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Alphonso (Henriques, King of Por- | Alt-Rognitz, Austrian defeat at
tugal). See Alfonso

(1866), cxxv. 376
Alpine Club, the, its vitality and Althorp (John Charles, Lord, after-
success, cxiii. 224

wards Earl Spencer, 1782-1845),
- its origin, cxxx. 121 ; foreign his conduct in 1831 on Reform,
imitations of, ib.; its researches be cxxxiii. 306–309; generous con-
yond Switzerland and Tyrol, 337; duct to Mr. Littleton, 314

exploration of the Caucasus, ib. - - Lord Cockburn's eulogy of
Alps, the, their attractions for tra his oratory, cxl. 272

vellers, cxiii223; beauty of snow | Amari (Michele), his History of the
scenery, ib.; rapid increase of Mussulmans in Sicily, cxvi. 348;
Alpine climbing, 224; neglect of his mastery of Arabic scholarship,
scientific observation, 225; the ib.; on Arab rule in Africa, 357;
glacier of Mont Dolent, 229

intended scope of his work, 377
- military roads across, cxxii. | Ambassador, Wotton's sarcastic defi-

nition of, cxxvi. 252
-- recent books of travel on, Ambert (General Baron), his “ Tacti-
cxxx. 118; past indifference to cal Studies,' cxxiii. 95; his mas-
Alpine scenery, 119; the Monte terly account of Austerlitz, 114;
Rosa group explored, 120; explo on the modern use of artillery,
rations of Dr. Forbes, ib.; Alpine 122
clubs, 121 ; merits of local guides, | Amboise, Huguenot conspiracy of
ib.; guide-books, 122 (see Ball, / (1560), cxxx. 362; Edict of (1563),
Mr. J.); beauty of Cormayeur,

123; the Dauphiné range little | Ambrose (Saint, 310-397), his in-
visited, ib.; imposing precipices fluence on Western monachism,
of Monte Rosa, 124; tour round cxiv. 329.
it, 125; the Matterhorn, 126; Ameer Khan, Governor of Canda-
grandeur of the Val d'Anniviers, har, cxxv. 17, 18; revolts against
127 ; Mr. Reilly's excellent maps, Shere Ali, 22 ; his death in battle,
128; merits of the Engadine, 129;
view from the Piz Languard, 131 ; | America, Spanish claims to the whole
the Rhotian Alps, 133; travels of continent, cxv. 8
Mr. Tuckett in the Orteler group,

alleged discovery of, by the
ib.; the Eastern Alps, 131; Gen Basques, cxix. 383
eral Dufour’s map of, 135.

America (North), archæology of,
Alsace, mortgaged to Charles the cxxv. 332; richness of ancient

Bold by Sigismund of Austria, remains in, ib.; condition of, on
cxix. 559-568; Ilagenbach's the arrival of the Spaniards, 333
government of, ib.; alliance of (see Mexico); European igno-
free towns with Swiss confederacy, rance of its early history, 338;
569; entry of Charles, ib. ; revolts aboriginal monuments, ib.; three
against him, 571

pre-Columbian epochs, 339; civili-
Alsace and Lorraine, cession of, to sation in Yucatan and Panama,

France, cxxxii. 478-479; recent ib.; ancient buildings in Central
German claims to, founded merely America, 340; the temple of
on conquest, ib.480

Palenqué, 341, 342; architecture
-- population of, when ceded of the Aztecas, 343; Casas Grandes
to Germany, cxl. 385

