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The revenue for the year concluded was £2, school, wishing to be near his friend Edward 800,000, and the expenditure £2,633,783. Irving, who had a private school in the same
The Assembly resolved that an amendment town. After two more years spent in this unto the Constitution be adopted, to allow the congenial pursuit, in which he acquired the option of addressing Parliament in the Dutch name of a stern pedagogue, Carlyle went up language. The further extension of railroads to Edinburgh to embark in the profession of was decided upon, including a line to West literature. His first employment was in the Griqualand. Harbor improvements were also compilation of Brewster's “Edinburgh Encycloauthorized. The railroad construction author- pædia.” At the instance of Sir David Brewized involves expenditures announting to five ster he translated Legendre's "Geometry and millions sterling.
Trigonometry," prefacing it with an essay on CARLYLE, THOMAS, an eloquent British proportion. At this time he made the acquaintauthor and leader of contemporary thought, ance of the German language and its literature, died at his house in Chelsea, February 5th. the treasures of which were first unlocked to He was the eldest of a family of eight children. the English-reading public by his sympathetic His father, James Carlyle, the son of a small translations and criticisms. His brother, Dr. Scotch tenant farmer, was a working stone- John Carlyle, who afterward acquired a place mason at the time of the author's birth, and in literature by his translation of Dante, was afterward became a prosperous farmer; he at that time studying in Germany. Carlyle was a man of rectitude and energy, possessing contributed to the “ New Edinburgh Review" mental traits and endowments similar to those an article on “Faust,” the first product of his which, developed in literary form, gave his son German studies. He was for several years the mighty influence he has exercised over the tutor to the gifted Charles Buller. He joined English mind. All his sons became men of the staff of brilliant writers engaged upon the character and ability. Thomas Carlyle was “London Magazine," to which he contributed born at Ecclefechan, a village near Dumfries, in 1823 the first part of his “Life of Schiller," December 4, 1795. He learned to read and and in the following year a translation of“ Wilwrite in the parish school of Hoddam, and was helm Meister's Lehrjahre.”. Goethe's novel taught the elements of Latin by the minister and the style of the translation were sharply In his ninth year he passed into the burgh assailed by the critics, led by De Quincey, one school at Annan. Before his fourteenth birth of the few Englishmen who at that time knew day he entered the University of Edinburgh. anything about the master-poet of Germany. He made few friends, and was little interested Undeterred by the contempt with which that in the professors and their teachings, although masterpiece of German literature had been they numbered among them men of European received, Carlyle in 1827 published several reputation, who were able to inspire an unu volumes of “German Romance," containing saal zest in the generality of students for the translations of short pieces of fiction by the literary and philosophical studies of the class- principal writers of the romantic school.
Carlyle devoted himself to reading, In 1827 Carlyle married Jane Welsh, daughexploring with avidity the college library and ter of Dr. Welsh, of Haddington, who was a dethe various circulating libraries of the city. scendant of John Knox. Carlyle's wife owned These independent and desultory studies were a farm among the Dumfriesshire hills, whither 80 confining as to impair his health. Under he betook himself and lived for six years, Sir John Leslie, whom alone among the pro- wrapped in his literary work, with his wife for fessors he made his friend, he obtained a knowl. his only companion. Mrs. Carlyle was in charedge of mathematics rare among youths of his acter and intellect hardly inferior to her husyears. He was destined for the ministry by band. In the seclusion of Craigenputtock farm his father, but after passing through the four Carlyle wrote the essays on Burns, Goethe, and years' curriculum of arts he concluded that he Johnson, Heyne, Novalis, Voltaire, and Didecould not conscientiously follow that profes- rot. “Sartor Resartus" was written at this sion. “Now that I had gained man's estate, period, but not published till years afterward. he said, recounting the spiritual crisis he passed The young author, by the independent and selfthrough in deciding the question, “I was not prompted work which he was enabled to acsure that I believed the doctrines of my father's complish in his mountain retreat, gained a great kirk; and it was needful I should now settle name, and was occasionally sought out by visitit. And so I entered my chamber and closed ors from afar who had drawn light from his phithe door, and around me there came a troop- losophy and hailed him as their teacher. Èming throng of phantasms dire from the abys- erson visited him at Craigenputtock, and listmal depths of nethermost perdition ; doubt, ened with wonder to the brilliant and original fear, unbelief, mockery, and scoffing were talk which streamed from the lips of his host. there; and I wrestled with them in agony of Carlyle wrote for the “ Edinburgh Review," spirit.” He embraced the calling of a teacher, but was frequently offended at the ruthless liband first taught mathematics in the school hé erties that Jeffrey took with his manuscript, had lately attended in Annan; and after re- which was pruned and patched by that pedanmaining there two years went to Kirkcaldy to tic editor into conformity with his finical canteach mathematics and the classics in the burgh ons of taste. With Napier as editor, Carlyle's
