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COPYRIGHT BY
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1882.

PREFACE.

THE volume of this work for 1881 is the sixth of the new series and the twenty-first of the whole series. It has grown in size to meet the increased activity in human affairs, and to present the interesting public questions and scientific developments which have arisen, and the discussions of their principles.

A special article is devoted to the affairs of each country and to each State of the United States, which contains a sketch of its history during the year, the administration of its government, and its legislation ; full official information on its area, population, education, military force, commerce, industry, finances, and the public questions agitated and reforms effected. No efforts are spared to secure the fullest information from all parts of the world, and it is considered that in its several departments the work may be safely consulted as the completest and most reliable book of reference. At the same time its record of scientific developments and progress will be found most valuable and unsurpassed.

In this volume the sad history of the fatal wounding and slow decline of the President are given in the article on “Garfield,” a summary of the points in the trial of the murderer is recounted, the important medico-legal question of “Insanity as a Defense” is discussed, and the constitutional question of “Presidential Inability” is presented, with the views of public men.

The change of administration, the “legislation of Congress," with the debates, the “special sessions” and proceedings of the United States Senate, and the records of each of the States, and especially the political history of New York, are given fully. The movements and statistics of “ Commerce and Finance in the United States," and the Finances" of the Government of the latter, by ex-Assistant Secretary Upton; the “Exposition of Cotton Products at Atlanta," by Professor William M. Browne; the report of the “Mississippi River Innprovements”; “the Panama Canal question”; the important diplomatic correspondence of “Peru, Chili, and the United States”; the question of “ Bi-metallic Currency” with the results of the conference at Paris; the recent progress of “ American Constitutional Law"; the validity of the “Naturalization Papers of the United States”—are subjects of permanent and historical importance.

The stirring events which have occurred in foreign countries are scarcely of less interest. The agrarian question in Ireland as well as in the other coun

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tries of Europe; the wars in South America, Afghanistan, the Transvaal, and Turkistan; the revolutionary upheaval in Russia and the terrible murder of the Czar; the persecutions of the Jews in Germany and Russia ; the developments of the still unsolved Eastern question; the social reforms in Germany; the rapid political changes in republican France; the liberal movements in Italy and Spain-are a few of the subjects of which an account is given, together with all the latest statistical information, under the names of the different countries, or dealt with in special articles, such as “ Jews, Persecutions of";

Islam, the Future of”; “Brahmo Somaj”; “Land Tenure in Europe”; “Opium-Trade of India and China”; “Russian Government, its Features."

Religious and denominational information is given under the names of the denominations, and a special article on the “New Testament Revision."

There are biographical articles on numerous distinguished persons who have died during the year.

The progress of science, particularly of its useful applications, and the achievements of inventive genius, are described with comprehensive complete

Of the long list of special articles and new subjects may be mentioned as examples, the progress of “ Medical Science and Practice,” the article on “ Eye-sight Deterioration,” the one on the progress of “Mechanical Engineering,” the recent developments in “Physiology"; the account of the “Exhibition of Electrical Inventions" at Paris, the article discussing “Technical Education,” the account of the improvement in “Photography,” the articles on “Glucose”; “Germs, Vaccination with Disease”; “ Fertilizers” by Professor W.O. Atwater; “Chlorophyl”; “Oysters, Deterioration of”; “Nutritive Elements of Food”; and the merits and demerits of “Silo, or Ensilage,” by L. B. Arnold.

The subject of the United States census is treated in the volume with great fullness in its various departments, and the population is given of every county in each State, and also of all the principal cities, and compared with the statistics of the former census of 1870. The returns of the recent census in Great Britain, in France, in Italy, Switzerland, and other European countries, are presented to the latest dates practicable. Large and very finely colored maps accompany the United States census, and illustrate the comparative density of the population in 1830 and 1880; the center of population at the end of each decade since 1800 ; and also the comparative density and the location of the foreign and the colored population.