of the Indians, ib.; varieties of


pueblos,' 344; primitive stone | America (United States), Sir
structures, 345; Estufas of the Cornewall Lewis's criticism of
Intermediate Period, 346 ; tradi the system of presidential elec-
tions of Montezuma, ib.; remains tion, cxviii. 145; democracy not
of the Earliest Period, 347 ; viz., to be tested by its results in,
sacred and sacrificial mounds, ib. 146; evils of the Caucus system,
350 ; military works in Ohio, ib.; ib.; the War of Secession ascribed
copper ornaments, 351 ; high per to Federalism, 147 ; separation of
fection of pottery, ib.; Indian free and slave states advocated by
'garden beds,'352; theories of Sir G. C. Lewis, 150
aboriginal races, 354; Asiatic - Episcopal Church of, mixed
immigration, 355; visited by an synods of clergy and laity in,cxviii.
cient Japanese, ib.; primitive links 576; was never a branch of the
with the Old World, 356; worship State Church of England, ib. ; the
of the phallus, 357; polytheism, "General Convention,' 577; dis-
ib.; pyramidal ruins in Yucatan cipline enforced by law, ib.
ascribed to Egypt, 359; the pyra - first steps towards slave
mid of Xochicalco, 360; similari emancipation in, cxix. 205; one-
ties of early tribes, ib.; unity of third of, unfitted for man, 474 ;
races inferred from language, 361; limits of the Great American
primitive immigrants, 362; main Desert, 475
courses of population, ib. ; Oriental - corruptions of English lan-
source proved by ancient monu guage in, cxx. 42; disintegrating
ments, 363

effects of democracy on social life,
America (United States), Federal 191; the Alien and Sedition Laws,

and State taxation in, cxi. 243; tax 194 ; co-operative societies in, re-
able property in, 244; taxation com semble trades' unions, 432; ex-
pared with that in England, 246 change of vegetable products with,

- increase of brain disorders in, 495, 496
cxii. 526; condition of, under Mr. - idiot institutions in, cxxii.
Buchanan's presidency, 547. See 41, 42; specimens of idiots in, 62,
Buchanan, J. Percival

- limited power of the Presi - Northern indifference to the
dent, cxiii. 557; dangers of presi Union at one time, cxxiii. 525;
dential elections, 558; causes of change of feeling,526; blind policy
secession deep-seated, 559; prin of Mr. Buchanan, ib. 527; his suc-
ciples of early abolitionists, 560; cessors, 528; improved moral tone
Squatter Sovereignty introduced, of the presidency, ib.; immediate
563; slavery the cause of disrup results of the late war, 529; diffi-
tion, 566–573; Southern views of culties of re-construction, ib.;
Federation, 574; their reasons for anomalous aspect of parties, 530;
secession unsound, 577; the 'Peace altered doctrine of State Sove-
Congress' at Washington, 578; reignty, ib. 531; restoration of
difficulties of coercion by the seceded states, 532; theory of
Northern States, 579; separation Mr. Sumner, ib.; policy of Mr.
preferable to civil war, 581; per Johnson, 533; limited power of
petual union impossible, 586

Congress, ib. ; dangers of central
- aspects of, to French and government after the war, 534;
English travellers, cxv. 187

Radical policy criticised, 535; co-

ordination of State powers, ib.; / Treasury gold reserve fund, 514; Bureau of Refugees, 536 (see the 5.20 bonds, 515; the democraMississippi); terms of re-admis tic.greenback party,' 516; Bill of sion to the Union, ib.; question Mr. Sherman, ib.; General Butler's of guarantees, 537 ; required re proposed tax, 517; contest between affirmation of laws of Congress by the House and Committee, ib.; restored States, 538; distribution repudiation rejected at the elecof the public debt, ib. ; repudiation tions of 1868, 518; Mr. Johnson's of Confederate debt, ib. ; votes message to Congress, ib. ; surplus originally granted to slaves, 540; revenue after the war, 519; misdisproportionate power of Southern chievous mode of taxation, ib.; whites, ib. ; proposed re-adjust demoralisation of trade, 520; first ment of voting power, 541; re reduction of taxes, 522; budget of construction of the labour system, 1867, ib.; corruption of the revenue 542; recuperative energy of the system, ib.; duty on distilled South, 543; their social materials spirits, 523; indifference to official for re-construction, 544; class of venality, 525; evils of presidential Southern loyalists, ib.; Southerners patronage, ib.; tardy reforms of who accept defeat, 545; discon Congress, 526; budget of 1867–8, tented planters, ib.; the mean 527 and note; reduction of debt in whites, 546; coloured freedmen, 1869, 528; difficulties of excise ib.; position of negroes since the taxes, ib.; duties on lumber, salt, war, 547; protective legislation, and pig iron, 529, 530; recklessib.; General Howard's report of ness of the tariff therein, ib.; the Freedmen's Bureau, 548 ; ex collection of customs-duties, ib.; ceptional powers of Congress over Mr. Well's report, ib.; increased Southern States, 551 ; schemes of expenses of life to intermediate

negro enfranchisement, ib. 551 classes, 532; vices of financial America (United States), codification government, 533 of law in, cxxvi. 362

