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this year suspended the operations of some of The share of each stockholder is undoubtedly the principal hydraulic mines of California property, but it is an interest in the very propmay lessen by some millions the gold-harvest; erty held by the corporation, nothing more. but the movement to restrain the hydraulic When the property of a corporation is assessed miners from washing their tailings into the to it, and the tax thereon paid, who but the valleys, where they fill up the beds of the stockholders pay it? It is true that it is paid streams and destroy agricultural lands, is in from the treasury of the corporation before the itself an evidence of a growing conservatism of money therein is divided, but it is substantially feeling of the increasing disposition to look the same thing as if paid from the pockets of upon California as a country in which perma- the individual stockholders. nent homes are to be made. In the agricult At the presidential election in 1880, the offiural capabilities of her soil lie the possibili- cial count of the vote was as follows: ties of her greatest wealth. The wheat-crop Total vote.
160,795 of last year, after supplying all home demands, Hancock, Democrat..
60,379 including that of distilling, gave a surplus for Hancock's majority. export of no less than 1,400,000 tons—a surplus worth, even at the low rates that pre
The vote for members of Congress was as vailed on account of the scarcity of tonnage,
follows: $37,500,000, or more than twice the whole
21,005 bullion product of the State. Or, in other
19,496 words, the wheat-crop of California for 1880
Glascock, Democrat. was worth more than half as much as the bull
21,483 ion product of the whole United States.
17,263 in the future will be those of the vineyard and (Pacheco, Republican,
17,328 the orchard. The natural adaptation of the soil and the climate has been proved beyond a
The Legislature was divided as follows: question. The grape-growers of the State can now sell their grapes with as much certainty as the farmer his wheat. There is now sent Republican.... to the Atlantic coast more wine than is im- Democrat. ported from France, and it is estimated that the wine-crop of last year yielded to the growers nearly $3,500,000. The curing and pack The compilation of the returns of the cening of raisins has only recently commenced, sus are so incomplete as to add nothing to the but it is already an assured industry.
aggregate statistics of population in the previIn San Francisco, in Alameda, and San José ous volume. are fruit-canning establishments which, during CANAL, INTEROCEANIC. (See Panama the busy season, employ over a thousand hands Canal.) apiece, and all over the State, wherever there CAPE COLONY AND BRITISH SOUTH is an important fruit district, this industry is AFRICA. The present Constitution of the rapidly developing. Orchards of the finer va- Cape Colony vests the executive power in the rieties of peaches, plums, pears, nectarines, etc., Governor and an Executive Council, comare being set out in all parts of the State, and posed of certain office-holders appointed by in the southern section the culture of semi- the Crown. The legislative power rests with tropical fruit is attaining large dimensions. a Legislative Council of twenty-one members,
The question arising under the new Consti- ten of whom are elected for ten years, and tution relative to the taxation of certificates of eleven for five years, representing the country stock by assessors of taxes was also decided by districts and towns of the colony. The qualithe Supreme Court. The opinion was deliv- fication for members of the Council is possesered by Justice Ross in the case of Burke vs. sion of immovable property of £2,000, or movthe Assessor. He held that the Constitution of able property worth £4,000. Members of the State does not require or authorize double both Houses are elected by the same voters, taxation. On the contrary, its language clear- who are qualified by possession of property, ly prohibits it. The stock of any corporation or receipt of salary or wages, ranging between consists of its franchise and such other proper- twenty-five and fifty pounds sterling per anty as the corporation may own. When, there- num. There were 45,825 registered electors in fore, all of the property of the corporation is 1878. The Governor is, by virtue of his office, assessed—its franchise and all of its other prop. commander-in-chief of the forces within the erty of every character-then all of the stock colony. He has a salary of £5,000 as Gov. of the corporation is assessed, and the mandate ernor, besides £1,000 as “her Majesty's High of the Constitution is complied with. This Commissioner,” and an additional £300 as property is held by the corporation in trust for “allowance for country residence.” The adstockholders, who are beneficial owners of it ministration is carried on under the Governor, in certain proportions called shares, and which by a ministry of five members, called the Coare usually evidenced by certificates of stock. lonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the
Treasurer-General, the Commissioner of Crown wars which have afflicted these ill-fated comLands and Public Works, and the Secretary of munities. Lord Carnarvon, after the happy Native Affairs.
effects of the confederation act in Canada beThe area and population of the several prov- came apparent, conceived the idea of uniting inces were as follows at the close of 1880: all the European settleinents of South Africa
under a similar confederate government, to Population.
which the virtual sovereignty should be transCape Colony.. 517,849 780,757 (1880)
ferred. This scheme was adopted as the traBasutoland
21,794 128,176 (1875) ditional policy in Downing Street, and was Griqualand West.
