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ing a provisional government in Peru. You will, as plicit, and as this department is in the possession of far as you can do so with propriety, and without offi- no information which would seem to require the withcious intrusion, approve and encourage this disposi- drawal of the confidence reposed in you, I must contion on the part of the Chilian Government, and this sider this interpretation of your words and acts as department will be exceedingly gratified if your influ- the result of some strange and perhaps prejudiced ence, as the representative of the United States, shall misconception. My only material for forming an be instrumental in inducing the Government of Chili opinion consists of your memorandum to Admiral to give its aid and support to the restoration of reg- Lynch, your letter to Señor Garcia, the secretary of ular constitutional government in Peru, and to post- General Piérola, and the convention with President pone the settlement of all questions of territorial Calderon, ceding a naval station to the United States. annexation to the diplomatic negotiations which can I would have preferred that you should hold no comthen be resumed with the certainty of a just, friendly, munication with Admiral Lynch on questions of a and satisfactory conclusion.

diplomatic character. He was present as a military In any representation which you may make you commander of Chilian forces, and you were accredited will say that the hope of the United States is that the to Peru. Nor do I conceive that Admiral Lynch, as negotiations for peace shall be conducted and the final the commander of the Chilian army of occupation, settlement between the two countries determined with- had any right to ask or receive any formal assurance out either side invoking the aid or intervention of any from you as to the opinions of your Government. European power. The Government of the United The United States was represented in Chili by a States seeks only to perform the otfice of a friend to properly accredited minister, and from his own Govall the parties in this unhappy conflict between South ernment the admiral could' and ought to have reAmerican republics, and it will regret to be compelled ceived any information which it was important for to consider how far that feeling might be affected, and him to have. It was to be expected, and even dea more active interposition forced upon it by any at- sired, that frank and friendly relations should exist tempted complication of this question with European between you; but I can not consider such confidenpolitics. If at any time you shall judge it expedient tial communication as justifying a formal appeal to and advantageous to read this dispatch to the Minister your colleague in Chili for the correction or criticism of Foreign Affairs, you are authorized to do so. The of your conduct. If there was anything in your prodecision on this point is lett to your discretion. ceedings in Peru to which the Government of Chili

JAMES G. BLAINE. could properly take exception, a direct representation In his annual message to Congress, President was due both to the Government and to yourself.

to this Government through the Chilian Minister here Arthur spoke of our relations with the west Having said this, I must add that the language of coast republics in the following terms:

the memorandum was capable of not unnatural misThis Government sees, with great concern, the con

construction. While you said nothing that may not tinuance of the hostile 'relations between Chili, Bo- fairly be considered warranted by your instructions, livia, and Peru. An early peace between these repub- you omitted to say with equal emphasis some things lics is much to be desired, not only that they them- which your instructions supplied, and which would, selves may be spared further misery and bloodshed, perhaps, have relieved the sensitive apprehensions of but because their continued antagonism threatens con

the Chilian authorities. For, while the United States sequences which are, in my judgment, dangerous to

would unquestionably “regard with disfavor” the the interests of republican government on this con

imperious annexation of Peruvian territory as the tinent, and calculated to destroy the best elements of right of conquest, you were distinctly informed that our free and peaceful civilization. As in the present such annexation might become a necessary condition

this Government could not refuse to recognize that excited condition of popular feeling in these countries there has been serious misapprehension of the position in a final treaty of peace.. And the main purpose of of the United States, and as separate diplomatic inter- your effort was expected to be, not so much a protest course with each through independent ministers is against any possible annexation as an attempt by sometimes subject, owing to the want of prompt reçip- lian authorities (with whom you were daily associated)

friendly but unofficial communications with the ChiI have deemed it judicious at the present time to send to induce them to support the policy of giving to a special envoy, accredited to alland each of them, Peru, without the imposition of harsh and absolute and furnished with general instructions, which will, i conditions precedent, the opportunity to show that the trust, enable him to bring these powers into friendły rights and interests of Chili could be satisfied without relations.

