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marshal as compensation for the services sances by the manner of their operation) and wbich the ordinance requires him to perform could be maintained and prosecuted without in the matter of the enforcement of its pro- a municipal license or other authorization visions.

from the corporation. It is scarcely necesSection 3366 of the Political Code, as sary to suggest that the adoption of an ordiamended by the Legislature of 1901, with nance licensing and regulating the business whose provisions it is claimed that the ordi- of a banker or a baker or a laundry could nance under which the petitioner is held in not operate, per se, to repeal an ordinance, custody is at cross purposes, authorizes

authorizes previously passed, licensing and regulating

, “boards of supervisors of the counties of the the retail sale of intoxicating liquors. To acstate, and the legislative bodies of the incor- complish the repeal of an ordinance or of a porated cities and towns therein, in the exer- statute, there must either be language emcise of their police powers, and for the pur-ployed expressly declaring such intention, or pose of regulation, as herein provided, and there must exist in the subsequent ordinance not otherwise,” to license wall and any kind or statute language so inconsistent with the of business not prohibited by law, and trans- provisions of the former as to necessarily acted and carried on within the limits of effect a repeal by implication. The salient their respective jurisdictions," etc. The pur- parts of the two must, in other words, be pose of Ordinance No. 119 of the city of so incongruous and wanting in harmony as Ukial, which was passed by the boaru of to make it impossible for the two to stand trustees of said city on the 20th day of June, together. 1901, and which, it is contended, repealed the Nor is there anything inconsistent between ordinance under consideration, may be shown

the provisions of the ordinance in question by its title, which is as follows: "To license, and those of section 3366 of the Political for the purpose of revenue and regulation, of Code. Ordinance No. 15 was undoubtedly deevery kind of business authorized by law and signed as and is one of police regulation, transacted and carried ou within the town of and the evident object of the section of the Ukiah City, and all shows, exhibitions and

Political Code referred to, as amended by the lawful games carried on therein. To fix the Legislature of 1901, is to restrict the power rate of license tax upon the same and to pro

exercisable by boards of supervisors and of vide for the collection of the same by suit or

the legislative bodies of the incorporated otherwise." This ordinance then prescribes

cities and towns of the state, to impose lithe amount of the annual license tax which cense taxes, to the purposes of regulation shall be paid for carrying on and conducting

only. But counties, cities, and towns are the various kinds of businesses and occupa

not required to seek in any legislative entions prosecuted within the corporate limits

actment for the source of their power to of said town of Ukiah.. There is no attempt

make and enforce within their respective made in the last-mentioned ordinance to

limits all local, police, Sanitary, and other

regulations which they may deem needful license or regulate the ownership of clogs

and requisite for their welfare and that of within the municipal limits of said town, nor

their inhabitants. The Constitution has, by is there any reference whatever therein to

direct grant, vested in them plenary power those animals. As Ordinance No. 13 and

to provide and enforce such police, sanitary, Ordinance No. 119 deal with entirely and

and other local regulations as they may dewidely different subjects, we are unable to

termine shall be neressary for the health, appreciate the force, if any it possesses, of

peace, comfort, and happiness of their inhabthe suggestion of counsel for the prisoner

itants, providel such regulations do not conthat the former ordinance has been repealed

flict with general laws. Article 11, § 11, by the latter. There is no language to be

Const. And the Legislature has no authority found in Ordinance No. 119 expressly repeal

to limit the exercise of the power thus diing Ordinance No. 15, nor are the subject

rectly conferred upon cities, counties, and inatters of the two ordinances so correlated

towns by the organic law. The only test or connected as to impart to Ordinance Xo.

is, therefore: Do such regulations conflict 119 the effect of repealing by implication Or

with any general law of the state? If they dinance No. 15. The general object of the

do not, then they have binding authority uptwo ordinances is, it is true, the same the on all inhabitants of the city or county or regulation of certain matters of local (on- town for which they are established upon cern to the municipal corporation and its

all the subjects to which they relate and members—but the particular subjects of regu- which legitimately come within the scope of lation treated by the two ordinances are so the power granted by the Constitution. Ex diverse that if one of them should, in fact, parte McClain, 134 Cal. 111, 66 Pac. 69, 51 L. be repealel, and the other omitted to ex- R. A. 77:9, 86 Am. St. Rep. 243; Ex parte pressly provide for the licensing and regu- Lacey, 108 Cal. 326 et seq., 41 Pac. 411, 38 L. lation of the subject-matters or Occupations R. 1. 610, 19 Am. St. Rep. 93. Our attendealt with by the abrogated measure, sul tion has been directed to no general law, with matters or Occupations would be immune the provisions of which the ordinance, whose from interference by the local authorities validity is here challenged, is in conflict. (unless, of course, they should become nui- But the learned counsel for petitioner de