Fine steel portraits of President Arthur, ex-Secretary Blaine, the lately deceased poet Longfellow, and the distinguished French citizen Gambetta, embellish the volume, together with maps and cuts in various articles.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

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A ADVENTISTS. The several denominations ing churches and a declaration of principles." of Adventists in the United States trace their The convention met April 6th, and was atorigin to the preaching of William Miller, who tended by ninety-three delegates from the predicted about 1840, as the result of his stud- New England States, New York, Pennsylvaies of the prophecies of Scripture and the cal- nia, and Canada. A declaration of principles culations deduced therefrom, that the second respecting creed and church organization and coming of Christ should be looked for in 1843 a form of “advisory covenant were adoptor 1844. They agree in the expression of the ed. The first four articles of the declarabelief that the visible personal second coming tion state the commonly received "orthodox” of Christ is near at hand, but are divided, on doctrine of the Scriptures and the Trinity. other points of doctrine, into four branches, The fifth article declares that Christ died to the most numerous of which are the Second save men from eternal death, the penalty of Advent Christians, numbering about fifty thou- violated law; that the redemption he provided sand members. The distinctive features of is twofold — "redemption of all men from their belief are the doctrine of the immediate the penalty of Adam's sin, by the resurrection personal coming and reign of Christ on the of the dead ; second, the redemption of beearth; holiness of heart; the unconscious state lievers from personal sin and its consequences." of the dead; their literal resurrection; and the The sixth, seventh, and eighth articles treat of final destruction of the wicked.” The Evan- repentance, of baptism (concerning which it is gelical Adventists, numbering about nine thou- said that pardoned believers should be “buried sand members, differ froin these, in holding to with Christ in baptism," to show their belief the conscious state of the dead, and the eternal in the resurrection of Christ and the dead), of conscious suffering of the wicked. The Sev- the Lord's Supper, and the personal return of enth-Day Adventists, who have about fifteen Christ. The tenth article expresses belief in thousand five hundred members, hold that the the everlasting destruction of the finally imsanctuary to be cleansed is not the earth, but penitent, and the final extinction of all evil. the heavenly sanctuary; that Christ will come The eleventh article declares that the coming as soon as he completes his “investigative of Christ is near at hand. The twelfth and judgment" to ascertain who of the dead are thirteenth articles express the belief that the worthy of the first resurrection, and who of earth will be made over to be the future abode the living of translation. Satan is then to of the saints, and that all church action should reign in the earth a thousand years, after which point to the personal coming of Christ. In the earth will be redeemed and fitted to be the the "advisory covenant” the Bible is accepted dwelling-place of the saints. The Life and as the only rule of faith, and liberty of thought Advent Union holds to the life in Christ only, is permitted, with a reservation, for the protecand the non-resurrection of the wicked dead. tion of the privilege of a refusal of sanction

Second ADVENT CHRISTIAN Association. to the “persistent urging of doctrinal themes" The Second Advent Christians have, until the not " essential to salvation." The articles on last year, been represented by two distinct or the subject of church organization approve ganizations, one for the East and one for the the congregational system. West. Representatives of both branches of A conference of Second Advent Christians the denomination were invited the Eastern representing six States, met at Fores IlliAssociation to meet at Worcester, Massachu- nois, in June, and adopted resolutions on setts, in a National Convention, "for the pur- church organization; a declaration of principose of considering a proper system of organiz- ples in harmony with that set forth at Wor

VOL. XXI.-1 A

cester; and a basis of union between Eastern abandonment of the military domination of the and Western Adventists.

