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of the Codex, ib.; bis Icelandic
studies commenced, 238; his Ice. I
landic teacher Gislason, ib. ; first
project of a Dictionary, 239; cor-
respondence with Schmeller, ib.;
letters to Kemble and Sir J.
Lefevre, 240; his intended Lexi-
icon of ancient Scandinavian,
241, 242; flying visits to Copen-
hagen, 243; Grimm's encourage-
ment, ib. ; last illness and death,
244; his character, ib.; ill-treat-
ment of bis MSS., 245; the Copen-
hagen Committee of Editors, ib.;
Mr. Vigfusson's labours, ib. ; value

of the joint Dictionary, 246
Clement of Alexandria, on early

Egyptian writing, cxvi. 105
Clement VI. (Pope, d. 1352), his
memory strengthened by concus-

sion of the brain, cxii. 535
Clement VII. (Pope Julian dei Me-

dici, d. 1394), destroys the Flo-
rentine republic, cxii. 121

-his relationswith Guicciardini,
cxxx. 11

- siege of, in St. Angelo, des-
cribed by Heemskerck, cxxxii.

80_84
Clement XIII. (Pope, d. 1769), his

policy to the Jesuits in Portugal,
cxxxvi. 206, 207; his rupture with

King Joseph, 208
Clement XIV. (Pope, 1705-1774),

dissolves the Society of Jesuits,

cxxxvi, 209
Clements (Mr.), his invention of the

planing-machine, cxxi. 604
Cleopatra (B.C. 69-30), Pascal's

remark on her nose, cxxiv.

342
Clerels (of Tocqueville), family of,

cxiii. 433
Clergy, parochial, alienation of their
incomes, cxvii. 363

-- former satires on, cxxxv.
377-380 ; vast improvement of,
in modern times, 381; present
voluntary efforts of, ib.

Clerk (Sir George), on native go-

vernment in India, cxvii. 18
Clerk of Eldin (John), his Essay on

Naval Tactics, cxxxvi. 559; his
valuable studies, 579; his system

of reform, 580
Cleveland (John, 1613–1659), the

ballad-monger of the Royalists,
cxiii. 95

verses on Strafford, ascribed
to, cxxxvii. 195
Cleves, Duchy of, rival claims to,

cxl. 108; conduct of Henry IV.

respecting, 109
Climate, in the Post-Pliocene period

of man, cxviii. 267; effect of
changes in, on geology, 301

comprehensive meaning of
the word, cxx. 473; imperfect
knowledge of its phenomena, 474,
475 ; limits to human control over,
ib.; local influences of forests upon,
478, 479; early condition of, in
England, 498

- M. Taine on its influence on
English character, cxxi. 306
- theories of, during the qua-

ternary period, cxxxii. 445
Clive (Robert, Lord, 17251774), his
treaty with Oude, cxvii. 9

- obtains the cession of Bengal,
cxxix. 207 ; his makeshift double

government, ib. 208
Clode (Mr. C. M.), his Military

Forces of the Crown,'cxxxiii. 207;

his views on army government, 235
Clodius (B.c. 52), challenged by Milo,

cxxiv. 416; his enmity to Cicero,

417
Clôture, the, in the French Chamber,

cxxxiii. 73; recommended for the

House of Commons, ib. 80
Clouds, their phenomena illustrated,

cxxii. 432
Clovio (Giulio), copies of Heem-

skerck's designs ascribed to, cxxxii.

71
Coaches, early travelling by, in

England, cxix. 362

Coal, distribution of annual yield in primeval vegetation, 71; fossil

1854 over Great Britain, cxi. 87 trees discovered, 72 ; theories of note ; exports of British coal to climate deduced from, 73; growth, America, 90; high price of cannel of seams, 74; vast periods required coal there, ib.; anthracite ehiefly for their formation, ib.; chief eleused in American cities, ib. 91; | ments of vegetation, ib.; mode of defects of highly-bituminous coal, vegetable accumulation, 76; drift92; use of anthracite for steam timber in the Slave Lake, ib.; ships, 93;.it must be mixed for question of transportation, 77; the locomotive engines, ib.; good steam drift and peat-bog theories, ib. coal rare on the Continent, 94