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clares that the ordinance is unconstitutional ; ties. Much has been written and spoken of because it is unreasonable and uncertain, and the dog and his many noble qualities. It therefore oppressively burdensome. The ar- may truthfully be admitted that innumerable gument in support of this contention is that instances of the unflinching loyalty and faiththe ordinance does not fix any particular time fulness of that quadruped to his master or to at which the tax must be paid; that the a friend to whom he has become attached words "current year," as used in the ordi- are recorded, and have justly inspired writers nance, are indefinite and uncertain as to the of intense and ardent natures and of vivid time when the tax shall be paid, and it is and lively imaginations to soar to supernal said that, if it be meant by those words that heights of eloquence and of poetic fancy in the tax is to cover the period "from January | their descriptive song of the noble attributes 1st to December 31st, any person who became of the dog. There can be nothing farther the owner of a dog on the 31st day of Decem- from the purpose or disposition of the writer ber, 1907, would be liable for the full amount of this opinion to detract from or underof the tax, although he owned the dog less estimate the worth of a good, conscientious, than a day, whereas, another person who i law-respecting dog-a canine content to reowned the dog on January 1st, 1907, would main at all times within the limits of bis pay no more than he would.” The unreason- own bailiwick and there regale himself in ableness of the ordinance is also found in an atmosphere of perfect ease and comfort. the fact that it provides for the destruction with frequent delightful excursions to the of a dog upon which no license tax has been land of Hypnos, and at the same time ever paid two days after the animal has been im- alert to the highest interests of his master, pounded, unless he has been redeemed, with- and, generally speaking, scrupulously faithout notifying the owner of such contem- ful to all the pacific and innocent pursuits plated destruction, and this is said to be the which have copie within the curriculum of taking of property without due process of his education, There can be no doubt that law. Other objections to the reasonableness ; many dogs, for their acts of heroism in savof the ordinance are that it does not with ing human life or preventing injury to their certainty provide what specific acts shall con- masters when surrounded by appalling cirstitute a violation thereof to thus render the cumstances of danger, deserve a conspicuous violator amenable to the punishment pre- place in poetry and song; but there is no inscribed therein; that it is uncertain in that consistency between this observation and the it does not appear clear whether the accused suggestion that when the poet, as, under the must violate all or only a part of the provi- entrancing spell of ethereal dreams, in wingsions of the ordinance before he can be ad- ed boat, he flits "from mount to mount judged guilty of a misdemeanor thereunder; through Cloudland,” permits fancy to get that the ordinance authorizes the city mar- the upper hand of fact, and thus unconsciousshal to commit a trespass by going upon the ly wanders from concrete cases to abstracpremises of a citizen without a warrant or tions in his perfervid panegyrics upon the other process and capture and take to the canine, he slips far over and beyond even the pound a dog upon which a license tax has boundary line established and tolerated by not been paid. In short, no conceivable poetic license. It is, we think, safe to say ground or reason upon which an objection that those writers who have written such could be urged against the validity of the glowing tributes to the dog in the abstract ordinance has been overlooked. But a care- have never had any actual experience with ful examination of the provisions of this local a nonstrous canine of the bull family, to regulation does not, in our opinion, bear out which they were strangers. There is neither or sustain any of the points which counsel poetry nor sentiment in the dog, as a rule. has rather ingeniously atteinpted to maintain ! especially when one meets him upon what against the constitutional soundness of the he conceives to be his own preserves, for such measure, or against its validity for any rea- an occasion is generally conceded to be an son. It is not only not ambiguous and un- appropriate time to cast song and sentiment certain in its terms, but its language is clear to the winds and to get busy by moving with and unmistakable and easy of comprehension, all possible haste a comfortable distance benor are its provisions and terms character- yond the danger line. But it must be adized by unreasonableness. On the contrary, mitted that there are really some good-temthe ordinance appears to represent only a pered, well-behaved dogs, which are, it may wholesome and salutary exercise of the pow- be granted, quite useful in their way. But er of police. The purpose sought to be at- the other kind become good dogs only when tained by the ordinance is not only commend- they have ceased to be able to exercise the able in the highest degree, but is of para- power of respiration. mount importance to all communities pos- At the common law, the dog was classed sessing a considerable number of inhabitants. in the category of animals fera natura, and Common experience justifies strenuous op- many of them should be so classed now. position to (and wisely sanctions the curbing are safe in going further and declaring that of) unbridled, and, it may be added without the very best of them can, with less effort facetiousness, unmuzzled, liberty in the ca- and in a shorter space of time, make themnine species, particularly in urban communi- selves more of a nuisance to the square inch