45,300 48,128 (1877) Transkei district (Caffraria).
enthusiastically pursued by the Queen's repre
40,834 409,944 (1878) Natal
48,560 864,835 (1880) sentatives at the Cape. The Transvaal was
annexed by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in April, Total .. 968,418 1,633,338
1877, in a way which the people of Great The distribution of the population, according Britain have only come to understand since to sex, in Cape Colony, inclusive of British the rebellion of the Boers. The usurpation Caffraria and Basutoland, and in Natal, was as
was excused on the pretext that the people of follows in 1878:
the republic were misgoverned by their own authorities to such an extent that they hailed British rule with thanksgiving. Zoolooland was
then invaded, with scarcely any pretext, for Cape Colony
430,529 418,631 849,160 Natal..
the annexation, and to remove a possible danThe financial and commercial statistics for ger to the future confederation, and induce 1879 for Cape Colony and Natal were as fol- Cape Colony to join it by crushing the only lows:
organized and formidable native power in this part of Africa.
This disastrous war, which
cost £5,000,000 and thinned the ranks of BritReceipts
ish regiments, excited a strong repugnance in Expenditures.
3,995,000* 491,000 Great Britain to any further military opera10,017,000 1,632,000
tions in South Africa, although the entire reImports.
7,664,000 2,176,000 Exports.
4,068,000 584,000 sponsibility for the Zooloo campaign lies at the Movement of shipping (in tons).. 1,532,000 412,000 door of the Imperial Government. The people At the close of 1878, 663 miles of railway government since 1872, were given to under
of Cape Colony, who had possessed responsible were in operation in Cape Colony. The Cape settlements are bound to Great their own defenses. Thereupon the colonial
stand that for the future they must undertake Britain by looser ties of interest and senti- ministry under Mr. Sprigg instituted a course ment than any of the other dependencies of the of arbitrary policy entirely in the spirit of Sir empire. The bond has not been strengthened Bartle Frere's Zooloo stroke. by the cares and difficulties which they have
The Basutos of Basutoland, a laborious, pasgiven to every English administration, and the incessant loss of British blood and treasure in toral, and agricultural people, who were beunpopular Caffre wars which the connection coming rapidly civilized and Christianized, has entailed since the first annexation in 1812. populous and wealthy, had the custom of buyMore than two thirds of the Queen's subjects fire-arms from the wall except on one or two
ing every man a gun. They never took their in South Africa are aliens in blood, language, occasions, when they did valiant service for the and customs, while the commercial and military Queen, affording conspicuous assistance in the advantages of the connection bear no propor- late Zooloo war. With frightful rashness, a distion to the sacrifices it has cost. For these
armament act was carried through the Legisreasons the home Government and the British lature, and the command went forth that the public have long desired to see the plan of Basutos should deliver up their guns. The autonomous government and self-dependence French Protestant missionaries who lived realized in these troublesome dependencies. The complicated relations of the British Gov. among them protested against the injustice of ernment with the Anglo-Saxon settlers, the the home Government of its impolicy and
Sir Garnet Wolseley warned Afrikanders, and the native populations, which danger. The Basutos regarded these weapons under the management of ignorant military commanders and crown officials involved the diamonds were discovered in West Griqua
as a badge of manhood and dignity. When commission of the numberless wrongs and land, the Basatos were the first and principal crnelties of the past, still stand in the way of laborers; and each took home as his richest England's withdrawing her aid and authority reward a gun which he had purchased at an from the Cape. The fixed idea of an adminis- exorbitant price. The command to give up trative theorist, adopted as a practical policy the weapons which they had been encouraged for the consummation object, was one of the chief causes which led to the last three
to acquire, was regarded by every one as an
unmerited disgrace. Letsie, the principal chief, * For the first six months of the year only.
and his people, who remained loyal throughout
the war, remonstrated in the following pathetic to pay a fine of 5,000 cattle to the Cape Gorterms: “Hitherto we have been known first ernment, to restore property taken from loyal as the faithful friends and allies of the Queen, natives, and to pay £1 annual license fee for and then as her faithful subjects. Up to the the privilege of keeping a gun, and should enZambesi and down to Cape Town we joy entire amnesty and suffer no confiscation known as such,we are named the children of of territory. It was found impossible to thorthe Queen. If we are disarmed, will not other oughly enforce the provisions of the agreement. tribes say that we have offended against the The outbreak of the Transvaal rebellion is Government?"