such annexation. There is enough in your memoran

dum, if carefully considered, to indicate this purpose, The special envoy alluded to by the Presi- and I only regret that you did not state it with a disdent was Mr. William H. Trescot, of South tinctness and, if necessary, with a repetition which Carolina, who sailed from New York for Pan- would have made impossible anything but the most

willful misconception. ama on December 3d, accompanied by Mr. As at present advised, I must express disapproval Walker Blaine, son of the Secretary of State of your letter to Señor Garcia, the secretary of GenReaching Lima in due time, they remained eral Piérola. I think that your proper course in refthere several days, and on Christmas-day sailed erence to Garcia's communication would have been from the neighboring port of Callao for San- acter which you could not recognize, or, if you deemed

either entirely to ignore it as claiming an official chartiago. On December 12th the following dis. that courtesy required a reply, to state that you were patches from Secretary Blaine to our Ministers accredited to the Calderon Government, and could, at Lima and Santiago were given to the press: tion which General Piérola thought it his duty or inI.

terest to make inust be made directly to the GovernDEPARTMENT OF STATE, ment at Washington. You had no responsibility in WASHINGTON, November 22, 1881.

the matter, and it was injudicious to assume any, To Stephen A. Hurlbut, Esq., etc., Lima.

The recognition of the Calderon Government had Sır: Your dispatches to No. 23, inclusive, have been duly considered and decided by your own Govbeen received, and I learn with regret that a con ernment, and you were neither instructed nor exstruction has been put upon your language and con- pected to furnish General Piérola or the Peruvian duct indicating a policy of active intervention on the public with the reasons for that action. The followpart of this Government beyond the scope of your in- ing language in your letter to Señor Garcia might be structions. As those instructions were clear and ex- misunderstood: Chili desires and asks for Tara

paca, and will recognize the Government which agrees Calderon. If none such exists, you will remain in to its session. The Calderon Government will not Lima until you receive further instructions, confining cede it. It remains to be seen whether that of Piérola your communications with the Chilian authorities to will prove more pliable.". It might easily be sup- such limits as your personal convenience and the posed, by an excited public opinion on either side, maintenance of the rights and privileges of your legathat such language was intended to imply that the tion may require. Government of the United States had recognized the The complicated condition of affairs resulting from Government of Calderon because of its resolution not the action of the Chilian Government, the time reto cede Peruvian territory: No such motive has ever quired for communication between the legations in been declared by this Government. The Govern- Chili and Peru and this department, and the unforment of Calderon was recognized because we believed tunate notoriety which the serious differences between it to be to the interest of both Chili and Peru that yourself and your colleague in Chili have attracted, some respectable authority should be established have, in the opinion of the President, imposed upon which could restore internal order and initiate re him the necessity of a special mission. This mission sponsible negotiations for peace. We desired that the will be charged with the duty of expressing the views Peruvian Government should have a fair opportunity of the President upon the grave condition of affairs to obtain the best terms it could, and hoped that it which your dispatches describe, and, if possible, with would be able to satisfy the just demands of Chili due consideration of the rights, interests, and responwithout the painful sacrifice of the national territory. sibilities of both nations, to promote å settlement But we did not make, and never intended to make, which shall restore to the suffering people of Peru the any special result of the peace negotiations the basis of benefits of a well-ordered government, deliver both our recognition of the Calderon Government. What countries from the miseries and burdens of a protracted was best and what was possible for Peru to do we war, and place their future relations upon a foundation were anxious to the extent of our powers to aid her in that will prove stable, because just and honorable. doing by the use of whatever influence or considera

I am, sir, your obedient servant, tion we enjoyed with Chili; further than that the

JAMES G. BLAINE. Government of the United States has as yet expressed neither opinion nor intention.

II. I must also express the dissatisfaction of the depart

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, ment at your telegram to the Minister of the United

WASHINGTON, November 22, 1881. States near the Argentine Confederation, suggesting Judson Kilpatrick, Esq., etc., Santiago. that a Minister be sent by that Government to Peru. Sır: Your dispatch, No. 8, conveying a copy of your This would have been clearly without the sphere of reply to Señor Balmaseda has been received. The your proper official action at any time, but, as there communication to which it was a reply should have then existed a serious difference between Chili and the accompanied it, in order that the department could Argentine Confederation, you might naturally havo properly judge of your answer. Your letter is not anticipated that such a recommendation would be con- approved by the department. You had had ample sidered by Chili as an effort to effect a political com opportunity, and, as you have before stated, availed bination against her. The United States was not in yourself of it, to make known to the Government of search of alliances to support a hostile demonstration Chili the scope of your instructions, and to give it against Chili, and such an anxiety might well be abundant assurance of the friendly disposition of your deemed inconsistent with the professions of an impar own Government. If the conduct of Mr. Hurlbut in tial mediation.