America (United States), M. Jac- the Irish in, cxxvii. 505, 521 quemont's sketches of, cxxx. 63,

-- church in, cxxviii. 279; in 69 adequacy of the voluntary system,

State authority weakened by ib.; described as a sandhill of presidential elections, cxxxiii. 11; sects,' 280

conduct of legislative business in, — financial reports, 1865-1869, 74, 75 cxxix. 504; growth of the public — claims against England arisdebt from 1860 to 1865, ib.; finan

ing out of the civil war, cxxxv. cial scheme of Mr. Chase, 505 ; 549. See Geneva Arbitration interference of Congress with Mr.

waning influence of the Irish McCulloch, 506; financial pro element in, cxxxvii. 152; decreasblems after the war, 508; embar ing hostility to England, ib. rassment of the Treasury, 509; - Ninth Census of, cxxxix. 130; contraction of the currency adopt value of the reports, ib.; rast ed as a step to specie payments,

experiment of slave emancipation, 511; piecemeal policy of Congress, ib.; revolution caused by the late ib.; the Act of 1866, 513; contrac war, 131; date of the Census, 133; tion abandoned in 1868, ib.; dis present condition of the Southern posal of the floating debt, ib.; ! vegroes, ib.; coloured and white

populations, 134; waste of negro |
life by reckless mode of emancipa-
tion, 136; retardation in increase
of negroes, ib. ; sufferings of run-
aways, 137 ; prospects of the negro
race in the South, 138, 139; evi-
dence of their improvement, ib.;
progress of education, ib.; em-
ployment of female blacks, 140;
favourable condition, on the whole,
of the freedmen, 141; blessings of
abolition of slavery, 142 ; its ques-
tionable advantages to the South-
ern whites, ib.; deterioration of
Southern property since 1860, 144;
their tremendous losses, ib.; agri-
cultural retrogression, ib.; oppres-
sive taxation, 145; causes of
Southern distress, viz., carpet-
bag'misrule and white ruffianism,
146; first difficulties of re-con-
struction, 147; the Ku-Klux-
Klan,' 149; back-stairs influence
in Congress, ib. ; recent deteriora-
tion in character of public inen,
150; possibility of a new party of

reform, ib.
America (Southern States), difficul-

ties of negro emancipation, cxv.

163; revival of cotton culture,
164-170; exceptional legislation
due to Southem whites, ib.; the
Ku-Klux-Klan, 171; recent legis-
lation thereon, 172, 173; obstacles
to complete restoration of pros-
perity, 174; question of tariffs, ib.;
financial discontent, 175; irritating
policy of the North, 176; pros-
pects of domestic politics, 177;
need of more direct trade with
Europe, 178; problem of cheap

production of cotton, 179
America (British North), enormous

extent of, cxix. 442; original
definition of Rupert's Land, 443;
the Hudson's Bay and North-West
Companies, 444 ; fluctuations in
the lake system of, 445; rival
explorations of the two companies,
446; their final union, 447 (see
Hudson's Bay Company); failure
of attempts to colonise Vancouver
Island, 448-451; British Columbia
made a colony, 451 ; gold-mining
in the Fraser river, ib. ; the
Cariboo gold-field, 468; the Lau-
rentides, 477; the Fertile Belt,
478; dangers of a population of
adventurers, 479

- seasonable proposals for a
Federation, cxxi. 182; resolutions
at the Quebec Conference, 185-
189; proposed Federal Parliament,
186; its legislative powers, ib.,
187; local legislation, 188; powers
of taxation, 189; omissions in the
resolutions, 190 note; their Con-
servative character, 190, 191;
completion of the Intercolonial
Railway, ib. ; general result of the
proposals, 192; difficulties of ad-
justing relations between Imperial,
Federal, and Local Governments,
ib., 193; novelty of the scheme,
ib.; theory of responsible Govern-
ment,' 194; its difficulties illus-
trated, 195; definition of the
Federal Executive required, ib.;

