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OF

A M E RICAN LAW.

BY JOHN BOUVIER.

In societate civili; aút fex aut vis valet.-BACON.
Ce qui est bien classé, est à moitié su.-DUVAL.

VOL. III.

PHILADELPHIA:

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT E. PETERSON & CO..

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

JOHN BOUVIER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Penn

sylvania. .

L 6716

NOV 11 1932

DEACON & PETERSON, PRINTERS,

66 SOUTH THIRD STREET.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

T. 1. Of precautions to be adopted before the commencement of an action, 3.

C. 1. Of the choice of a professional man, 3.

S. 1. Of attorneys, solicitors and proctors, 4.

S. 2. Of counsellors at law, 5.

S. 3. Of notaries public, 8.

S. 4. Of conveyancers, 9.

C. 2. Of the brief of the case, 10.

C. 3. Of the means of securing evidence, 11.

S. 1. Acts to be done by plaintiff, 12.

S. 2. Acts to be done by defendant, 14.

T. 2. Of remedies without legal assistance, 19.

C. 1. Of remedies by the act of the party aggrieved, 20.

S. 1. Of self-defence, 20.

S. 2. Of recaption and reëntry, 20.

S. 3. Of abatement of nuisances, 24.

S. 4. Of the remedy by distress, 25.

§ 1. Of the rent for which a distress may be made, 28.

A.1. Of the nature of the rent, 28.

A. 2. Of the amount of the rent, 29.

$ 2. Of the persons entitled to make the distress, 30.

A. 1. By tenant in severalty, 30.

A. 2. By joint tenants, 30.

A. 3. By tenants in common, 30.

A. 4. By husband and wife, 31.

A. 5. By tenant by the curtesy, 32.

A. 6. By tenant in dower, 32.

A. 7. By tenant for life, 32.

A. 8. By heir or devisee, 33.

A. 9. By trustees and guardians, 33.

$ 3. Of the things which may be distrained, 34.

A. 1. Of goods absolutely exempt from distress, 34.

A. 2. Of goods conditionally exempt from distress, 37.

$ 4. Of the time when the distress ought to be made, 38.

$ 5. Of the place where a distress may be made, 39.

A. 1. On the land, 39.

A. 2. Off the land, 40.

$ 6. Of the manner of making the distress, 41.

A. 1. By whom to be made, 41.

A. 2. The form of seizing a distress, 41.

A. 3. Of the quantity of goods to be taken, 42.

A. 4. Or the proceedings after the seizure, 42.

07. Or the effects of the distress, 43.

C. 2. Of remedies without legal assistance by the act of both parties, 44.

S. 1. Or accord and satisfaction, 44.

$ 1. Of the parties to an accord, 44.

§ 2. Of the requisites to a good accord and satisfaction, 44.

$ 3. Or the effect of an accord and satisfaction, 46.

S. 2. Of arbitration, 46.

ý 1. Of the submission, 46.

§ 2. Of the parties to the submission, 47.

§ 3. Of the arbitrators and umpire, 48.

§ 4. Of the award, 49.

A. 1. It must be consonant with the submission, 49.

A. 2. It must be certain, 50.

A. 3. It must be equal and mutual, 51.

A. 4. It must be lawful and possible, 52.

A. 5. It must be final, 53.

A. 6. The form of the award, 53.

A. 7. The effect of the award, 53.

1. Or the remedy on the award, 53.

2. Effect of the award on the title of property, 54.

C. 3. Of the remedies without action by operation of law, 55.

S. 1. Of the right of retainer, 55.

$ 1. Who may retain, 56.

A. 1. Of the right of a sole executor to retain, 56.

A. 2. Of the right when there are several executors, 56.

§ 2. Against whom an executor may retain, 57.

A. 1. Where the deceased was bound alone, 57.

A. 2. Where the testator was bound with others, 57.

A. 3. Where one person is executor of both obligor and ob-

ligee, 57.

$ 3. On what claims the executor may retain, 58.

§ 4. What amount may be retained, 59.

S. 2. Or remitter, 60.

S. 3. Of the right of lien, 61.

§ 1. Or the kinds of liens, 61.

§ 2. How liens may be acquired, 62.