Peru had given sufficient ground for complaint to As to the convention with regard to a naval station the Chilian Government, that complaint should have in the Bay of Chimbole, I am of opinion that, although been made in Washington. Mr. Hurlbut's presenit is a desirable arrangement, the time is not oppor tation speech to President Calderon, his memorantune. I would be very unwilling to ask such a con dum to Admiral Lynch, his letter to Garcia, and cession under circumstances which would almost seem telegraphic reports from Buenos Ayres, were not subto impose upon Peru the necessity of compliance with jects upon which you were called to pass judgment, our request; and I have no doubt that, whenever Peru nor upon which you should have been interrogated by is relieved from present embarrassment, she would the Chilian Government. Nothing in your conduct cheerfully grant any facilities which our naval or com or language had excited its apprehensions, and no exmercial interests may require. Nor, in the present ex planation was due, or could have been expected from cited condition of public opinion in Chili, would I be you, of the language or conduct of your colleague in willing to afford evil-disposed persons the opportunity Peru. I should have been glad if it had occurred to to intimate that the United States contemplated the you to call the attention of the Secretary of Foreign establishment of a naval rendezvous in the neighbor Affairs to the impropriety of such a communication, hood of either Peru or Chili. The very natural and and in referring to the fact that your instructions, innocent convenience which we require might be mis which you were authorized to communicate to him, understood or misapprehended ; and, as our sole pur- gave all the assurance which he could either desire or pose is to be allowed, in a spirit of the most impartial ask of the friendly feeling of the United States. I friendship, to act as mediator between these two pow- should have much preferred that you had furnished ers, I would prefer, at present, to ask no favors of the him with a copy of those instructions, instead of subone, and to excite no possible apprehensions in the mitting a paraphrase which does not fully represent other.

their spirit and meaning. Indeed, I find it difficult to Having thus stated with frankness the impression understand how the Chilian Government could have made upon the department by such information as been under any misapprehension as to the disposition you have furnished it, it becomes my duty to add that or purpose of the United States, when the instructions this Government is unable to understand the abolition both to yourself and to Mr. Hurlbut had, in fact, been of the Calderon Government, and the arrest of Presi- already frankly communicated—the former, according dent Calderon himself, by the Chilian authorities, or, to your dispatch No. 3, to the outgoing AdministraI suppose I ought to say, by the Chilian Government, tion; and the latter, by this department to Mr. Maras the Secretary for Foreign Affairs of that Govern- tinez, the representative of the present Government in ment has, in a formal communication to Mr. Kilpat Washington. It is still more difficult to understand rick, declared that the Calderon Government " was at the abolition of the Calderon Government, and the an end." As we recognized that Government, in sup- arrest of the President himself, in the face of your asposed conformity with the wishes of Chili, and as no surance, in your dispatch No. 3, where you quote the reason for its destruction has been given us, you will following as having been addressed to you by Señor still consider yourself accredited to it, if any legiti- Valderana, to wit: You are, therefore, authorized to mate representative exists in the place of President say to your Government that every effort will be given

by Chili to strengthen the Government of President On the 26th day of January, 1882, the PresiCalderon, giving to it the most perfect freedom of ac- dent sent to Congress the diplomatic corretion considering the Chilian occupation; that no ques- spondence concerning Peru, Chili, and Bolivia, constitutional government can be established in Peru, for a period of several years. The following acknowledged and respected by the people, with full are the more important dispatches. On Depowers to enter into diplomatic negotiations for peace.” cember 1, 1881, Mr. Blaine wrote the followAnd it would only have been natural if you had asked, ing instructions to Special Envoy Trescot, of your own, for what reasons and by what means the South Carolina, who sailed from New York Calderon Government had, as Señor Balmaseda in- for Panama on December 3d, accompanied by formed you,