than any other domestic quadruped of which we have any knowledge. Even those having the good fortune to have received the fullest measure of civilizing care, nursing, petting, and general disciplinary domestication, from puphood to the danger point of maturity, have not bad the instincts of savagery inherited from their distinguished ancestrial relative and implacable enemy of the human race, the wolf, so mollified as to render them altogether disposed to maintain uniformly peaceful relations with the human family. For it may be accurately declared that nearly all dogs are friendly only with their masters and immediate family, and that strangers, however honest and peaceful their intentions may be, are almost invariably treated by them as intruders, having no rights that a dog is compelled to respect. In these observations, though rather dog-inatically asserted, we think no one of ordinary experience in the common, all-around affairs of this mundane sphere will hesitate to con

If the killing by the marshal of a dog, without forinally notifying the owner of the time and place of the proposed execution, is violative of the injunctions of our constitutions against the taking of property without due process of law, how much more flagrantly is that sacred fundamental principle outraged in the vicious act of an ill-tempered, snapping dog, which, without previous warning or other due notice and without provocation, wantonly deprives a human individual, who has never trespassed upon or otherwise invaded his rights, of a quantity of his avoirdupois! This suggestion is offered only in illustration of one of easily a hundred available reasons which could be advanced in support of a local legislative measure whose object is to regulate the ownership and consequently, as far as it can be done, the behavior of dogs. To effectually accomplish this end, the owner of the dog, by the provisions of the ordinance under review, for the privilege of such ownership, is required to pay a license tax, or, in default thereof, must bear the penalty prescribed; or, in case the dog has no owner, or his owner does not think enough of him to pay the license, then the marshal may destroy him.

Many other reasons than those already suggested could be given why the ordinance here is not only reasonable, but an important, regulation. The dog is subject to hydrophobic fits, and the laceration of the flesh of a human by a dog thus afflicted will almost invariably inoculate such person with the poison of the malady, usually with a fatal result. And, too, as some of the cited authorities suggest, if a dog commits damage for which his owner may be held liable, such an ordinance as the one here would materially zid in the identification of the owner, assuming that he has paid the tax, and would therefore the better enable the injured party to invoke the rule of respondeat superior! But it is unnecessary to enumerate all the

91 P.-28

excellent and unanswerable reasons, any one of which is sufficient to sustain the policy and the necessity of such an ordinance. Every city, town, and county should have such a measure and give its provisions full, hearty, and complete enforcement.

Certain of the complaints urged against the validity of the ordinance before us necessarily assume that the officers, in the enforcement of its provisions, will themselves commit infractions of the law. No such assumption or presumption can be indulged. Two modes of executing the terms of the ordinance are prescribed: (1) Where, because of failure or refusal to pay the license tax, the owner of the dog may be complained of in the city court, arrested upon a warrant and prosecuted in the manner prescribed by the law in all such cases. (2) Where the dog is found upon the public streets, bearing no proper evidence of the tax having been paid, the animal may be impounded, and after two days from such impounding may, unless redeemed by the owner, be by the marshal destroyed. The marshal would, of course, have no right to go upon the private premises of a citizen upon an official mission without being "armed with process,” except where, upon such premises, he might himself witness the commission of a crime. The objection as to the time at which and the exact period for which the license is to be paid has no merit. As we understand the terms of the ordinance, the license tax of $2 is to cover a calendar year, and it is, so far as the proposition may affect the validity of the ordinance, immaterial at what particular time it is paid. The illustration submitted by counsel in his effort to sustain his contention of the unfairness and unreasonableness of the ordinance of where a person might become the owner of a dog on the 31st of December, 1907, and is forced to pay the license tax for the entire year just closing, suggests nothing militating against the reasonableness of the measure. The new owner or master of the dog in that case would have no license to pay for the year about to terminate if the previous owner had already paid the tax. If the previous owner had not done so, it would only be reasonable and just that the subsequent owner should do so, not only because the tax upon the dog is due from somebody, if there is and has been an owner, but also for the reason that a person who becomes, by purchase or gift, the owner of a dog upon which an authorized license tax remains unpaid assumes, in acquiring rights under such ownership, the burden of any duty with reference thereto, which the government, under its power, may have seen fit to impose. There is notlıing in the point that it is difficult to determine from the ordinance how much thereofwhether all or only a part-an accused person must violate before he may be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor. It is as clear as language can make it that a refusal by it citizen owning or harboring a dog within the

