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xlii. 1: lxi.l. Luke iv. 17 1.

Then he suffered him. 16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the In. 11:11 heavens were opened unto him, and he saw 9 the Spirit of an ini God descending like a dove P[, and] lighting upon him : ? chlaa. 17 and lo a 'voice from heaven, saying, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

xii. 18, Ivii.

t Eph. 1.6.

Col. i. 13.
3 Pet. i. 17.

P omitted by some of our earliest MSS. not come for that :-as yet, now, are we belong to the vain rationalistic attempt to in another relation (viz. our Lord as the reduce down that which is miraculous. The fulfiller of the law, John as a minister of express assertion of St. Luke, and the fact it), therefore suffer it.' “This now' is that all four Evangelists have used the spoken from the Lord's foreknowledge, same expression, which they would not that this relation of subjection to John have done if it were a mere medium of comwas only temporary, and that hereafter parison, are surely a sufficient refutation of their relative situations would be in- this rationalizing (and, I may add, blunverted.” Meyer. Stier remarks that now dering) interpretation. (3) Two circumwas fulfilled the prophetic announcement stances may be noticed respecting the manof Ps. xl. 7, 8. us] not for me, but ner of the descent of the Spirit : it was, as for me and thee. I cannot help thinking a dove :-the Spirit as manifested in our that this word glances at the relationship Lord was gentle and benign. This was not and previous acknowledged destinations of a sudden and temporary descent of the the speakers. It has however a wider Spirit, but a permanent though special sense, as spoken by Him who is now first anointing of the Saviour for his holy office. coming forth officially as the Son of Man, It abode upon Him,' John i. 32. And extending over all those whose baptism from this moment His ministry and mediaplants them in his likeness, Rom. vi. torial work in the active official sense) righteousness] requirements of the law. begins. Immediately, the Spirit carries See ch. vi. 1, where the sense is general, Him away to the wilderness : the day of as here.

16. baptized] On this ac- His return thence (possibly ; but see notes count I would make the following remarks. on John i. 29) John points Him out as the (1) The appearance and voice seem to have Lamb of God: then follows the calling of been manifested to our Lord and the Bap- Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Nathanael, and tist only. They may have been alone at the the third day after is the first miracle at time: or, if not, we have an instance in Acts the marriage in Cana. But we must not ix. 7, of such an appearance being confined imagine any change in the nature or person to one person, while the others present were of our Lord to have taken place at his bapunconscious of it. We can hardly however, tism. The anointing and crowning are but with some of the Fathers, say, that it signs of the official assumption of the power

a spiritual beholding,- or that which the king hås by a right independent the appearance was a vision, not reality.of, and higher than these. (4) The whole (2) The Holy Spirit descended not only in narrative is in remarkable parallelism with the manner of a dove, but in bodily shape that of the Transfiguration. There we have (11 Luke): which I cannot understand in our Lord supernaturally glorified the any but the literal sense, as THE BODILY presence of two great prophetic personages, SHAPE OF A DOVE, seen by the Baptist. Moses and Elias, who speak of His decease, There can be no objection to this, the -on the journey to which he forth with straightforward interpretation of the nar- sets out (ch. xvii. 22, compared with xix. rative, which does not equally apply to 1); and accompanied by the same testithe Holy Spirit being visible at all, which mony of the voice from heaven, uttering John himself asserts Him to have been the same words, with an addition accordant (John i. 32–34), even more expressly with the truth then symbolized. (5) In than is asserted here. Why the Creator connexion with apocryphal additions, the Spirit may not have assumed an organized following are not without interest: When body bearing symbolical meaning, as well Jesus had gone down to the water, a flame as any other material form, does not seem was lit up in the Jordan: and when He clear. This was the ancient, and is the had come up from the water, lo, the only honest interpretation. All the mo- heavens, &c. See also, my Greek Test. dern explanations of the “ like a dove,as on this passage. importing the manner of coming down, VOL. 1.



V see note,

u see 1 Kings

IV. 1 Then was Jesus u led up of the spirit into the wilxviii. 12. Ezek. iii. 14, &c. derness to be tempted of the devil. 2 And when he had

fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred. 3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be

made bread. 4 But he answered and said, It is written, w Dzur. vii. 8. w Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word

CHAP. IV. 1-11.) TEMPTATION OF proached) to him," ver. 9, and “leareth JESUS. Mark i. 12, 13: Luke iv. 1-13. him," ver. 11. Nor do the two members