come to an end." The President bas Mr. Walker Blaine : learned, with great regret, of the arrest and removal of President Calderon; but, in the present state of his SIR: While the circumstances under which the information, he will not undertake to measure its sig- President has deemed it proper to charge you with a nificance. He hopes that he will, when the facts are special mission to the Republics of Chili, Peru, and better known, be relieved from the painful impression Bolivia render it necessary that very much must be that it was intended as a rebuke to the friendly dis- confided to your discretion, it is desirable that you position of the United States. . . . You will inform should be placed in full possession of his views as to the Chilian Government that a special envoy will be the general line of conduct which you will be expectimmediately sent; and you will assure that Govern- ed to pursue. For this purpose it is not necessary at ment that he will come in the spirit of impartial present to go further back in the history of the unfriendship, anxious to learn that recent occurrences fortunate relations between Chili on the one hand and have not been intended to disturb the long-continued Peru and Bolivia on the other than the time when the friendly relations existing between us ; and instructed defeat of General Piérola, his abandonment of the by the President to lay before the Chilian Govern- capital and the coast, and their occupation by the ment frankly, but with a scrupulous consideration Chilian army, seem to have put an end to all responfor the rights and interests of that Government, the sible native government in Peru. Lima, having views which he holds upon the deplorable condition been surrendered January 19, 1881, Piérola driven of affairs in South America, a condition now fast across the mountains, the Chilian military occupation assuming proportions which make its settlement a consolidated, and the Chilian Government refusing to matter of concern to all the republics of the conti- recognize Piérola as representing the Government ot nent. He sincerely hopes that no other action of that Peru, it became absolutely necessary that some govGovernment will tend to further complicate existing ernment should be established if Peru was not to redifficulties before the arrival of that special envoy. main simply a military district of Chili. On Feb

JAMES G. BLAINE. ruary 25, 1881, Mr. Christiancy, the United States

Minister at Lima, wrote this department as follows: It was on Sunday, November 6th, that

“ A movement has therefore been initiated among President Calderon was arrested by General encouraged by the Chilian authorities, to establish a

some of the leading citizens of Lima and Callao, and Lynch's orders, and taken on board the Chilian new government in opposition to that of Piérola frigate Cochran, in the harbor of Callao: A (who is still at Tacna or Yarija)." few days later, while Vice-President Montevo

From this date, Mr. Christiancy kept the departwas actively asserting his claims to the su- ment of the Calderon Government, so called from the

ment informed of the probabilities of the establishpreme power, Minister Hurlbut issued the fol- name of the cminent Peruvian statesman who had lowing declaration:

been chosen as President. On May 9, 1881, instruc

tions had been sent to him from the depurtment, in To the Notables of Lima.

which he was told : GENTLEMEN : At your request I make the following “If the Calderon Government is supported by the declaration:

character and intelligence of Peru, and is really en1. The United States of America are firmly in favor deavoring to restore constitutional government, with of the cessation of hostilities between Chili and Peru, a view both to order within and negotiation with Chili and the prompt re-establishment of peace.

for peace, you may recognizo it as the existing pro2. The United States of America decidedly oppose visional government and render what aid you can by all dismemberment of Peru, except with the free and advice and good offices to that end.” full consent of the nation.

Acting under these instructions, although with 3. They are of opinion that Chili has acquired, as some expressed doubt as to the probable permanence the result of the war, the right to a war indemnity, of its existence, Mr. Christiancy, on June 26, 1881, and that Peru can not refuse such payment.

formally recognized the Calderon Government. It is The Government of Chili knows that these are the clear that this recognition was not an unfriendly inideas of the United States; but the divisions which tervention as far as the wishes and interests of Chili exist in Peru paralyze the good offices of the United were concerned. States, and give a pretext to Chili to clude the action In giving the support of recognition to the Caldeof the United States in conformity with our desires, ron Government, therefore, so far was this Governand to prolong the state of war and the military occu ment from doing what could be considered an unpation of Peru. Chili says, “ We also desire peace, friendly act to Chili, that it was, in fact, giving its aid but there is no one here competent to arrange it.”' to the very policy which Chili avowed, and which, This declaration is, unfortunately, true. For this in the opinion of competent judges, was the only state of affairs, the only remedy is to be found in method of reasonable solution. And this conclusion Peru itself.