corporate limits to pay the license as requir- of the payment of said license tax. It further ed would bring his conduct within the penal provides for the enforcement of a penalty for a purview of the ordinance. The regulation re- noncompliance with the law, or "for the doing quires nothing else at the hands of such citi

of some prohibited act.” And in that manner zen than the payment of the license. There the power of police is exercised. Merced Counare certain provisions prescribing the duties

ty v. Helm, 102 Cal. 163, 36 Pac. 399. The orof the marshal under the ordinance. The

dinance also provides for the destruction of willful failure of that official to perform

a dog upon which a license tax has not been those duties would undoubtedly subject him

paid, and which does not, therefore, bear a to the penalty of a misdemeanor under the

collar to which is attached the seal or determs of the measure.

vice referred to. All these provisions, in Counsel questions the purpose of the ordi

their very nature, demonstrate that the ordinance to be that of regulation because it con

nance is intended as an exercise of the police tains no provision probibiting the owner

and not of the taxing power. No American sbip of dogs within the corporate limits of the

court has ever questioned the right under the town. A conclusive answer to this unique

police power to regulate the control, managesuggestion is, first, that there is no power in

ment or use of dogs. The dog became a domunicipal or other authorities to probibit the

mestic animal originally by virtue of legislaownership of dogs, no more than there is

tive enactments, and but for statutes impartsuch power to prohibit the ownership of any

ing to him the status of property in all the other species of property ; second, if such

states and countries where the common law power existed, there certainly would be a

is the foundation of their jurisprudence the striking incongruity between the clause pro

dog would now have no standing before the bibiting such ownership and the one licens

law, except where, as in the case of other ing it. The ordinance is, as we have declared, a

wild animals, he was reduced to possession,

and even then, should he depart from his reasonable and appropriate exercise of the power vested by the Constitution in the cities,

possessor without animo revertendi, he thus towns, counties and townships of the state.

placed bimself again beyond the protection The petitioner will be remanded.

of the law. As illustrative of some of the

reasons upon which laws regulating property We concur: CHIPMAN, P. J.: BUR- in dogs are founded, we shall here present NETT, J.

extracts from some of the many autborities

upon the subject. In 67 Am. St. Rep. p. 298, On Rehearing.

the editor, in an extended note upon the subHART, J. In his petition for rebearing ject, says: "That property in dogs may be counsel for petitioner suggests that in the subjected to regulation by the state in the decision of the case we overlooked the main

exercise of its police power cannot be quespoint upon which he relied, and misconceived tioned.

Such regulation usually his point was to the force of section 3366, Pol. runs in the direction of imposing license taxCode." The main point referred to, although es upon the keeping of dogs, and it is well stated by counsel in his petition in the nature settled that the summary destruction of dogs of a number of queries, is briefly this: That may be authorized when such regulations are the ordinance in question represents the tax- not complied with." In Jenkins v. Ballan. ing rather than the police power, because the tyne, 8 Utab, 245, 30 Pac. 760, 16 L. R. A. license provided for therein amounts to a per 6S9, it is said: "The police power of the capita tax upon dogs, and therefore there is state has been used to regulate and control imposed by the ordinance a restriction upon property in dogs to a greater extent than the ownership of those animals. In other property in any other class of domestic aniwords, his contention is that the ordinance mals. It is a peculiar kind of property. authorizes a tax upon the ownership of dogs Such animals increase rapidly. They are and not an attempt to regulate their use. usually of but little expense to their owners We think that perhaps in one part of the when allowed to run at large, and in a domain opinion we unhappily used language mestic state they retain to a considerable dewhich might imply that we held that a li- gree their wild, mischievous, and ferocious cense for regulatory purposes migbt be im- natures. Their trespasses and invasions of posed upon the ownership of dogs. What we rights not belonging to their masters are intended to say then and what we do say now often such as are impossible to prevent and is that a license tax upon dogs may be im- wben the mischief is done sometimes it is imposed as an incident of the regulation of their possible to identify the dog or his owner, and management or control, or, as counsel pre when found the latter is sometimes as irrefers to express it, of their use.