relations with the review were pleasanter, ters and Speeches,” a successful book. The Jeffrey in a letter to his successor warns him Great Protector was only known to the Engthat Carlyle would not be a proper contributor lish people before the publication of Carlyle's
-“that is,” lie explained, " if you do not take memoir in the image of the mingled hypocrite the liberties and pains with him that I did, by and fanatic, lunatic, scoundrel, and buffoon, striking out freely, and writing in occasionally. pictured by his detractors. In 1851 Carlyle The misfortune is that he is very obstinate and published a biography of his friend John SterI am afraid, very conceited.” Carlyle com- ling. Between 1858 and 1865 came out Carposed “Sartor Resartus” in 1831. This re- lyle's "Frederick the Great," the product of markable work of philosophical satire and pro. long labor and critical research. In its prepafound reflection went begging for a publisher, ration he resided some time in Germany, and and first appeared in a magazine, seven years visited the scenes of Frederick's battles. This after it was written. In order to be near was Carlyle's last great work. During the libraries and obtain the advantages of social American civil war he gave out, in " Ilias in intercourse necessary to an author of his rank, Nuce," his morose reflections on the destiny of he left his rustic home for London in 1834, set- the republic and the value of the institution of tling in the house in Cheyne Row which he slavery. In 1865 Carlyle was elected rector of inhabited till the day of his death. The pro- Edinburgh University. In the following year, ductivity of his genius in the first few years of while he was absent, delivering to the students his metropolitan residence was extraordinary. a lecture on the choice of books, his wife died. He labored incessantly and with intense appli- The loss of bis companion was to him a source cation. He worked with the pen from ten to of poignant grief; he wrote that "the light three every day, and, after an intermission for of his life had quite gone out.” In 1867 the disexercise, visiting, and letter-writing, studied cussion of the extension of the suffrage brought all the evening. He had to wait long for rec- out “Shooting Niagara, and After," dismal ognition in London. The reviewers ridiculed vaticination of the terrible consequences of the eccentricities, the roughness, the strange democratic freedom. In 1870 he published, in choice and collocations of words, the incompre- the London “ Times,” reflections on the Francohensible Germanicisms, and all the peculiarities German War, expressing approbation of the of his style. The publishers were not eager prospective annexation to Germany of Alsace to print his productions. Even the “French and Lorraine. Revolution," the most brilliant and impressive, Carlyle exerted as far-reaching an influence and the most characteristic product of his upon the men of his time through his convergenius, did not immediately find a publisher. sation as through his published writings. In The occasion of the removal of Thomas Car- speaking, he was less apt to fall into the grolyle and his wife to Chelsea was the publication tesque involutions of phrase and idiosyncrasies of “Sartor Resartus.” Only in America did of language which mar his writings. These this work meet with unhesitating admiration. faults of style grew upon him, and render his Thomas and Mrs. Carlyle found cordial and ap- later works difficult and disagreeable to read. preciative friends among the literary profes- His letters were free from these vices. ln early sion, and a knot of eminent writers delighted to life, he wrote rapidly, and spent little pains on gather in their small house in the suburb. Be- revision; but in later years he corrected, retween 1837 and 1840 Carlyle read some courses wrote, erased, and interpolated with excessive of lectures in London on “General Literature,' “ The History of Literature,” “ The Revolu Carlyle was ailing several years before his tions of Modern Europe,” and “Heroes and death. He left some autobiographical mateHero-Worship,” which wrought a profound im- rials, which were committed to James Anthony pression in intellectual society. "The French Froude, as his literary executor, and were pubRevolution,” the first work which bore Car- lished by him without excision. The pungent lyle's name on the title-page, was published in and sometimes unkind reflections on friends 1837. The first volume he had been obliged and associates of Carlyle caused much indigto rewrite. He had lent the manuscript to nation against the editor and no little sorrow John Stuart Mill, who had confided it to Mrs. among the friends of the dead philosopher. Taylor, whose servant, it is supposed, took it Thomas Carlyle propounded a social phito kindle the fire.