of the Government was strengthened and confirmed by Union, under whomsoever may be elected, will de- the information which was transmitted to the departstroy the pretext of Chili, and give to the United ment by General Kilpatrick, the United States MinisStates an advantage which they require, and of which ter to Chili. General Kilpatrick was appointed after they will know how to take advantage.

the recognition of the Calderon Government, and was In my opinion, nothing else will save the country furnished with the instructions to which I have alfrom an indefinite military occupation by Chili. ready referred. In his dispatch, under date of August

Peru must save itself, by the sacrifice of personal 15, 1881, he quotes the following as the final assurambitions on the altar of the redeinption of the coun ances given to him by the Chilian Secretary of State: try.

S. A. HURLBUT. “You may say to your Government that every

ans."

effort would be given by Chili to strengthen the Gov. Whatever may be my opinion as to the discretion of ernment of President Calderon, giving to it the most all that may have been said or done by Mr. Hurlbut, perfect freedom of action, considering the Chilian it is impossible for me to recognize the right of the Occupations ; that no question of Chilian annexation Chilian Government to take such action without subwould be touched until a constitutional government mitting to the consideration of this Government any could be established in Peru, acknowledged and re cause of complaint which it was prepared to allege spected by the people, with full power to enter into against the proceedings of the representative of the negotiations for peace;, that no territory would be United States. The Chilian Government was in posexacted unless Chili failed to secure ample and just session of the instructions sent to that Minister, as indemnification in other and satisfactory ways, as also well as those to his colleague at Santiago; there was ample security for the future, and that in no case no pretense that the conduct of General Kilpatrick would Chili exact territory, save where Chilian enter was anything, but friendly ; Chili was represented prise and Chilian capital had developed the desert, hore by a Minister who enjoyed the confidence of his and where to-day nine tenths of the people are Chili- Government, and nothing can justify the assumption

that the United States was acting a double part in its But after this recognition, made in entire good faith relations to the two countries. If the conduct of the to both parties, three things followed: 1. The pres- United States Minister seemed inconsistent with what ence of a United States Minister at Lima accredited Chili had every reason to know was the friendly into the Calderon Government, and the reception in tention of the United States, a courteous representaWashington of a Minister from that Government tion through the Chilian Minister here would have gave it unquestionable, increased strength and confi- enabled this Government promptly to correct or condence. 2. The adherents of Piérola, realizing the firm him. You are not, therefore, authorized to make necessity of peace and the existence of a stable gov to the Chilian Government any explanation of the ernment to negotiate it, gradually abandoned the for- conduct of General Hurlbut, it that Government, not lorn hope of continued resistance, and gave their ad- having afforded us the opportunity of accepting or hesion to the Calderon Government. 3. The Congress disavowing his conduct, insists upon making its inwhich assembled in the neutral zone set apart for that terpretation of his proceedings the justification of its purpose by the Chilian authorities, and which was recent action. further allowed by the Chilian Government to pro It is hoped, however, that you will be able, by comvide for the military impositions by the use of the munication at once firm and temperate, to avoid these national credit, and thus recognized as the representa- embarrassments. If you should fortunately reach the tives of the Peruvian people, authorized President ground where frank mutual explanation can be made Calderon to negotiate a peace, but upon condition without the sacrifice of that respect which every govthat no territory should be ceded. As soon as these ernment owes to itself, you will then be at liberty, confacts indicated the possibility of a real and independ forming your explanation to the recent instruction to ent vitality in the constitution of the Calderon Gov. Mr. Hurlbut, with a copy of which you are furnished, ernment, the Chilian military authorities issued an to show to the Government of Chili how much both his order forbidding any exercise of its functions within words and acts have been misconceived. It is difficult the territory west of the mountains, including the for me to say now how far an explanation would be satcapital and ports of Peru. Unable to understand this isfactory to the President which was not accompanied sudden and-giving due regard to the professions of by the restoration or recognition of the Calderon GovChili-this unaccountable change of policy, this ernment. The objects which he has at heart are first Government instructed its Minister at Lima to con

