170; the hippopo-
tamus, 174 ; chimpanzees, 177;
successful introduction of giraffes,
179; death of bisons from pleuro-
pneumonia, 180; acclimatisable
birds, 181; gallinaceous varieties,
183; the black-necked swan, 184;
varieties of geese, 186; the sala-
mander at Amsterdam, 187; pre-
sent infancy of domestication as a
science, 188

-- belief in creation of, from
mineral sources, cxxv. 389

- intermixture of, during the
Quaternary period of geology,
cxxxii. 445

faculty of reason among the

higher grades of, cxxxii. 172; massacre at Monsoreau, 99; Jetheir sense of humour, ib. ; quali suit College at La Flèche, ib. ; inties shared by man, ib. ; borderland teryal of religious toleration, ib.,

between reason and instinct, 173 100; Huguenot persecutions in, Animals, structural identity of, with 101 ; republican sympathies pun

man, cxxxiv. 197; physical differ ished by the Vendean bands, ib.; ences, 201; emotions shared in prospects of prosperity, 101, 102 common, 209; their faculty of imi Anna (Empress of Russia, 1693– tation, 210; other intellectual qua 1740), her quarrel with Marshal lities of, ib. (see Man); theory of Saxe, cxx. 519, 520; her accession, sexual selection, 229, 234

525 Animal life, forms of. See Zoology | Anne (Queen of England, 1664Animism, supposed primitive belief - 1714), her love of gossip and in, cxxxix. 435

mystery, cxviii. 414; her critical Anjou, publications respecting,cxxvii. state of health in 1713, 425; her

77; traditions of the English oc death, 427 cupation, ib.; etymology of the — Earl Stanhope's History of word, 79; prehistoric monuments, her reign, cxxxii. 519; Jacobite ib.; the dolmen of Bagneux, 80; acquiescence in her succession, conquered by the Romans, 81; 530; relations with Parliament, their colony Egada, ib.; Christian 531; conduct to the Pretender, ity introduced, 82 ; monastic sys 532; religious reaction against the tem in, 83; conquered by Chilperic Jacobites, 534; collapse of Tory the Frank, ib.; fragmentary know policy, ib.; condition of society, ledge of, under his successors, 84 ; 535; monied and professional the dowry of Charlemagne's sister, classes, 537; decrease of populaBertha, ib.; creation of hereditary tion, 538; unfavourable conditions countships, 85; ravages of the of life, ib. ; ignorance of science, Norsemeu, 86; their evacuation 539; weavers' strikes, 541 ; literof Angers, ib.; their colony in ary aspect of her reign, ib.; comAnjou, ib. ; Ingelgerian Counts of, pared with present literature, 545; . beyond the Maine,' 87; Foulques habits of authors, 548; sketches II., ib.; Wars of Foulques Nerra, of her Court by Burnet and Lord ib., 88; Geoffrey Martel, ib.; re Chesterfield, 553; epigram aslations with Rome, ib.; rise of cribed to, ib. note. Benedictine convents, 89; monks Anne of Cleves (Queen of Henry of St. Maur, ib.; Abbey of Fon VIII.), Holbein's portrait of, cxxv. tevrault, 90; Foulques V., ib.; 436 his son Geoffrey, ib. ; secured by | Annenkoff (M.), his Commentary on treaty to Henry II., ib.; bis goy the Franco-German War, cxxxv. ernment, 91 ; relations of Richard 151 I. with, 92 ; siege of Angers, ib.; | Ansell (G. F.), his improved safetystruggle between feudalism and lamp for mines, cxxv. 559-561 monarchy, 93; Louis IX. and his Anselm (Archbishop of Canterbury, brother Charles, ib. ; glories of the born about 1034, died 1109), his house of Anjou-Sicily, 94; the doctrine of the internal evidence Duke Réné, 95; later royal dukes of Revelation, cxiii. 485 of Anjou, 96; wars of religion in, - his religious character, cxxi. 97; the Reformation in, ib., 98; L 39, 40

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Antarctic Pole, theory of a continent tory of, 85; Papal condemnations

at, cxii. 311; discoveries of Sir of, ib. ; neglected after the thir-
James Ross, ib.

teenth century, 87; Gospel of
Antelopes, adapted to English Nicodemus, 88; collations by Fa-

climate, cxi. 167; the eland, ib. bricius, ib.; later commentators
• Anthropological Review,' absurd and contributors, 89; translated by

illustration of hereditary influ Voltaire, ib.; Dr. Thilo's Codes, ib.;
ences in, cxxxii. 106

Protevangelium of James, 93;
Antichrist. See Apocalypse ; Rénan, Gospel ascribed to St. Thomas, 95;
M.

stories of the infancy of Christ, 96;
Antigua, prosperity of planters in, Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, 97;
cxv. 48

the Gesta and Acta Pilati, ib.;
• Anti-Jacobin,' the, unequal charac episode of the Descent to Hell, 98;

ter of, cxxxv. 475; perplexing his fragments of real tradition con-
tory of, ib.

cerning Christ, 100; probable ob-
Antioch, Church of. See Melitius ject of their composition, 102;
Antonello (da Messina, Italian pain their poetic value examined, 103;

ter, 1414–1493), cxxxv. 140; intro not written in the spirit of impos-
duces oil-painting from Flanders, ture, ib.; animating motive of,

104; their inferiority to the Canon-
Antoninus, the wall of, cxii. 516 ical Gospels, 105; important dis-
Antwerp, siege of, by the Duke o crepancies of the text, 107; exag-
Parma, cxiii. 186

gerated French estimate of, ib.;
- associations of Rubens with, their useful purposes, ib.; Mr.
cxvii. 117; Dürer's account of, in Row's sensible remarks on, '108;

1520, 121 ; guild of painters at, ib. their degrading picture of Christ,
Apes, Anthropoid, discoveries of,
cxvii. 543. See Man

Apellicon (of Teos), his alleged res-
Apingi, the, African tribe of, cxiv. cue of Aristotle's MSS., cxxxvii.

59 note
Apocalypse, the, theological study of, Apollo, Greek statue of, found at

in England, cxl. 485; in France Tegea, cxl. 169
and Germany, 486; peculiar value Apollonius Pergæus (of Alexandria)
of, 488; internal difficulties as to his doctrine of Epicycles, cxvi. 95
its authorship, ib.; theory of M. Apostolic Age, the, controversies on
Rénan, 489; question of its date, Christianity in, cxxxi. 492
491; Nero the Antichrist, 493 ; Appeals, Statute of (24 Hen. VIII.
parallel passage in Tacitus, 495 ; c. 12), cxl. 433
its Hebrew and anti-Pauline cha- | Appian (2nd century), on the topo-
racter, 496 ; enmity in, to Rome, I graphy of ancient Carthage, cxiv,
497; works known to the author, 80, 91
499; the true peroration of the | Aquinas (Thomas, about 1224-
New Testament, 511; the term 1274), his hymn · Lauda Sion,'
explained, 512; failure of, as a I cxxxvi. 284
prophecy, 613

Arabia, scanty geographical know-
Apocryphal Gospels, the, recent ledge of, cxii. 319
works on, cxxviij. 81; neglect of,

traditional division of the
by divines, 82; M. Douhaire's the population, cxvi. 349 ; stringency
ory of their origin, 84; early bis-1 of the family bond, 351 ; dethrone-

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