noticed in the “Annual Cyclopædia" for 1880. The political position of the Basutos was The Boers had reasons to dread the aggressions anomalous. When they swore allegiance to of the British. Their ancestors were driven the crown in 1869, it was with the stipulation by wrongs and indignities to abandon their that they should not form part of Cape Colony, homes in the old colony and go into the unand they were not, until 1879, when the act explored wilderness. The Republic of Naconferring autonomy upon the colony heed- talia which they founded no sooner began to lessly turned them over to the tender mercies prosper than it was invaded and conquered by of the Cape Government. The Basutos were British troops. The Boers again abandoned a branch of the Bechuana tribe, one of the their fertile fields for the bleak desert. They most superior and intelligent races of the Bantu founded the independent South African refamily. After the formation of the tribe in publics. In 1848 the land between the Vaal Basutoland they became involved in constant and Orange Rivers was annexed by Great Britdisputes with the Orange Free State Boers on ain,' and then the land between the upper one side and the Zooloos on the other, and, when Caledon and the Vaal. This act drove them these growing states menaced them with ex- to rebel, and the British chased them into the tinction, they appealed to the British authori- unknown wilderness beyond the Vaal. In ties for protection, and were accepted as Brit- 1852 a convention was signed, guaranteeing ish subjects. Their subsequent history is one to the Boers north of the Vaal River "the of peaceful prosperity and advancement unex. right to manage their own affairs, and to govampled among African races. They grew rich ern themselves according to their own laws." in cattle, horses, and grain; built houses, schools, When the Transvaal was annexed after twentyand churches; and were tenderly loyal until five years of tranquillity, the population bad inthe offensive orders to deliver up their lawfully creased to between thirty and forty thousand acquired weapons. Letsie and his tribe com- wbites, and the revenue to about £70,000. plied, but their arms were intercepted and The annexation met the clamorous approval seized before their delivery by the indignant of a class of British traders and land speculamajority. The invasion of Basutoland by the tors who had flocked into the Transvaal after Cape militia and the earlier stages of the war the gold discoveries, adventurers who sought of resistance are recounted in the “ Annual pecuniary profit in the disturbance of rights Cyclopædia" for 1880.
which would ensue. The prospect that PresiThe Basutos made skirmishing assaults in dent Burgers's projected railroad to Delagoa the beginning of January upon the towns of Bay would deprive Durban of the Transvaal Maseru and Leribe and the picket-line of Colo- trade was a strong secret motive with Engnel Carrington's advancing column. In a vig- lish colonists for demanding the annexation. orous attack on the 10th the Burgher Guards A financial and political crisis of the Transvaal gave way, and the field was held only by a line Government furnished the occasion for the of dismounted cavalry. The burghers were usurpation. The fear that financial aid would suspected of being actuated by sympathy for be furnished for Burgers's project of estabthe Transvaal rebels, and a large number of lishing a Transvaal port, which might be folthem were sentenced to imprisonment. The lowed by a German protectorate, was one of Basutos were becoming weary of fighting and the state reasons for the step. The Boers suffered for want of food. They sued for themselves were undoubtedly almost unanipeace, and an armistice of seven days was mously opposed. The formal protest of Presigranted on the 18th for them to consider the dent Burgers at the time, the two visits of the Governor's answer. They did not accept the delegates, Joubert and Kruger, to England, and proposals through distrust, and desired to set- the mass-meetings of remonstrance, should have tle the terms with the imperial authorities. left no doubt of the rooted aversion of the Active hostilities were not resumed again, with Boers to British dominion. the exception of a few fitful attacks. The im The arrogance and unfitness of the adminisperial authorities refused to intervene unless trator set over the Transvaal, Sir Owen Lanthe Colonial Government should resign the yon, and the other British officials, was one of control of Basutoland entirely. This a consid- the proximate causes of the outbreak. During erable party in the colony desired to do. Sir the agitation which lasted throughout the three Hercules Robinson finally, at the request of the years of British administration, and during and Basuto chiefs and by desire of the Cape minis- at the close of their desperate rebellion, the try, arranged the conditions for the cessation Boer leaders and representative men iterated of the ineffectual struggle. The Basutos were and reiterated the conditions under wbich a
connection with the British Empire would be surprise and surrender of a detachment under endurable to the Boer people, conditions which Lieutenant - Colonel Anstruther, at Bronker's it required the deplorable war to make clear to Spruit, while marching from Middleburg to the British Parliament and people, and which Pretoria, December 20, 1880. The rebellion of were at last freely accorded before a Brit the Boers, with the triumvirate, Paul Kruger, force had set foot across the Transvaal bound- Pretorius, and Joubert, at the head, was in full ary, though defeat following defeat had brought operation at the beginning of January, 1881. the blush of shame into many Englishmen's British garrisons were beleaguered in Pretoria faces and stirred thoughts of revenge in their and Potchefstroom. The Boers secured Natal hearts, and although enough British troops as far as Newanka, and took possession of had just landed in Natal to speedily extermi- the Barkly district of Griqualand West. Sir nate the valiant descendants of Huguenot refu- George Colley was mustering his forces at Newgees and stalwart Dutch pioneers.