to prevent the misery, confusion, and bloodshed which tinue to recognize the Calderon Government until the present relations between Chili and Peru seem more complete information would enable it to send only too certain to renew; and, second, to take care further instructions. If our present information is that in any friendly attempt to reach this desirable correct, immediately on the receipt of this communi- end the Government of the United States is treated cation they arrested President Calderon, and thus, as with the respectful consideration to which its disinfar as was in their power, extinguished his govern- terested purposes, its legitimate influence, and its esment. The President does not now insist on the in- tablished position entitle it. The President feels in ference which this action would warrant. He hopes this matter neither irritation nor resentment. He rethat there is some explanation which will relieve grets that Chili seems to have misconceived both the him from the painful impression that it was taken in spirit and intention of the Government of the United resentful reply to the continued recognition of the States, and thinks her conduct has been inconsiderate. Calderon Government by the United States. If, un- He will gladly learn that a calmer and wiser judgment fortunately, he should be mistaken, and such a mo directs her counsels, and asks in no exacting spirit the tive be avowed, your duty will be a brief one. correction of what were perhaps natural misunder

You will say to the Chilian Government that the standings. So he would be satisfied with the maniPresident considers such a proceeding as an inten festation of a sincere purpose on the part of Chili to tional, unwarranted offense, and that you will com aid Peru either in restoring the present Provisional municate such an avowal to the Government of the Government, or establishing in its place one which United States, with the assurance that it will be will be allowed the proper freedom of action necessary regarded by the Government as an act of such un to restore internal order, and to conduct a real negofriendly import as to require the immediate suspen- tiation to some substantial result. sion of all diplomatic intercourse. You will inform Should the Chilian Government, while disclaiming me immediately of the happening of such a con any intention of offense, maintain its right to settle its tingency, and instructions will be sent to you. But I difficulties with Peru without the friendly intervendo not anticipate such an occurrence from the infor- tion of other powers, and refuse to allow the formamation before the department of which you are pos- tion of any government in Peru which does not pledge sessed. It is more probable that that course will be to consent to the cession of Peruvian territory, it will explained by an allegation that the conduct and lan- be your duty, in language as strong as is consistent guage of the United States Minister in Peru had en with the respect due an independent power, to express couraged the Calderon Government to such resistance the disappointment and dissatisfaction felt by the of the wishes of Chili as to render the negotiation of United States at such a deplorable policy. You will a satisfactory treaty of peace with the Calderon Gov- say that this Government recognizes without reserve ernment impossible. Any explanation which relieves the right of Chili to adequate indemnity for the cost of the action of the Chilian Government of the charac- war, and a sufficient guarantee that it will not again ter of an intentional offense will be received by you be subjected to hostile demonstration from Peru ; and, to that extent, provided it does not require as a further, that if Peru is unable or unwilling to furnish condition precedent the disavowal of Mr. Hurlbut. such indemnity, the right of conquest has put it in the

power of Chili to supply them, and the reasonable manent treaty of peace. If negotiations be assured, exercise of that right, however much its necessity the ability of Peru to furnish the indemnity will be may be regretted, is not ground of legitimate complaint a matter of direct interest. On this subject we have on the part of other powers.

no information upon which definite instructions can But this Government feels that the exercise of the now be based. While you will carefully abstain from right of absolute conquest is dangerous to the best any interposition in this connection, you will examine interests of all the republics of this continent; that and report to the department promptly any plans from it are certain to spring other wars and political which may be suggested. You will not indicato any disturbances, and that it imposes even upon the con- wish that the Government of the United States shall queror burdens which are scarcely compensated by the act as umpire in the adjudication between the contendapparent increase of strength which it gives. This ing powers. Should an invitation to that effect be Government also holds that between two independent extended, you will communicate by telegraph for innations, hostilities do not, from the mere existence of structions. The single and simple desire of this Govwar, confer the right of conquest until the failure to ernment is to see a just and honorable peace at the furnish the indeninity and guarantee which can be earliest day practicable, and if any other American rightfully demanded." The United States maintains, Government can more effectively aid in producing therefore, that Peru has the right to demand that an this auspicious result, the United States will cordially opportunity should be allowed her to find such in- sustain it, and lend such co-operation as the circumdemnity and guarantee. Nor can this Government stances may demand. I am, etc., admit that a cession of territory can be properly ex

