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Britain is to have of their commerce, no requisition is to be made from them in time of peace.
8. “ No troops to enter and quarter in any colony, but with the consent of its legislature.
9. “In time of war, on requisition made by the · king, with the consent of parliament, every colony
shall raise money by the following rules or proportions, viz. : If Britain, on account of the war, raise three shillings in the pound to its land-tax, then the colonies to add to their last general provincial peace tax, a sum equal to one-fourth thereof; and if Britain, on the same account, pay four shillings in the pound, then the colonies to add to their last peace-tax a sum equal to half thereof, which additional tax is to be granted to his majesty, and to be employed in raising and paying men for land or sea service, furnishing provisions, transports, or for such other purposes as the king shall require and direct. And though no colony may contribute less, each may add as much by voluntary grant as they may think proper.
10. “Castle. William to be restored to the province of Massachusetts Bay, and no fortress built by the croin in any province, but with the consent of its legislature.
11. “ The late Massachusetts and Quebec acts to be repealed, and a free government granted to Canada.
12. “ All judges to be appointed during good behaviour, with equally permanent salaries, to be paid out of the province revenues, by appointment of the assemblies. Or, if the judges are to be appointed during the pleasure of the crown, let the salaries be during the pleasure of the assemblies, as heretofore.
13. “Governors to be supported by the assemblies of each province.”
14. “If Britain will give up its monopoly of the American commerce, then the aid above-mentioned to be given by America in time of peace as well as in time of war.
15..“ The extensions of the act of Henry VIII. concerning treasons to the colonies, to be formally disowned by parliament.
16. “ The American admiralty-courts reduced to the same powers they have in England, and the acts establishing them to be re-enacted in America.
17. “ All powers of internal legislation in the colonies, to be disclaimed by parliament*.”
Soon after these conferences, the proceedings of Congress arrived, including the petition to the king, enclosed to Franklin, with a letter addressed to the several American agents then in London. These proceedings were favourably received in England. His majesty approved the petition, and graciously promised to take a very early opportunity of laying it before his two houses of parliament.
Lord Hyde, an intimate.connexion of the ministers, to whom Franklin's hints had been shewn, thought them too hard, but wished they might be successful. In December (1774) the hon. Mrs Howe, requested the favour to introduce lord Howe, her brother, to Dr Franklin, the former having expressed a great wish to become acquainted with him; to which Franklin making no objection, Mrs H. sent for his lordship. He soon entered upon the state of things in America, and solicited Franklin to think of some terms of accommodation; he was sorry for the conduct of the ministry towards him, and said they were ashamed of it; but that he hoped no personal prejudice would prevent him, in so great a work, from using every effort to accomplish the end. In reply Dr Franklin stated his great willingness to concur in any proposal likely to facilitate an understanding between America and the parent kingdom ; but he apprehended, from the speech recently delivered from the throne, and from the measures in contemplation, that ministers were
. * These papers, amongst the earliest productions of Congress, will be found in our Appendix, No.7.
averse from union, and therefore tnat an accommodation was impossible. With regard to personal injuries, the injuries of his country were much greater; - he never mixed private and public affairs, and could join with his personal enemy in serving the public, or with the public in serving his enemy.” His lordship, notwithstanding, requested the Doctor to draw up in writing some such proposals as he thought might become the basis of an accommodation, which he did accordingly, although he thought them sufficiently expressed already in the petition of Congress to the king. The plan however was such as gave little hope
of success. :: Dr Fothergill had also related the substance of the
former paper to lord Dartmouth, and likewise to the speaker of the house, the latter of whom observed, it would be very humiliating to Great Britain to submit to such terms, although he was himself very anxious for a reconciliation. The reply was, that England had been oppressive and unjust, and therefore submission was a duty; that the pill, though bitter, was salutary, and must be swallowed.
Dr Franklin, according to promise, had enclosed the proceedings of the Congress to lord Chatham, and shortly after waited upon him with the petition. He expressed a great regard for America The petition, he said, reflected honour upon the Assembly, and was replete with temper, wisdom, and moderation. He rather questioned their opinion upon the illegality of keeping up a standing army in time of peace, but upon the whole, he hoped that government here would soon come to see its mistakes, and rectify them. His lordship suggested the possibility of his preparing something on that subject for the consideration of parliament, at the opening of the session, on which he should previously solicit Dr Franklin's opinion. The latter suggested above all other things the withdrawment of the army, as the Americans could not propose or accede honourably to any terms of accommodation, while the bayonet was at their breasts.
Having recently heard from governor Pownal, that the late measures did not originate with lord North, and were never approved by that minister, Dr Franklin once more began to entertain serious hopes of an accommodation, and went to Halsted, on his way to visit lord Stanhope, at Chevening ; but hearing that his lordship was from home, he went to Chislehurst to see lord Camden, with whom he spent an evening, conversing much on American affairs, and had the pleasure of hearing his lordship express his full approbation of the proceedings of Congress and the petition, and hoped they would continue the same prudent conduct, and he felt a confidence that they would finally succeed.
The 20th of January was the time lord Chatham fixed for introducing his motion into the house, and requested lord Stanhope to send Dr Franklin a note to that effect, greatly desiring his attendance on the occasion. In addition however to this invitation, lord Chatham himself sent another card on the morning of the day on which he intended to speak, requesting Dr Franklin to attend in the lobby at two o'clock, and he would himself introduce him, which he accordingly did. His motion was, that an humble address be presented to his majesty, beseeching him to remove his troops from Boston, as a preliminary step towards an accommodation with America. “I was quite charmed,' 'says Dr Franklin, “ with lord Chatham's speech. He impressed me with the highest idea of him as a great and most able statesman.” Lord Camden and other noble lords delivered excellent speeches in support of the motion, but it was rejected. Lord Chatham's concluding words were, “ If the ministers thus persevere in misadvising and misleading the king, I will not say that they can alienate the affections of his subjects from the crown, but I will affirm that they will make the crown not worth his wearing. I will not say that the king is betrayed, but I will pronounce the kingdom is undone." He also observed in the course of this debate, that it had been
charged upon the opposition by noble lords, that it was common and easy to censure their measures, but that the censurers proposed nothing better. He observed that he should not be one of those idle censurers, but shortly produce to the house a plan which he had digested for healing the present unhappy differ ences, and restoring peace to the empire. i Dr Franklin had a great wish to know what this plan was, and being invited shortly after to his lordship's house, was favoured with the outlines of it in the course of conversation. His lordship afterwards came to town, and left it with Dr Franklin for his perusal and opinion, complimented him as the standard of American intelligence, and said, that although he had considered the business in all its bearings, he came " to set his judgment right by Franklin's, as men set their watches by a regulator." This visit of his lordship's lasted nearly two hours, his equipage waiting at the door all that time; a circumstance which was soon known to the public, and contributed to increase our author's importance in the general esteem. His lordship proposed bringing his plan before the House of Lords on the following Wednesday, and Dr Franklin was to call upon him at Hayes, in the interim, for the purpose of further conversation upon it. He accordingly made his observations, and waited upon his lordship early on Tuesday, but found him so diffuse and eloquent in support of his own propositions, that although they remained together four hours, the notes of our author were not half gone through; and he only obtained by his visit the pleasure of hearing the eloquent observations of that great man on topics the most interesting to him.
Dr Franklin went down to the House of Lords on Wednesday in company with lord Stanhope. Lord Chatham introduced his plan, and the secretary for the colonies observed upon the weighty question it involved, that he supposed the noble eart could only expect that it should lie on their lord ships' table for eonsideration