castle, with about fifteen hundred within call; One of the strongest reasons for the annexa- while re-enforcements from India and Gibraltar tion had been the frequent difficulties of the were on the sea. General Colley advanced his Boers with the native tribes. The principal column slowly toward Pretoria. The means danger had been averted by the extinction of of transport were nearly all in the possession of the Zooloo power, accompanied by the reversal the Boers and their sympathizers. On the 28th of the British commissioners' decision on the of January he attempted to force the pass of chief matter in dispute, their award to Cete- the Drakensberg at Laing's Neck, which the wayo of the land which he had formally ceded Boers were massed to defend. The repabli. to the Transvaal, and which had already been cans displayed steadiness and courage of the settled by Transvaal farmers. The cession of highest order, and repulsed the rash British Keate's award, in which diamonds had been commander with severe losses.
The Fiftydiscovered, to natives by a British arbitrator, eighth Regiment, which stormed the strong inprobably preparatory to engrossing it in the trenched position of the Boers, was driven back British dominion, as had been done with West with terrible slaughter. Many of the officers Griqualand, was another instance of the ob were picked off by sharp-shooters. Sir George liquity of British arbitrations. Nevertheless the Colley was now himself hemmed in on all sides. Boers were content from the beginning to re- In an attempt to restore communications with fer boundary questions and disputes with the Newcastle he was attacked by the Boers near aborigines to English adjudication, and much the crossing of the Ingogo, February 8th, and more so after the punishment of their old ene lost one hundred and fifty men and six officers. mies the Zooloos. If it had not been for the Re-enforcements landed at Durban at this wars with Cetewayo and Secocoeni, the Boers juncture, when every British force in Africa would have struck earlier for independence. was surrounded by the Boers, of whom 10,000
In the middle of December, 1880, the repub- to 12,000 were under arms. They withdrew lican flag was raised in Heidelberg, a Volks- beyond the Drakensberg and perfected the raad was convened, and the South African Re- fortifications at Laing's Neck as Sir Evelyn public proclaimed. The Boer Government Wood brought up re-enforcements to Newcaswas originally composed of Kruger as Presi- tle. Proposals for a treaty had already come dent; Joubert, Commandant-General; Joris- from Kruger, and had been forwarded to Engsen, Attorney-General ; and Bok, acting State land, when General Colley proceeded to ocSecretary. Pretorius was afterward associated cupy with about 700 men the height of the with Kruger and Joubert in the supreme di- Spitzkop on Majuba Mountain, which comrection. A proclamation of the Boer Govern- manded the Boers' position. On the following ment set forth their desire to form a confeder- day, February 27th, the Boers carried the emacy with the other colonies and states; their inence by storm, with the most heroic exerwillingness to receive a British resident diplo- tions. The British commander, Sir George matic agent to represent the interests of Brit- Pomeroy Colley, who was also the High Comish subjects; and also to submit to arbitration missioner for Southeast Africa, was slain with their disputes over boundaries with native 82 others, and 184 were disabled or captured. tribes. Besides the quarrel concerning a small The repeated successes which the Dutch farmtract in the southeast, which had led to the ers gained over the British regulars were won Zooloo war, there was the standing difficulty in nearly every instance with astonishingly about the large and fertile region in the south- small numbers, although the morale of the west corner of the Transvaal, called the Keate British troops was not particularly defective. award, which the British referee had awarded They were due to their desperate and religious unconditionally to native claimants, and the devotion to the cause in which they were envast region of the northeast from which the gaged, not less than to their splendid marksBoer settlers had been expelled by native tribes manship with the rifle, and their alert and who had been for a long time in possession of intelligent tactics. Sir Frederick Roberts was the entire country. The titles to lands in this now appointed commander-in-chief, and about reconquered territory had been bought up by 15,000 troops were sent to the field of action speculators.