losophy, which did not fall in with the spirit of In 1839 Carlyle commenced to turn his at- the age, but which acted as a corrective to the tention to the wants and hardships of the current doctrines. As a critic, he disclosed real lower classes. Between that year and 1850 flaws in the habit of thinking that has grown he published “ Chartism,” “ Past and Present," up, which regards the collective opinion of the and “ Latter-Day Pamphlets,” diatribes filled commonalty, which is only derivative, and with bitter scorn, directed indiscriminately must often be outstripped by the authors and against the indifferentism of the political econ actors of history, as the prime impulse in social omists, and against the doctrine that remedial progress. He exalted the value of the indilegislation or the extension of popular rights vidual will, and delighted in the exhibitions of can be of use in the work of social reformation, energy and power by the rulers of modern In 1845 was issued “Oliver Cromwell's Let- times, with too little discrimination of their
motives or of the effects of their acts on civili- His election gave general satisfaction to the zation.
Republicans. He took his seat March 4, 1879. CARPENTER, Matthew H., born in More- Among several speeches which he addressed to town, Vermont, in 1824; died in Washington, the Senate, all remarkable for their ability, that February 24, 1881. In 1843 he entered the against the Fitz John Porter bill is regarded as Military Academy at West Point, where he re his finest effort. His course in politics during mained two years. He then went to Boston his last term in office was much more indeand studied law with Rufus Choate, and was pendent than previously, and as a lawyer he admitted to the bar. In 1848 he removed to had few equals in Washington, where most of Wisconsin, and entered the practice of his pro- bis later years were spent. fession, in which he soon became eminent for CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES. his legal ability and brilliant talent, which won (See United States Census.) him high reputation in the Supreme Court of CHEMISTRY. The president of the Chemthe United States even before his entrance into ical Section of the British Association, Professor public life. Not until after the war did Mr. A.W.Williamson, made the growth of the atomic Carpenter take an active part in politics. Be- theory during the last fifty years the subject of fore and during the war he was a Democrat; his opening address at the last year's meeting, but, when the leading men took sides on that maintaining that its general validity had been issue, he became a Union man. When, at the confirmed by the tests of experimental applicaclose of the contest, he espoused Republican- tion to which it bad been rigorously subjected. ism, his generally recognized ability cominand- The binary or dualistic theory of combination, ed for him the active support of that party in and the doctrine of multiple proportions which Wisconsin, and in 1869 he was elected to the were formerly connected with it, and which United States Senate in place of Senator Doo- seemed to be satisfactorily applicable to the little.