78; theory of Professor Rogers, ib. - use of, in the working of 79; natural disposition of coaliron, cxvi, 205

basins, 80; convenient distribution - geological period required for of coal-fields in England, 81; their its formation, cxviii. 299

effect on population, ib. ; need of - high price of, during winter of survey of, in England, 82'; esti1872-3, cxxxvii. 456; causes ex mate of their contents, ib. ; lowest amined, 457 ; ubiquitous demand, working seams, 83; fears of future 462; increase of population, ib.; scarcity, ib. ; various estimates recent rate of extraction, 463; thereon, ib. 84; the Newcastle foreign consumers, 465; former field, ib.; immense drain on Staffluctuations in prices, 466 ; Parlin

fordshire field, 85; resources of mentary inquiry, 467; coal-owners, the South Wales field, ib. ; total colliers, and coal-merchants, ib. annual yield of British mines, 469; diminished output, ib.; cor 80; estimated areas of coal in rective influences on high prices, different countries, 88 note; un471; vast quantity of coal, at bounded resources of America, ib. present inaccessible, 472 ; . re 89 (see Coal); the South Wales searches as to probable duration of field described, 91; energy of available coal, 473; culpable waste American surveys, 94; neglect of of, 476; “pit heaps,' 477 and note ; inquiry in England, ib. 95 economy in fuel, 478; obstinacy | Coal-fields in Vancouver Island, cxix. of present pitmen, 480; co-opera 455 tive system at the Whitwood - in Central India, cxxxv. Collieries, 481; mechanical coal 218 cutters, 483; prospects of coal- | Coal-mines, difficulties of deep-workimportation, 486; coal-resources of ing in, cxxxvii. 474; question of Belgium, 487; of Westphalia, ib.; temperature, 475; Dr. Thudicum's British North America, ib. ; India, investigations thereon, ib. 488; China, ib. ; United States,

(British), scenes at the 489; importance of the coal-ques smelting furnace, cxvii. 409; waste tion, 490

of coal dust,' 412; dangers of the Coalbrookdale, first iron bridge at, miners, ib.; mode of lowering, cxvi. 207

413; choke-damp and fire-damp, Coal-tields (North American and 415; dangers of blasting, 417;

British), cxi. 68; latent mechani abandoned workings, ib.; methods cal strength of, 69; their national of ventilation, 418; accidents from importance, ib. ; Carboniferous | falls of rock, 420; precautions rocks in Britain, 70; composed of 1 against irruptions of water, 421 ;

recklessness must be remedied by recent explosions, ib. ; present rate
improvement of the collier, 423; / of mortality, ib.
effects of the education clause, Coal-trade, strike in Staffordshire in
424; causes of the strike of 1842, | 1864, cxx. 420, 421
425; evils of the charter master' | Cobden (Richard, 1804-1865), his
system of contracts, ib. ; mining I negotiation of the French Com-
colleges, 427; fluctuations of mercial Treaty, cxi. 279
wages, 431 ; habits of the miners, | Cobham, Lord. See Oldcastle, Sir
432; prevalence of drunkenness, | John
433; the pitgirls, 435; spiritual Cochin-China, French settlement
provision for the mining popula abandoned, cxxxvii. 322–324
tion, 439

Cockburn (Henry, Lord, 1772-1854),
Coal-mines, annual drain on, cxx. his discussion with Sir C. Bell on

481; invention for cutting coal, ib.; the study of science, cxxxv. 418
immense depth of, 485; increase - Journal of,' being a con-
of heat in, ib.

tinuation of his 'Memorials,' cxl.
- alarming mortality in, cxxv. 259; previous article referred to,
549, 550; fatal accidents from ib.; praiseworthy editorsbip of,
1856 to 1866, 551; explosions of 260; his burning of private letters
fire-damp, ib. ; the old Wallsend not intended for publication, ib.;
pit, ib. ; nature of coal-gas, 552; on the influence of London on
ventilation of, ib. 653; the furnace Scotch society, 261; he laments
system, ib.; fans, 554; evils of the change, ib.; on the shortening
single shafts, ib.; blowers, 555; of the holidays of the Court of
the Davy lamp, 556; Clanny's Session, 262; his intense love of
lamp, 558; gunpowder-blasting, nature, ib.; his 'Letter to the Lord
ib.; Mr. Ansell's improved lamp, Provost' on Edinburgh, 263; his
559; experiment of an electric character as shown in his writings,
light, 561; exhibitions of mining 264; prepares the Reform Bill for
implements proposed, 562; deaths Scotland, ib.; his account of the
from after-damp, 563; defective Reform crisis, 266; his political
timber-propping, 564; the long predictions, ib.; raised to the Bench,
wall' and 'pillar and stall’ modes 267 ; his dislike of Brougham, ib.;
of excavation, 565; dangers of friendship with Scott, 269; his