country had produced a state of anarchy, and The twenty-second annual meeting of the that the final retirement from Candahar would Second Advent Christian Association-the first give full license to military adventurers ambiregular meeting of the united organization- tious of empire. was held at Chelsea, Massachusetts, August The nature of the negotiations between 16th. The following conferences were repre- Shere Ali and the Russian authorities were resented : Maine, New Hampshire, Massachu- vealed in a secret correspondence which was setts, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, captured at Cabool. The menacing preparations Hloosick Valley, New York, Ohio, Michigan, of Lord Lytton for the invasion of AfghanisPhiladelphia, Illinois, Wisconsin, Northern tan had led Shere Ali to appeal to Russia for Central Missouri and Southern Central Iowa, aid, and an offensive and defensive alliance was Southwestern Missouri and Northwestern in negotiation while hostilities between EnIowa, Minnesota, Kansas, California, Alabaina, gland and Russia were imminent; but after the and South Carolina. E. A. Stockman presided. signature of the Treaty of Berlin, the Russian The most important business transacted was envoy at Cabool, Colonel Stoletoff, only sought the adoption of the constitution for the united by equivocations, and by counseling the Ameer organization. This statute declares that the to remain at peace, to extricate his government society shall be known as the

from the position to which it was committed. “ Second Advent Christian Association of America,” The history of the Afghan war shows the imand that its object shall be " the promulgation of Bi- possibility of either power occupying the Afble truth, especially the fulfillment of prophecy rela- ghan country as a military base. The indomitive to the immediate second personal advent of our table mountain tribes are only bound together Lord, and a preparation for the event, through the by a loose feudal league. The Ameer is little Advent Christian Publication Society and all other laudable means.

more than a titular sovereign, and there is no

habitual and disciplined submission to a cenThe association was divided into two districts, tral organized government. Their fierce spirit the Eastern and the Western districts, having of independence will not brook the thought of the western boundary of the State of New foreign ascendency. An ameer would lose the York and Pennsylvania as the line of division allegiance of his subjects who should succumb between them; the annual meetings to be held to any European influence. The threatened alternately in either section. Each conference advance of the English was all that made dealin the United States and Canada is entitled to ings with Russia possible. The adherence one delegate as a member of the association, given to Ayoob Khan by wide sections of the with one additional delegate for every three country was mainly owing to the fact that hundred members of churches; and single Abdurrahman had been the choice of the churches, where there are no conferences, may British conquerors. send delegates. Provision is made for the The Liberal party in England, adhering to representation of distant conferences by proxy; the conviction that a “strong, friendly, and and a committee of six delegates was consti- independent Afghanistan " is the best bulwark tuted in either section to represent all such against the Russian advance toward India, repart of that section as may not be otherwise corded a solid vote in the House of Commons represented, when the annual meeting is held against a motion to retain Candabar, promptin the other section.

ed by the intelligence of the capture of Geok The Advent Christian Publication Society Tepe by the Russians. The evacuation of returned a capital of $14,438, and reported Candabar and Southern Afghanistan was still that its receipts for the year had been $20,480. delayed, in the hope that the Ameer would It had handled during the year $4,339 worth gather the political strength to occupy the of books and tracts, and had published 4,333,- country and cope with his adversary and En072 pages. The sales amounted to $4,803, and gland's foe, Ayoob Khan. The son of Shere gifts bad been made through the tract fund to Ali had seemingly better chances of uniting Afthe amount of $1,820.

ghanistan under his rule than Abdurrahman. AFGHANISTAN. A British garrison occu He was the candidate of the numerous Duranis, pied Candahar at the beginning of the year. with a considerable following among the GhilIn the Queen's speech at the opening of Par- zais, and with partisans in all the valleys of liament in January, the incoming British Cab- Afghanistan. His rule was established in inet announced its intention of withdrawing Herat, and his pretensions acknowledged the troops from the country. Lord Beacons- throughout Western and Southern Afghanisfield, in criticising the sudden reversal of his tan. He was raising treasure and recruiting policy, protested against the impairment of the his army from the bravest elements of all parts imperial prestige and renown in the Orient by of Afghanistan, in strenuous preparation for the course of the Government in “ doing every a struggle with Abdurrahman. The feudathing they could to inform every being in tory sirdars who embraced his cause with Central Asia, and in every other part of Asia, their bold and turbulent followers, however, that they meant to cut and run from the scené possessed their share of the proverbial jealof a splendid conquest," and declared that the ous, rebellious, and faithless spirit of the Af

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