Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java

Sampul Depan
University of Chicago Press, 15 Des 1995 - 350 halaman
Gamelan is the first study of the music of Java and the development of the gamelan to take into account extensive historical sources and contemporary cultural theory and criticism. An ensemble dominated by bronze percussion instruments that dates back to the twelfth century in Java, the gamelan as a musical organization and a genre of performance reflects a cultural heritage that is the product of centuries of interaction between Hindu, Islamic, European, Chinese, and Malay cultural forces.

Drawing on sources ranging from a twelfth-century royal poem to the writing of a twentieth-century nationalist, Sumarsam shows how the Indian-inspired contexts and ideology of the Javanese performing arts were first adjusted to the Sufi tradition and later shaped by European performance styles in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He then turns to accounts of gamelan theory and practice from the colonial and postcolonial periods. Finally, he presents his own theory of gamelan, stressing the relationship between purely vocal melodies and classical gamelan composition.
 

Isi

Introduction
1
From Hindu to Islam The Early History of Javanese Music
13
The Early Period of Islamized Java and Early Contacts with Europeans
18
Sufism and the Javanese Court
24
Outside the Court
34
Javanese Interaction with European Colonialism Islam and the Peranakan Chinese A Period of Intensive Cultural Development
48
Relationships between Europeans and Javanese Courtiers
63
Evasion and Expression of Colonialism in the Javanese Court Culture
71
The Involvement of Musicians in the Formulation of Gamelan Theories
139
In Search of the Origins and Significance of Balungan
142
Classification Systems of Gamelan Instruments
151
Current Theories of Gendhing
159
Additional Examples of the Process of Composition
203
The Instrumental Element of Gendhing and Gendhing Bonang
214
The Terms Gatra and Cengkok
227
Conclusion
236

Chinese Patronage of Javanese Arts
81
The Decline of Islamic Ritual in the Courts of Central Java
87
The Flourishing of Literature Influenced the Development of Gamelan Gendhing
93
The Impact of Western Thought on Javanese Views of Music
100
The Art of Adi luhung and Indonesian Nationalism
111
The Development of Theories of Gendhing in the Twentieth Century
128
Gamelan Instruments
243
Glossary
249
Notes
259
References
321
Index
335
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