drawing the props,' 566; need of estimate of Macaulay, ib.; sketches
coal-cutting machines, ib.; pre of contemporaries, ib. 271; his
ventible accidents in shafts, 587; Evangelical Scotch sympathies,
miscellaneous accidents, 568; 273; contest as to Church patron-
question of inspection, ib.; bene aye, ib.; his account of the seces-
fits of the Duplicate Shaft Act of sion from the Scotch Church, 279
1862, 569; inadequate number of Cockburn (Sir A., Chief Justice, b.
inspectors, 570; responsibility of 1802), representative of England
managers, 572; petition of 'under at the Geneva arbitration, cxxxvii.
miners' to Parliament, ib.; they 265; his protest against the deci-
propose local sub-inspectors, 574 ; sion, 266 ; his masterly disserta-
need of greater supervision of man tion, 275; his dignified rebuke of
agers, 575; scheme of a Mining American invectives, 276; his
College, 576; ignorance of over vindication of Earl Russell, ib.
seers, 577 ; Select Committee on Codification of Law, its importance
illustrated by the evils of judicial | Coena Domini, Papal Bull, rival estilegislation, cxviii. 467 ; Mr. Austin mates of, cxxx. 330 on the difficulties of, ib.; his ana Coffee, tradition of its first introduclysis of objections, 468; supposed tion into India, cxix. 109 failure of, abroad, 469 note ; pre Coggia's Comet, cxl. 409 liminary conditions of success, Coinage, heresies concerning depre470

ciation of, cxv. 40. See Currency Codification of Law,cxxvi. 347; Codes --- International, cxxiv. 383;

of Roman Law under Constantine, circulating medium deranged by 350; the Code of Theodosius, 351; a double standard, 384 note; Code and Pandects of Justinian,353, position of silver in the coinage, 354; the Basilica of Leo, ib. ; Edict 385; disturbance produced by exof Theodoric, 355; the Breviarium cess of gold, 386; depreciation of of Alaric, ib. ; the Lex Romana monetary units in America, ib.; Visigothorum, ib.; the Papiani British system recommended in Responsa, ib. ; Teutonic codes, France, ib.; foreign reductions in 356; collections of local customs, standard of small coin, 387; Itaetc. in foreign countries, 357, lian principle adopted by France, 358; improvements inherited from ib. ; Paris Conference of 1865, prothe Romans, ib.; further require posed by Belgium, ib.; principles ments, ib.; movement began in established by the Convention, Italy in the last century, 359; 388, 389; their design of a monethe Code Frédéric,' ib.; codes in tary union, ib.; composition of France, 360, 361; codes in Ger lower coinage abroad, 390; system many, etc., ib. (see Germany, etc.); of the Convention adopted by the in the British Colonies, 363; tardy Pope, ib.; scheme of a more exreforms in England, 365 (see tended union, 391; the decimal Statute Law); need of a Code, scale a step to uniformity, ib.; im368; a Code distinguished from a portant results of the Convention, Digest, ib. ; supposed flexibility of ib.; Australian sovereigns legalised judge-made law, 369; fallacious in England, 392 ; need of a comobjections to codification, ib.; its mon form, ib.; isolation of British value in popularising the know method, ib. ; proposed assimilation ledge of law, 370; it would facili with the French system of numetate legislation, 371; required ration, 393; gold pieces of two union of common and statute law florins suggested, 394; the fivein an English code, 372; conditions franc piece in France, ib. 395; of a statute-code, ib. ; a Digest de want of gold medium in Germany, fined, 374; preliminaries of codifi ib.; objections to change of Engcation of statute law, ih.; addi lish sovereign, 396; precedents tional need of revision, 375; note forre-adjustmentof Mintexchange, on above article, respecting Mr. ib. 397; importance of a complete Colebrooke's compilation of Hindoo decimal system, 398 Law, 585