simpler compounds and the salts, broke down Mr. Carpenter served in the Senate from when chemists came to deal with double comMay 4, 1869, until March 3, 1875, and occa- pounds which were not saline in character, and sionally showed great power as a lawyer and with the carbon compounds; and it became debater, but lacked those qualities necessary to necessary to find other methods of accounting make a public man understand public senti- for the phenomena of chemical combinations. ment. He belonged to that class of brilliant As the investigations were continued with refpoliticians who so strongly influenced the pro- erence to this object, the idea of substitution ceedings of Congress from 1869 to 1875, and came to be more and more used in the place of of which General Butler was a representative that of mere additive combination. Elementman. About this time Mr. Carpenter was the ary chemical reactions which, according to the victim of malicious slanders, but he was able to binary theory, were supposed to consist of prove to general satisfaction that they were dualistic processes, involving sometimes the groundless. In 1874 Wisconsin Republicans, assumption of forces (like predisposing affinity) like the party elsewhere, were suffering from of a purely metaphysical character, were exthe injudicious action of Congress upon the plained as consisting of atomic displacements, salary bill and like matters, and the feeling or interchanges of a kind well known to be of against the railroad corporations was also a common occurrence. Many products of the distracting element. The party had, however, combination of known molecules have been a majority in the Legislature, but a considera- found to be formed by processes of double deble portion of it was made up of Independents. composition, so that each molecule of such Mr. Carpenter received the caucus nomination products is built up partly of atoms derived for Senator, but the independent minority from one of the materials, partly of atoms refused to vote for him. After a protracted from the other. In the organic compounds, struggle, the Democrats joined the independent many of the molecules having a very complex Republicans and elected Mr. Cameron. Mr. structure have been found to undergo in their Carpenter accepted bis defeat, vouched for the reactions very simple changes, of the same Republicanism of his successor, and retired to kind as those which mineral compounds underhis extensive law practice, taking little interest go. Families of organic compounds have been in political affairs. During the contest over discovered whose members are connected by the presidential succession of 1876–77, Mr. close analogy of constitution and properties, Carpenter appeared before the Electoral Com- each of them forming a series, each term of mission as one of the Tilden counsel, and made which is a compound whose molecule contains an argument in his behalf. The Legislature of one atom of carbon and two atoms of hydrogen Wisconsin, which met in January, 1879, was more than the previous one. Our knowledge called upon to choose a successor to Senator of molecules has undergone a most remarkable Howe. The contest between Messrs. Howe, and important extension by the discovery that Keyes, and others was a bitter one, and finally various elements in what we are accustomed Mr. Carpenter was presented as a compromise to consider the free state, really consist of candidate. He had been approved on financial molecules containing like atoms combined with questions, and his superior talents rose para- one another. Those marvelous varieties of mount over all the opposition formerly urged. matter called isomeric compounds have found
their natural explanation in differences of the re- iamson regards the opinion that atomic values spective arrangement of like atoms. The term are invariable, or are variable only within par
equivalent" was introduced to indicate the ticularly defined limits, as an error. He reproportional weights of analogous substances marked in a recent address that he had been which were found to be of equal value in frequently struck by the fact that two theotheir chemical effects. Tables of the equivalent ries, believed at one time to be conflicting, had weights of acids were made, representing the been shown by the progress of study to be both proportions of the several substances that were true. Such was the case with the rival thefound to be of equal value in neutralizing a ories, one of which represented molecules as fixed quantity of a certain base; and similar constructed after the pattern of three or four tables were made for the bases, as well as for types, while the other viewed them as containthe elements