§ 3. Of the claims for which liens attach, 64.

§ 4. How liens may be lost, 65.

$ 5. Of the effect of liens, 66.

T. 3. Of courts in general, 67.

C. 1. Of courts of record and not of record, 68.

C. 2. Of supreme, superior, and inferior courts, 69.

S. 1. Of the supreme or superior courts, 69.

S. 2. Of the inferior courts, 70.

C. 3. Of courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction, 71.

$. 1. Of courts of civil jurisdiction, 71.

S. 2. Of courts of criminal jurisdiction, 71.

C. 4. Or the territorial jurisdiction of courts, 71.

C. 5. Of the division of courts and their objects, 72.

S. 1. Of courts of common law, 72.

S. 2. Of courts of equity, 73.

$ 1. Of the constitution of courts of equity, 74.

$ 2. Of the jurisdiction of courts of equity, 75.

$. 3. Of courts of admiralty, 78.

S. 4. Of courts martial, 79.

T. 4. Or the courts of the United States, 80.

D. 1. Of the central courts of the United States, 82.

C. 1. Of the senate of the United States as a court, 82.

S. 1. Or the organization of the senate as a court, 82.

S. 2. Of the jurisdiction of the senate as a court, 82.

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C. 2. Of the supreme court of the United States, 83.

S. 1. Organization of the supreme court, 84.

$ 1. Of the appointment of the judges, 84.

§ 2. Of the number requisite to form a quorum, 84.

§ 3. Of the officers of the supreme court, 85.

4. Of the time of holding court, 85.

$ 5. Of the place of bolding court, 86.

S. 2. Of the jurisdiction of the supreme court, 86.

$ 1. Of the civil jurisdiction, 87.

A. 1. Of the original jurisdiction of the supreme court, 87.

A. 2. Of the appellate jurisdiction, 89.

$ 2. Of the criminal jurisdiction, 94.

D. 2. Of the local courts of the United States, 95.

C. 1. Or the circuit courts, 95.

S. 1. Of the organization of the circuit courts, 95.

$1. Of the circuits, 95.

$ 2. Of the judges, 97.

$ 3. Or the officers of the circuit courts, 99.

§ 4. Of the time and place of holding circuit courts, 100.

5. Of the removal of causes in certain cases, 100.

S. 2. Of the jurisdiction of the circuit courts, 102.

§ 1. Or the civil jurisdiction of circuit courts, 103.

A. 1. Of the civil jurisdiction of the circuit courts at law, 103.

1. Of original jurisdiction at law, 103.

1° The matter in controversy, 103.

2° Or the character of the parties, 105.

(1). When the United States are a party, 105.

(2). Suits between citizens of different states, 106.

(3). Suits where an alien is a party, 107.

(4). When an assignee is plaintiff, 107.

(5). Who may be defendant, 108.

2. Of the appellate jurisdiction, 109.

3. Of the removal of actions from the state courts, 111.

4. Of the remedy by mandamus, 113.

A. 2. Of original jurisdiction in equity, 114.

$2. Of the criminal jurisdiction of the circuit courts, 115.

C. 2. Of the district courts, 116.

S. 1. Of the organization of the district courts, 116.

S. 2. Of the jorisdiction of the district courts, 117.

1. Of the civil jurisdiction, 117.

A. 1. Of admiralty and maritime causes, 117.

1. Of ordinary jurisdiction in admiralty, 117.

1° Prize suits, 118.

2° Cases of salvage, 118.

3o Actions arising out of torts or injuries, 118.

4° Of suits on contracts in the admiralty, 119.

2. Of the extraordinary jurisdiction of the district court as a

court of admiralty, 120.

1° Of seizures under the impost and navigation laws, 121.

2° Of captures within the territorial limits of the United

States, 121.

A. 2. Of jurisdiction in cases of seizures on land, and of for

feitures, 122.

A. 3. Of the jurisdiction of the court when an alien sues for a

tort, 122.

A. 4. Of the jurisdiction of the court in suits by the United

States, 123.

A. 5. Of jurisdiction by and against consuls, 123.

A. 6. Of the jurisdiction in equity, 124.

A. 7. Various points relating to the jurisdiction of the district

court, 125.

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