1. led up of (by) the spirit] The of ver. 11 correspond to one another in this Spirit carried Him away, (see Acts viii. 39,) case, for the angels must have been visible driveth him,” Mark i. 12. Had St. Luke's and corporeal, as in the parallel case at was led in (thus literally) the Spirit Gethsemane, Luke xxii. 43. 2. when been our only account, we might have sup- he had fasted] Not in the wider ecclesi. posed what took place to have been done astical sense of the word, but its strict in a vision : but the expressions in the meaning, of abstaining from all food what. two other Evangelists entirely preclude ecer ; Luke, ver. 2. Similarly Moses, Exod. this. The desert here spoken of may either xxxiv. 28; and Elijah, 1 Kings xix. 8. be the traditional place of the Temptation he was afterward an hungred]

Then pronear Jericho (thence called Quarantaria : bably not during the time itself. The period it is described in “The Land and the Book," of the fast, as in the case of Moses, was p. 617, as a high and precipitous mountain, spent in a spiritualecstasy, during which the with its side facing the plain perpendicu. wants of the natural body were suspended. lar, and apparently as high as the rock of 3. when the tempter came] From Gibraltar, and with caverns midway be- the words of both St. Mark and St. Luke, low, hewn in the rock), or as scripture it appears that our Lord was tempted also parallelism between Moses, Elias, and our during the forty days. Whether the words Lord, leads one to think, the Arabian of St. Mark, “he was with the wild beasts," desert of Sinai. to be tempted] The allude to one kind of temptation, is uncerexpress purpose of His being led up. Hence tain: see note on Mark i. 13.-The words it is evident that our Lord at this time was came to himneed not be understood of not led up' of his own will and design: the first approach, but the first recordedbut, as a part of the conflict with the ‘at a certain time the tempter approaching, Power of Darkness, He was brought to the &c.' If thou be] “ thinking to beTemptation. As He had been subject to guile Him with his flattery,” Chrys. Or, his earthly parents at Nazareth, so now as Euthymius, “thinking that he would He is subject, in the outset of his official be irritated by this address, as being recourse, to his Heavenly Parent, and is by proached with not being the Son of God.” His will thus carried up to be tempted. At all events, there is no doubt expressed, In reverently considering the nature and as some think. Son of God] Our Lord end of this temptation, we may observe, does not give way to the temptation, so as (1) That the whole is undoubtedly an ob- to meet him with an open declaration, 'I jective historical narrative, recording an am the Son of God:' thus indeed He might actual conflict between our Redeemer and have asserted his lordship over him, but the Power of Evil. (2) That it is unde- not have been his Conqueror for us. The termined by the letter of the sacred text, first word which He uses against him, whether the Tempter appeared in a bodily reaches far deeper : Man shall not live, shape, or, as a spirit, was permitted to &c. This, like the other text, is taken exert a certain power, as in ver. 5, and from the history of Israel's temptation in ver. 8, over the person of our Lord, even the wilderness : for Israel represents, in a as the Holy Spirit did in ver. 1. If the foreshadowing type, the Son of Man, the latter were the case, the words spoken at servant of God for Rightevusness, the one the various stages of the temptation, were that was to come, in whom alone that nasuggested by this Evil Power to the soul ture which in all men has degenerated into of our Redeemer. But (3) such an inter- sin, fulfils all righteousness.' Adam pretation, while it cannot justly be accused stood not, -Israel according to the flesh of unreality by any who do not reject be- stood not,—when the Lord their God lief in the spiritual world, hardly meets tempted them : but rather, after Satan's the expressions of the text, “came (ap- likeness, tempted their God: but now the

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I a. xlviii. 2: lii. 1. Dan.


that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on qa

x Neh. xi.1, 18. pinnacle of the temple, 6 and saith unto him, If thou be 1.21 ch. the Son of God, cast thyself down : for it is written, » He Berlin shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their y pa. Či. 11, hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. 7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 2 Devr. vi. 16. 8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them ; 9 and saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship

9 render, the. second Adam is come, the true Israel, by this in the text; the temptation being one whose obedience the way of life is again not of ambition, but of presumption. The made known and opened— that man truly inference from Eusebius, who, quoting liveth on and in the eternal word of God."), Hegesippus, (Hist. ii. 23,) describes James Stier's “ Words of the Lord Jesus." Ob. the Just as set on and thrown from the serve also how our Lord resists Satan in pinnacle of the temple, among the people, His humanity ; at once here numbering is not decisive: for this term might emHimself with men, by adducing “man" as brace either side, as the cornice,' or 'the including His own case; and not only so, parapet' would.

6. It is written] but thus speaking out the mystery of his cited (nearly verbatim from the LXX, as humiliation, in which He had foregone his almost all the texts in this narrative) as divine Power, of his own will.— By 'every applying to all servants of God in general, word (or 'thing, for the noun is not ex- and à fortiori to the Son of God: not as a pressed in the original) that proceedeth out prophecy of the Messiah.