JAMES G. BLAINE. acted far exceeding in value the amplest estimate of a reasonable indemnity. Already, by force of its occu- under date of Santiago, December 2, 1881, stat

Minister Kilpatrick wrote to Secretary Blaine pation, the Chilian Government has collected great sums from Peru, and it has been openly and officially ing that the Chilian Government had promised asserted in the Chilian Congress that these military that it would not demand a cession of territory impositions have furnished a surplus beyond the cost of maintaining its armies in that occupation. The would endeavor to build up and strengthen the

as an absolute condition of peace, and that it annexation of Tarapaca, which, under proper administration, would produce annually a sum sufficient to Calderon Government in Pera. These prompay a large indemnity, seems to us to be not consistent ises, General Kilpatrick intimated, would have with the execution of justice.

been fulfilled but for the representations made The practical prohibition of the formation of a stable by Minister Hurlbut of the attitude of the of its most valuable territory, is simply the extinction United States and bad faith on the part of Cal. of a state which has formed part of the system of deron. The coming of the special mission, it republics on this continent, honorable in the traditions is stated, creates considerable excitement in and illustrations of its past history, and rich in the Chili, and the alleged support by the United resources for future progress. The United States, with States of the Peruvian Company scheme greatly which Peru has for many years maintained the most intensifies it. On December 2, 1881, Secretary cordial relations, has the right to feel and express a deep interest in its distressed condition, and while, Blaine wrote as follows to Mr. Trescot : with equal friendliness to Chili, we will not interposé

Sir: It is not impossible that before the close of the to deprive her of the fair advantages of military suc- special mission, instructions for which have been alcess, nor put any obstacle to the attainment of future ready furnished you, it may be deemed advisable that, security, we can not regard with unconcern the de- at its close, you should return to the United States by struction of Peruvian nationality. If our good offices way of the Argentine Confederation and Brazil. Posiare rejected, and this policy of the disruption of an tive instructions may be sent you to this effect before independent state be per-isted in, this Government your mission closes, but at present my purpose is to adwill consider itself discharged from any further obli- vise you of such possible contingency, and to add that, gation to be influenced in its action by the position if at the close of the special mission you should decide which Chili has assumed, and will hold itself free to that a return home by the way of Buenos Ayres and appeal to the other republics of this continent to join Rio de Janeiro was advisable, you are hereby authorit in an effort to avert consequences which can not ized, without waiting for such instructions, to return be confined to Chili and Peru, but which threaten home by that way. Should you do so, you will, in your with extremest danger the political institutions, the communications with the representatives of the Govpeaceful progress, and the liberal civilization of all ernments of Brazil and the Argentine Confederation, America.

impress upon them the advantages which would result If, however, none of these embarrassing obstacles from a full and frank conference between all the repubintervene, and Chili receives in a friendly spirit the lics of North and South America. By the time you can representatives of the United States, it will be your reach these points the opinions of this Government on purpose, first, to concert such measures as will enable this subject will have been formally submitted to them, Peru to establish a regular government and initiate and you will have the opportunity to enforce these negotiations; second, to induce Chili to consent to views, and to direct their attention to the importance such negotiations without cession of territory as a

of the proposed congress. If you will telegraph the condition precedent; third, to impress upon Chili that probable time of your arrival at Buenos Ayres, a vessel in such negotiations she ought to allow Peru a fair of the United States will meet you at that place. opportunity to provide for a reasonable indemnity, and in this connection to let it be understood that the

On January 3, 1882, Secretary Frelinghuysen United States would consider the imposition of an ex- instructed Mr. Trescot by telegraph to exert travagant indemnity, so as to make the cession of his influence pacifically, and to avoid all issues territory necessary in satisfaction, as more than is which might lead to his withdrawing froin his threatening renewed difficulties between the two coun- post in Chili. tries. As it is possible that some time will elapse

On the next day (January 4th) the Secretary before the completion of all arrangements necessary telegraphed to Mr. Trescot that it was the wish for a final negotiation, this Government would sug- of the President that our friendly offices should gest a temporary convention, which, representing the be extended impartially to both republics (Chili Peru and Chili into amicable conference and provide and Peru); that a pacific influence should be for a meeting of plenipotentiaries to negotiate a per- exerted, and every issue which might lead to

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