themselves. But little attention ing complex groups called radicles. Opposiwas paid under the dualistic system to the es- tion existed at one time between those who sential difference between atomic weights and made use of atomic weights and those who equivalent weights; but under the later devel- employed equivalent weights; and the most opments of the theory of the functions of important step that has of late been taken is atoms, it has become necessary to study the the introduction of the notion of equivalence relation of equivalence between elementary into the atomic theory. An inspection of the atoms, instead of studying them from the point series of hydrogen compounds with chlorine, of view of elements divisible in any proportion. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, will show that From this has sprung the division of the ele- the atom of chlorine, which combines with a ments into classes consisting respectively of single atom of hydrogen, has a different value equivalent atoms known as monads, dyads, from the atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, triads, tetrads, etc., the character of which is which combine respectively with two, three, well represented in the four typical compounds, and four atoms of hydrogen. Hence, nitrogen Cl H, OH,, NH3, CH., where chlorine ap- and other elements of like equivalence are called pears as a monad, oxygen as a dyad, nitrogen trivalent or triads, while other elements are as a triad, and carbon as a tetrad. This has classed, according to the exponents of their probably been one of the most important steps equivalence in groups, as monads, dyads, penyet made in the development of the atomic tads, etc. Kekulé still holds that an element can theory, and has been seen to correspond in so belong to only one of these groups; that nitroclear and striking a manner with a vast number gen, for instance, is trivalent only, and that in of well-known properties and reactions of com- sal-ammoniac, where it is combined with fire pounds as to deserve and acquire the confident other atoms, instead of being pentivalent, it is trust of chemists. Another great step has re- a molecular compound of two chemical comcently been made which may be destined to pounds—ammonia and hydric chloride; and lead to most important results. It has been that the atoms of constituent molecules and discovered that if we arrange the elements in the molecules themselves were held together the empirical order of their respective atomic by different forces, one being molecular, the weights, beginning with hydrogen, and pro- other chemical. We bave, however, no grounds ceeding thence step by step up to the heaviest for assuming a difference between chemical atom, we shall have before us a natural series and physical forces, and Kekulé's theory is no with periodically recurrent changes in the longer tenable. The theory commonly in vogue chemical and physical functions of its mem- is that atoms vary in value within certain narbers. Of course the series is still imperfect, row limits; that nitrogen, for instance, is either and exhibits gaps and irregularities; but some trivalent or pentivalent. Professor Williamof the gaps have been filled up by the discov: son recognizes no limitation to atomic value; ery of elements possessing the anticipated but he knows that many elements have atomic properties, inducing the hope that the others values greater than those commonly assumed. may be filled. The generalization affords a The character of the atoms often materially brilliant addition to the previous corrobora- affects the result. Thus gold can not combine tions of the reality of the units of matter with more than three atoms of chlorine alone, which chemists have discovered. But little but it can take up an additional atom of chloaccount has as yet been taken of atomic mo- rine if supplied with an atom of sodium. In tions; but it has been proved that the heat of this way we get the common double chloride combination affords a measure of its force, and of gold and sodium, NaAuCla, in which the we know that, in giving off heat, particles of gold is pentivalent. We are not to consider matter undergo a diminution of the velocity of the sodium as being here combined with the their motion. The force of chemical combina- gold as such, but as combined with the whole tion is evidently a function of atomic motion, group. Temperature, also, has an influence but a vast amount of work will be required to upon the atomic value of elements, a rise of develop the atomic theory to the point of ex- temperature tending to diminish it. plaining the force of chemical action in precise Molecular Weight of Hydrofluoric Acid.terms of such motion.