from all parts of the empire. Before his arThe first engagement of the war was the rival Sir Evelyn Wood, acting under instruc
tions from home, and Commandant-General represented by the High Commissioner in Cape Joubert, had arranged an armistice, procured Town, and in the Transvaal by a resident through the intermediation of President Brand, imperial agent. This peculiar form of a proof the Orange River Republic, to allow time tectorate was defined under the new term of for Kruger and the Boer authorities to con- the suzerainty of the Queen. The determinasider terms of peace which the Imperial Gov- tion of the rights and claims of the natives and ernment offered. Under the terms of the ar- of provisions for the protection of native inmistice the English were permitted to provision terests was the task imposed upon the comtheir beleaguered garrisons in Potchefstroom, missioners, who immediately commenced their Pretoria, Wakkerstroom, and Standerton with labors. They were also empowered by the a week's rations. Before the supply - train terms of the settlement to decide the question reached Potchefstroom, the garrison surren- of the severance from the Transvaal of pordered, March 21st, giving up their guns and tions of the territory in the east and northeast departing on parole for Natal. The withhold- settled by natives, and thus separate the Zooloo ing from the besieged force knowledge of the and Swazi districts from the Transvaal. The approach of succor was adjudged a violation last proposition was loudly condemned by the of the armistice, and it was agreed to allow Boer people. After the conclusion of this prethe fort to be reoccupied, to restore the status liminary settlement, the Boers departed for
their farms. The British commander, General The strongest sympathy with the Boers and Wood, did not decrease his armaments, but indignation at the course of Great Britain pre- prepared vigorously for the case of a renewal vailed among the entire Dutch population of the war. of South Africa. It was this state of feel After many difficulties and compromises a ing which was advanced as the reason for convention was settled between the Boer autaking vengeance upon the insurgents. The thorities and the commissioners on the 8th of apprehensions caused by the known tension August. The Transvaal Government underamong the old families were augmented by a took the debt of £425,893, payable in twentymanifesto of Kruger, which said that, whether seven years, at 4 per cent interest, on account the Boers were now successful or not, the of the liabilities which the British Government struggle would lead to the redemption of the had assumed at the annexation, and the excolonies from the British yoke, and independ- penses of Secocoeni's war. The Boers and the ence, like that achieved by the American colo- British each agreed to reimburse sufferers of nies, when “ Africa will be for the Afrikander damages through the military operations. The from the Zambesi to Martin's Bay.” The peo- convention was ratified by the Volksraad in ple of Holland and Belgium manifested publicly October. their sense of England's injustice, and a large The Cape Parliament met March 25th. The section of the British public expressed the Premier of Cape Colony, Gordon Sprigg, the same sentiment. Public men in Germany, in author of the Basuto war, was nearly removed France, and in other Continental countries set from office in April by a vote of censure, for their names to memorials pleading for the be- raising, on his own responsibility, a loan of stowal of independence upon the Transvaal. £1,250,000, for the prosecution of that unfor
The negotiations with the Boers were con tunate military essay, and for the other war cluded by their acceptance of the terms of expenditures of the colony. The war itself peace, March 21st, subject to their final agree was not condemned by either the West or the ment in the decisions of a royal commission East colonists, the Afrikander or the English settling the details of boundaries and questions section of the community. Mr. Sprigg repreof the rights of natives. The cominission was sented more especially the English element, as to consist of Sir Hercules Robinson, Governor opposed to the Dutch, and the aggressive spirit of Cape Colony and High Commissioner for of the former Imperial Government. He had South Africa, President, and Sir Henry De been called upon by Sir Bartle Frere three Villiers, Chief-Justice of the Cape, and Sir years before to succeed Molteno, who had been Evelyn Wood, associate members. The Boers arbitrarily dismissed while still backed by a agreed to withdraw from Laing's Neck and parliamentary majority. Upon a subsequent disperse to their homes. The English garrisons renewal of Mr. Scanlan's motion, Mr. Sprigg should remain as they were pending the final resigned. A new ministry was formed, comsettlement, but no troops or munitions of war posed of Mr. Molteno, the Prime Minister were to be sent into the Transvaal. The main whom Sir Bartle Frere had removed, Colonial principles of the treaty were that the Boers Secretary; Mr. Hutton, Treasurer - General ; should enjoy complete independence in making Mr. Scanlan, Attorney-General and Premier; and administering their own laws; but the Mr. Merriman, Commissioner of Crown Lands right to regulate and superintend their rela- and Public Works; Mr. Sauer, Secretary for tions with the native population, which num Native Affairs; Mr. Hoffmeyer, without a portbers nearly 700,000, the adjustment of frontier folio. questions with the resident and neighboring In the budget of the Cape Treasurer the tribes, and the control of foreign relations, revenue of the colony for 1881 is estimated at were reserved by the Imperial Government, £2,968,210, and the expenditure at £2,852,083.