Coins, earliest appearance of, cxxxii. Cod-liver oil, its value in consumptive cases, cxxxvi. 242

Coke (Sir Edward, 1549-1634), his Cæcilian (Bishop of Carthage, 4th condemnation of judicial torture,

century), his trial, cxi. 439, cxiii. 336 440

- on the illegality of forced

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loans, cxx. 21; denounces the I

Duke of Buckingham, 26
Coke (Sir Edward), his course of

legal study, cxxxiv. 490
Colbert (John Baptist, 1619-1683),

his supervision of roads in France,
cxix. 357
- his foundation of lace-manu-

facture at Alençon, cxxxv. 51
Colby (Colonel), his invention of

compensation bars for triangula-
tion, cxviii, 385; his organisation
of the Survey Department, 388;

his survey of Ireland, 389
Colchester (Lord). See Abbot, Charles
Cold Harbour (U.S.), Confederate

victory at (1864), cxxi. 283
-- irregular tactics of Grant at

the battle, cxxix. 260
Cold Harbour (now Cole Harbour

Lane),ancient liberty of, in London,

cxxxi. 170
Coldstream Guards, origin of, cxl.

477
Colenso (Dr., Bishop of Natal), his

suit before the Privy Council one

of pure discipline, cxxi. 178
Coleridge (Henry Thomas, 1765–

1837), his compilation of Hindoo
Law, cxxvi. 585; note to article

on · Codification
---- essays of, with memoir by his
son, cxxxvi. 461; his foreign re-
putation, ib.; true foundation of
his fame, 462; his services to
Sanskrit scholarship, 463; his first
connexion with the East India
Company, 464; arrival in India,
465; Revenue appointment at Tir-
but, ib.; his Oriental studies, ib.;
essay on ‘Indian Weights and Mea-
sures,' 466; transferred to Purreah,
468; letters on Indian antiquities,
469; papers to the 'Asiatic Socie-
ty,' ib.; opposition to the new
charter, 470; removed to the ju-
dicial branch, 471; his digest of
Hindoo laws, ib.; his theory of
caste, 472-475; diplomatic missin

to Nagpur, ib.; appointments at
Calcutta, 476; his study of com-
parative philology, ib.; bis un-
finished Sanskrit Grammar, ib.;
miscellaneous works, 478; Presi-
dent of the Court of Appeal and
of the 'Asiatic Society,' ib.; re-
searches on the Vedas, 479; long
career in India, 480; services to
Indian jurisprudence, 481; pro-
moted to the Council, 482; Presi-
dent of the Astronomical Society,
ib.; his · Algebra’ from the Sans-
krit, ib.; collection of Sanskrit
MSS., 483; founds the Royal
Asiatic Society, ib. ; treatises on
Hindoo philosophy, 484; later
sufferings and death, 485; facile
princeps of Sanskrit scholars, ib.;
compared with Sir W. Jones, 486;

bis appreciation of his rival, 487
Coleridge (Hartley, 1797-1849), his

character and poetical remains,

cxxxix. 64
Coleridge (Henry Nelson, d. 1843),

his career, cxxxix. 51; his mar-
riage, ib.; his . Six Months in the
West Indies,'ib.; his “ Introduction
to the Study of the Greek Classic
Poets,' 52; his learned letters to
his wife, 53 (see Coleridge, Sara);
his editorship of his brother's

works, 56 ; death, ib.
Coleridge (Herbert, d. 1861); edu-

cation by his mother Sara, cxxxix.
54, 58; his successful career and

premature death, 67, 68
Coleridge (Samuel Taylor, 1772-

1834); his Germanising influence
on English theology, cxii. 480

- his view of Jacobinism in the
• Friend,' cxviii, 461, 462
- his intimacy with Lamb,

cxxiv. 264; his influence on con-
temporary thought, 274

- his friendship with Crabb
Robinson, cxxx. 523, 527 ; Lamb's
remark on his married life, 528

- his Lectures at the Royal

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