7. again] of the mouth of God,' we must understand, not on the contrary,' which the original every arrangement of the divine will; God, word never simply means, not even in Gal. who ordinarily sustains by bread, can, if it v. 3:1 John ü. 8. The addition of a second please Him, sustain by any other means, as Scripture qualifies and interprets the first; in the case alluded to. Compare John iv. but does not refute it. 8.] The enquiry 32, 34. 5. taketh him up) power being where and what this mountain was, is enmost probably given to the tempter over tirely nugatory, no data being furnished by the person of our Lord. In St. Luke, this the text. sheweth him all the k. temptation stands third. The real order of the world] The additional words in is evidently that in the text; for other- Luke, “in a moment of time,are valuwise our Lord's final answer, ver. 10, would able as pointing out to us clearly the not be in its place. It may be observed, supernatural character of the vision. If it that St. Luke makes no assertion as to be objected, that in that case there was no succession, only introducing each tempta- need for the ascent of the mountain,-I tion with and: whereas “thenand answer, that such natural accessories are again" here seem to mark succession. For made use of frequently in supernatural “ the holy city" see reff. setteth him revelations : see especially Rev. xxj. 10. – by the same power by which he brought The attempts to restrict “the world” to Him. pinnacle] The general opi. Palestine, (which was, besides, God's pecunion, that our Lord was placed on Herod's liar portion and vineyard, as distinguished royal portico, is probably right. That por. from the Gentile world,) or the Roman tico overhung the ravine of Kedron from a empire, are mere subterfuges: as is also the dizzy height, so as to make one giddy with giving to "sheweth” the sense of "points looking down, as described by Josephus, out the direction of.

In this last Antt. xv. 11. 5. The argument that it was temptation the enemy reveals himselfopenly, probably on the other side, next the court, as the Prince of this world, and as the is grounded on the perfectly gratuitous

father of lies : for though power is given assumption, that an exhibition to the people him over this world and its sons, his asserwas intended. There is no authority for tion here is most untrue.

10.] Our

me. & DEUT. vi. 13:

2. 20.

c ch. xiv. 3.

10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan : for it is written, a Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God,

and him only shalt thou serve. 11 Then the devil leaveth 13. Heb. 1.14. him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.

12 Now when r Jesus had heard that John was 8 cast into he Acts ill. prison, he departed into Galilee; 13 and leaving Nazareth, I read, he.

8 render, delivered up. Lord at once repels him openly; not that iv. 14—ix. 10. This omission is in reHe did not know him before,—but because markable consistency with St. Matthew's he had thus openly tempted Him; but not account of his own calling in ch. ix. 9. even this of His own power or will ; He Being employed in his business in the adds, for it is written, -again, as - Man, neighbourhood of Capernaum, he now first appealing to the word of God.- From this becomes personally acquainted with the time, our Lord is known by the devils, and words and actions of our Lord. From casts them out by a word. Mark i. 24, 34; what circumstance the former miracle in iii. 11; v. 7. 11. leaveth him] but Capernaum had not attracted his attenonly for a season, see || Luke. The con. tion, we cannot, of course, definitely say ; flict, however often renewed in secret (of we can, however, easily conceive. Our which we cannot speak), was certainly Lord was not then in Capernaum ; for the again waged in Gethsemane : see Luke ruler sent to Him, and the cure was | xxii. 53, compare John xiv. 30. The ex- wronght by word at a distance. If Mat. pression in Luke x. 18, must be otherwise thew's attention had not been called to understood : see note there. minis- Jesus before, he might naturally omit tered) viz. with food, as in the case of such a narrative, which John gives proElias, 1 Kings xix. 6, 7.

bably from personal knowledge. The syn12—22.] JESUS BEGINS HIS MINISTRY. optic narrative generally omits this whole CALLING OF PETER, ANDREW, JAMES, section of our Lord's travels and ministry. AND John. Mark i. 14-20. Luke iv. Its sources of information, until the last 14, 15. Between the last verse and this is visit to Jerusalem, seem to have been a considerable interval of time. After re- exclusively Galilæan, and derived from turning from the Temptation (see note on persons who became attached to Him at John i. 28, end) our Lord was pointed out a later period than any of the events reby John the Baptist, (ib. vv. 29-34,) corded in that first portion of John's and again on the morrow to two of his Gospel. The objections to this view are, disciples, Andrew and (probably) John, the narrative, in the three Gospels, of the who followed Him, and were (on the next baptism and temptation : but the former day ? see note, John i. 44) joined by Simon of these would be abundantly testified by Peter (35—43): then on the morrow Philip John's disciples, many of whom became and Nathanael we recalled (44-52); three disciples of Jesus; and the latter could days after was the marriage in Cana (ii. only have been derived from the mouth 1-11); then our Lord went down to of our Lord Himself. 12. delivered Capernaum and remained not many days up] This seems to have been the usual (12); then followed the Passover; the and well-known term for the imprisoncleansing of the temple (13—22); the be- ment of John. The same word in the lief of many on Jesus (23—25); the dis. original is also the usual for course with Nicodemus (iii. 1—21); the the betrayal and apprehension of our baptizing by Jesuis (i.e. his disciples) Lord Himself.