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- scanty knowledge of, since
the late war, cxxxvi. 148; gene-
ral need of re-construction, 149;
desolation in Tennessee, 150; Mr.
Well's picture, 151; liberated
negroes, ib.; observations of Mr.
Somers, 153; spirit of isolation,

.; profuse natural resources, 154;
the land question in Virginia, 155;
want of capital and labour, 156 ;
fertility of the soil, ib.; coal-fields,
157; white labour needed in
Alabama, ib. ; re-organisation of
agricultural labour, 158; public
opinion reconciled to free negro
labour, 159; their value in cotton
cultivation, ib.; their condition
improved by liberation, 161; their,
position as agricultural labourers,!

proposed form of imperial sore- |
reignty, 197; anticipated inde-

pendence of, 199
America (Spanish South), revolt of

the colonies, cxxviii. 138; their
independence recognised by Eng-

land, 140
America (Spanish). See Spain, New
American artillery-failure of huge

guns against Fort Sumter,cxix.513
American House of Representatives;

rule for limitation of speeches,
cxxxii. 75
- practice regarding Bills,
cxxxiv. 588; the previous ques-
tion,' 589 note ; divisions in Com-
mittee, 590
American navy, its important services

in the late war, cxxiv. 185 (see
American War of Secession); penury
of resources when the war began
186; the "Powhatan,' 190; its
strength at the accession of Lin-
coln, 192; disaffection among naval
officers, ib.; first ironclad vessels,
193; the Monitor,' ib.; vigour of
the department under Mr. Welles,
194; rapid growth of, in 1862, 196;
appointment of rear-admirals, 198
note; first trial of rams by the
Confederates, 199; fire-rafts at
New Orleans, 206 ; the “Monitor'
and Merrimac,' 213; the Mian-
tonomah,' 226; use of heavy

smooth-bore guns, ib.
American railways—legislation re-

specting, cxxv. 103; unsystematic
construction of, 104; position of

Congress, ib.
American War of Independence,

weakness of the British army in,
cxvi. 141

- inferiority of British generals
in, cxxvi. 39

- the cause of independence
gained by the English Opposition,
cxxxix. 188; Irish feeling towards

the English in, 487
American War of Secession, valuable

work of Mr. Ellison on, cxiv. 556;
public opinion on, in England,
558; the question of slavery, 559;
high prerogative claims of Fede-
ralists, ib.; State and Federal
Sovereignties, 561; causes of dis-
union, 563; crisis at President
Lincoln's election, ib.; mistaken
doctrines respecting Secession,'
564 ; Mr. Douglas' speech in 1861,
567; the struggle anticipated by
the Edinburgh Review in October
1856, 569; political blindness in
America thereto, ib.; impossible
permanence of a Southern Slave
Confederacy, 570; dangers of suc-
cess to the North, ib.; horrors of
• emancipation by war,' 571;
Congress powerless to abolish
slavery, 572; intemperate procla-
mation of General Fremont, 573;
different American versions of the
causes of the war, ib.; insufficient
grievances of the Southern States,
574; the contest one for territorial
dominion, 575; English aversion
to the war, 578; exhausting
nature of the struggle, 580; mu-
tual confiscations, 581; delusive
notion of a perpetual union, ib.;
bitter feeling against England,
582; the Queen's proclamation
misinterpreted, 583; precedents of
American jurists, 584; recognition
of the South must depend on
events, 586; probable short dura-
tion of the war, 587 ; mutual sepa-
ration anticipated, ib.

- aspect of the contest at its
beginning, cxvi. 549; preponderant
value of Southern votes, 551 ; sla-
very the origin of the war, 553;
English sympathy with the South,
560; democracy as a cause of
disruption, 561; doctrine of the
perpetuity of the Union, 564;
schemes of government before
the Convention, 566; sovereign
character of the states, 568; ac-

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