Professor J. W. Mallet has made some studies ATOMIO AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS.— Varia- of the atomic weight of hydrofluoric acid, tions in Atomic Value.-Professor A. W. Will with a view to finding an explanation of some
peculiar differences in the behavior of fluo- ceived atomic weight, 198•ő, being above that rine in entering into combination with other of gold, while the theory requires that it should elements. The analogies of fluorine with the be below that of iridium. halogens on the one hand, and with oxygen Molecular Weights of Decipium and Samaon the other hand, have often been remarked rium.-M. Delafontaine, in 1878, described an upon. The compounds of fluorine generally earth having a molecular weight of about 122, bear resemblance to compounds of chlorine, which he had obtained from samarskite, and but some striking differences in the character which he called decipia, regarding it as an oxide of these compounds have also forced themselves of a new metal, decipium. He has continued his upon the attention; and the tendency of the studies of this substance, and has been brought fluorides to the formation of double salts, with to regard it as a mixture of two oxides, one of formulas analogous to those of oxygen com- them having a molecular weight of about 130, pounds, and the formation of salts including and the other a lower molecular weight. The both oxygen and fluorine, has suggested that former substance gives no absorption spectrum, some close natural relation may exist between while the second gives the spectrum which these elements themselves. There has, there. M. Delafontaine described in 1878 as that of fore, been ground for questioning whether fluo- decipia. M. Lecoq has also announced the rine should be classed with chlorine among the discovery of a new metal in samarskite, cormonad elements, with the formula HF to rep- responding with the second substance detected resent hydrofluoric acid, and assigned an atom- by M. Delafontaine, to which the latter proic weight of 19, or with oxygen among the poses to give the name of samarium. The modyads, with the formula H,F for hydrofluoric lecular weight of its oxide is believed to be less acid, and an atomic weight of 38. Professor than 117. Samaria appears to be identical Mallet's experiments bore a special reference to with the earth Y 3, having a molecular weight this question. The result was such as to justify of 115, which M. Marignac has found in samthe assumption that at the temperature of 30°arskite, while that chemist's Ya, having a mocentigrade the molecule of hydrofluoric-acid lecular weight of 120.5, may be supposed to be vapor should be represented, not as HF, but a mixture of decipia and terbia. as H,F2, while at higher temperatures disso Atomic Weight of Aluminum.-Professor J. ciation takes place, leading to the production W. Mallet, considering that the estimation of of diatomic molecules of HF. The structure the atomic weight of aluminum was resting on of the molecule of double weight, H,Fs, may be an insufficient basis of accurate experiment, regarded as resulting from fluorine behaving has pursued, during three years, a course of not only as a monad, but also as a triad, and experiments for the revision of the determinaacting in double atoms like those of nitrogen tion, in which he has kept in view the princiin the di-azotic compounds. In such a condi- ples-1. That each process used should be as tion the element presents a pseudo-dyad char- simple as possible, and should involve as little acter, and becomes capable of replacing oxy as possible of known liability to error; 2. That gen and of manifesting the linking function of different and independent processes should be that element. This assumption, supported by resorted to as the means of checking each the experimental evidence brought forward by other's results; 3. That each process should Professor Mallet, may serve conveniently to ex- be carried out with quantities of material difplain the composition of a number of fluorine fering considerably from each other in succescompounds, whose formulas are difficult to sive experiments; 4. That only such other write in a satisfactory way if fluorine be con atomic weights should be involved as may be sidered exclusively monad.
counted, among those already known, with the Atomic Weight of Platinum.—The group of nearest approach to accuracy. Three series of metals embracing osmium, iridium, and plati- experiments were conducted, of which the nam has until recently exhibited a series of first series was based on the purification of amirregularities in that their atomic weights did monium alum; the second on the preparation not manifest those relations to each other and purification of aluminum bromide; and the which their properties, in connection with third on the preparation and application of Meyer and Mendelejeff's theory of classification, pure metallic aluminum. The mean result of indicated they should bear. Dr. K. Seubert, the twenty-five experiments which were retwo years ago, undertook the revision of the garded as the more accurate of the thirty that atomic weight of iridium, and fixed it at 192:- were made, gives the atomic weight of alumi644, putting it below that of platinum. He num as 27.02. This is believed by Professor has since fixed the atomio weight of platinum Mallet to bear in favor of Prout's law, which at 194:177, giving it the place above that of assumes that all the atomic weights are multiiridium and below that of gold, which the ples of that of hydrogen. theory requires it should occupy, while the Atomic Weight of Cadmium.-Mr. Oliver previous estimation of its atomic weight made W. Huntington, under the direction of Professit above that of gold. The asce ing series, or J. P. Cooke, of Harvard College, has made iridium, platinum, gold, is now, as to those à revisionary determination of the atomic three metals, agreeable to theory'; but osmium weight of cadmium. He used a pure bromide still occupies an anomalous position, its re- of cadmium, specially prepared for the pur