departed] re(22—24); the question about purifying, tired, withdrew; see ch. ii. 22, and note. and testimony of the Baptist (25—36); No notice is given whence this withdrawal the journey through Samaria into Galilee, took place. The narrative is evidently and discourse with the woman of Samaria taken up after an interval, and without (iv. 1-42); the return to Cana, and heal- any intention that it should follow closely ing of the ruler's son in Capernaum on ver. 11. Wieseler sees in this a proof (43—54); and the journey to Jerusalem that St. Matthew recognized a ministry in related in John v. 1. After that chapter Judæa during the interval. I cannot quite St. John breaks off the first part of his think this, but certainly he does not narrative; and between his v. 47 and vi. 1, exclude it. 13. leaving Nazareth] comes in the synoptic narrative, Matt. Not on account of the behaviour of the iv. 12-xiv. 15: Mark i, 14-vi. 30: Luke Nazarenes to Him after the preaching in


he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim : 14 that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, 16 The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephtha- 1 Isa. ix. 1, 2. lim, [t by] the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; 16 the people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.

17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, ° Repent: for the king- ech, til. 2: I. dom of heaven is at hand. 18 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon' called Peter, and 1 John 1, 42. Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea : for they

t not expressed in the original. the Synagogue, Luke iv. 28, 29, as some- preaching of repentance was of a different times supposed; see notes, ib. ver. 31. character from the after-teaching of our

Capernaum] This town, on the Lord: we recognize the same formula, borders of the lake of Gennesareth, was cen- though only partly cited, in ch. x. 7: Luke tral in situation, and in the most populous x. 10, and find our Lord still preaching and frequented part of Galilee." It be- repentance, Luke xiii. 3, after repeated sides was the residence of four at least declarations of His Messiahship. of the Apostles, Andrew and Peter, and 18. by the sea of Galilee] The lake of James and John-and probably of Mat- Gennesareth or Tiberias (John vi. 1), called thew. Kephar Nahum,the village of in the 0. T. the sea of Chinnereth,” consolation. So Josephus. It is from Num. xxxiv. 11, or Chinneroth, Josh. xii. this time called · Hi own city,' ch. ix. 1, 3. It is of an val shape, about 13 geosee also ch. xvii. 24.

15.] This pro- graphical miles long, and 6 broad : and is phecy is spoken with direct reference to traversed by the Jordan from n. to s. the days of the Messiah. It is here freely “Its most remarkable feature is its deep rendered from the Hebrew, without any depression, being no less than 700 feet regard to the LXX, which is wholly below the level of the ocean." See the different. This, coming so immediately interesting article by Mr. Porter in Smith's after a string of quotations literally from Biblical Dictionary. If we give any the LXX, seems to mark the beginning of consideration to the circumstances here a new portion of the Gospel, agreeably to related, we cannot fail to see that the ac. what was said before.

count in John is admirably calculated to of the sea] the country round the coast complete the narrative. We have there of the lake. All the members of this furnished to us the reason why these two sentence are in apposition with one brethren were so ready to arise and follow another: thus beyond Jordan is not a de- One, whom, if we had this account only, scription of the land before spoken of, we should infer they had never before which was not thus situated, but of a

Add to this, that there is every different tract. The later meaning of the probability that one of the other pair of phrase, as signifying the tract to the west brethren, John the son of Zebedee, is of the Jordan, and which naturally sprung there described as having gone with Anup during the captivity, is not to be drew to the dwelling of our Lord. It also thought of in Isaiah, who wrote before tends to confirm the chronological view that event. Galilee of the Gentiles] here taken, that Philip, the only one Galilee superior, near to Tyre and Sidon, mentioned expressly by John as having which was inhabited by a variety of na- been called by Jesus, is not mentioned here tions. 17. began to preach . .] That as called : and that Andrew, and the other is, began His ministry in Galilee. The disciple of John the Baptist, clearly were account of Matthew, being that of an eye- not called by Jesus in John i. 35—40, or witness, begins where his own experience the words "abode with him that day," began. It is not correct to suppose, as could not have been used : that these two some of the German Commentators have continued disciples of the Baptist, is not done, (De Wette, Strauss,) that this probable; but that they were henceforth,

the way


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