The very

sponsible as the former. In fact, judicial terms of the ordinance before us show it to process and inquiry is altogether inadequate be a regulatory measure. It provides that to redress such wrongs. Hence such laws the owner of the dog, upon the payment of

and ordinances' as those in question are the required license tax, shall attach to a col adopted, requiring the owner of dogs to reg. lar to be worn by said dog a seal or device ister and collar them. By such means the us evidence of the ownership of the dog and owner is ascertained and made responsible, and all dogs not deemed worth the trouble, this point is that that section at the time of and expense of registration are outlawed its enactment declared the full power of a when at large and liable to be killed.”

municipal corporation to license for regulaCounsel undertakes to discover a distinc- tion. What we said in the main opinion tion between the law as expounded by the was: “Vor is there anything inconsistent courts in certain other jurisdictions and the between the provisions of the ordinance in law in California because in the former the question and those of section 3:360 of the dog is only qualified or base property, where

Political Code." and then declared that inas, in this state the statute impresses him corporated cities and towns derived their with the full status of property. So far as power to make all needful police regulations the vital question involved in this discussion from the Constitution itself. Our position is concerned, it can make no difference wheth- , in the main opinion was, and we know of er the dog is property or not. The power in no reason for changing it, that sertion 3300 the state to regulate its control or use is not of the Political Code does not, nor has the dependent upon that proposition. The dog

Legislature the right to do so at all, limit is not, because of having been constituted the power granted by the Constitution to property by legislative enactment, hedged counties and to (ities and towns to which about by a sacredness or surrounded by a

that section may be applicable to adopt such halo that will prevent the police power froin

police regulations as they may decide to extending to him if the governing or other

be requisite for their welfare, and, if a liduly constituted authorities of an incorporat

cense tax be deemed to be essential to the ed vity or town deem it necessary for the

full accomplishment of the purposes of such peace and comfort of the community to regu

regulations, any attempted legislative inhibilate its use or control within the limits of

tion against it is absolutely roidl. The only such city or town. Ordinances prohibiting

qualification to be found in this constitutionthe running at large within the limits of

al grant of power to counties and incorpotowns and cities of horses, cows, sheep, hogs,

ratell towns and cities is that such local and other useful domestic animals, and au

regulations shall not conflict with general thorizing their impounding when found so

lairs. By this is clearly meant that the Legrunning at large and even their sale, if not

islature may itself, buy general laws, exerredeemed, might be said with equal reason to

cise the power thus conferred upon such

cities and towns :und upon counties, and restrict in effect the ownership of those ani

that local regulations adopted by municipal mals within the limits of such cities and towns, and such ordinances have been up

boards not in harmony with such general held as a wholesome exercise of the police

laws would, of course, be void anrl inoper

ative. In other words, the Legislature may power. Of course, such ordinances are de

itself exercise the power granted by the signed only as a regulation of the use and

Constitution, but cannot limit the exercise of management of those animals, and do not,

such power either by itself or by the local in fact restrict or interfere with ownership.

governing bodies. As we understand counThe ordinance here does not, it will be readi

sel, his contention is that the section of the ly noted, either expressly or by implication,

Code referred to limits the power of licensattempt to interfere with the ownership of

ing for regulation to a "business of some dogs. As stated in the main opinion, the au

character, and that a dog is not a "business" thorities could not by ordinance or otherwise

in contemplation of that section; hence any disturb the right of ownership of those ani

attempt to license a dog as an incident of a mals. Any person ambitious to own a dog

regulatory measure is contrary to the section of any kind which may best suit his fancy

named. The statement of the proposition opermay not only exercise the right of such own

ates as its own refutation. Moreover, when 'ership, but may keep and maintain the ani

counsel admits, as he appears to do, the mal within the limits of Ukiah City, if he

right of a municipal corporation to regulate complies with the regulations as to its man

property in a dog or the use thereof, he agement, control, or use prescribed by the or

necessarily admits that such regulation may dinance. The owner of a cow must, in order

take the form of a license, for it has never to maintain and keep that useful animal

been doubted for a moment, either by the within the limits of a city or town, obey the text-writers or the courts, that when a busiregulations of such city or town with refer

ness or other matter which may be the subence to such animals, or be subjected to the

ject of police regulation is so regulated a penalties of the ordinance. And bis owner- license may be required as a condition to ship of the cow is thus in no manner or de

carrying on such business or to the maintegree interfered with. In short, the terms of nance of whatever may be the subject-matter the ordinance only involve the application of of such regulation, and a license fee imposed. the familiar principle that every person shall The fee exacted for such license is not, as so use his own property as not to injure the we think we have shown, intended for purrights of other persons or of the public. poses of revenue, but is designed to cover

We do not think we misconceived coun- the expense of supervision or the proper ensel's position as to the effect of section 3366 forcement of the ordinance. In a case like of the Political Code. His argument upon the one at bar, the fee is directed to the ac

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