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PAYMENT OF DUTIES.
time of occupation shall be collected in the form which to the collector of customs at Callao, after having certhe chief collector of customs shall determine. tified to the quantity of merchandise shipped. The
Art. VIII. All merchandise disembarked should be other copy shall be returned to the party interested immediately dispatched for consumption. If from after the remarks written upon the one reserved have exceptional circumstances, duly certified to by the been copied thereon. chief collector of customs, it shall not be possible to ART. VIII. The collector of customs at Callao, as dispatch from the port the merchandise disembarked, soon as he shall receive the copy sent him by the these may be deposited in the stores of the custom- military commander, or the commander of the blockhouse for fifteen days. The compensation for storage ading squadron, shall proceed to collect the duties on shall be equivalent to 2 per cent of the value of the the goods, in case they have not yet been paid. merchandise. If, at the expiration of fifteen days, the ART. IX. Any exports made in violation of the merchandise shall not have been dispatched, the col- fore going articles will subject the party making them lector of customs shall proceed to sell them at auction to the penalties prescribed for the prevention and reto the highest bidder, and, after deduction of costs pression of smuggling. and duties, the remainder shall be held in deposit to Done at Lima, in the Government Hall, May 25, the credit of whom it may concern.
MANUEL Díaz B., Secretary-General. Art. XI. The duties may be paid, at the option of
Of the condition of Peruvian commerce at the payer, (1) in the silver peso (dollar) of any na the present time nothing more can be said tionality, provided always that, by weight and stand than that it has reached the lowest ebb. Even ard, it shall not be worth less than that of Chili; (2) the trade with Great Britain has been sensibly in gold coin, computing the peso at 38 pence (3) in treasury bills of Chili at such rates of discount decreasing since 1878. The subjoined tabular as shall be fixed at these headquarters within the first stateinent will serve to show the value of the two weeks of each month.
Peruvian exports to and imports from Great Art. XII. This decree shall take effect from and Britain during the decennial period embraced after the 8th of June, proxiino.
The decrees of the 222 January and the 15th Feb- between 1871 and 1880 : ruary last are repealed. Given in the Government House, in Lima, this 24th
Exports. Imports. of May, 1881.
PATRICK LYNCH, MANUEL Diaz B., Secretary-General.
19,859.840 10,795, 850 Patrick Lynch, Rear- Admiral and General-in-Chief 1872
21,053,615 14,351,190 of the Army of Chili.
26,097,860 12,623,110 Whereas, I have this day decreed as follows:
22,506,065 7,966,905 24,420,905 7,972,495 28,152,850 4,956,520 23,482,510 6,831,970
26,161,525 6.849,155 Art. V. Merchants wishing to export sugar, or any
16,942,660 8,787,185 article subject to export duties, from any port lying
13,263,115 1,564,040 north or south of Callao, may do so by complying with the following provisions :
Of the total value of the exports for 1887, 1. They shall present an application to the collector given in the foregoing table, 2,932,160 soles of customs at Callao, mentioning the name of the port (or ports) in which the goods are to be discharged,
were for guano, which article, and nitrate and together with the quantity to be exported. On ar
raw sugar, constitute the staple exports of the ranging for the payment of duties on the merchandise republic. The quantities and values of the to be exported, the parties interested shall furnish a guano shipments to Great Britain during the certificate of deposit, or a promissory note, indorsed to the satisfaction of the collector, as security for the period just referred to were as follows: amount of such duties. 2. The payment of said amount shall be required,
Quantities. if, during the period which shall be fixed by the collector, and which shall not exceed one month, it shall
142.865 8,550,830 not be satisfactorily shown that the exportation has
74,401 4,879,410 been impossible, owing to some unforeseen occurrence,
139,895 8,614,270 or to vis mijor.
94,346 6,036,895 3. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the
1876 foregoing paragraph, the collector may require the
6,875,140 payment of the export duties to be made in cash
7,897,025 whenever he shall deem it proper so to do.
2,404,635 Art. VI. The duties having been paid, or a suffi
63,530 2,982,160 cient guarantee furnished for their payment, the collector shall issue an order in duplicate, in which shall be stated the name of the vessel which is to receive small previous to 1869, have attained large
The exports of sugar in an unrefined state, of the port (or ports) in which they are to be dis- proportions in recent years. From 2,560,560 charged, and such other particulars as may tend to soles in 1874, they rose in 1876 to the value prevent abuses. Both copies shall bear the approval of 4,963,995 soles, and in 1880 to 5,640,310 and seal of the military commander of Callao.
soles. Art. VII. The order referred to in the foregoing article shall be delivered to the party interested, and
The following table shows the annual exports shall be considered a sufficient permit by the com
of nitrate of soda from Iquique (the principal manding officer of the blockading force, or by the port of the nitrate region), from 1830 to 1879, military officer in command of the port from which the value, per cwt., at Liverpool, in each year er, or, in his absence, the commander of the block: since 1847, inclusive, and the number of vesading force, shall retain one of the copies of the order, sels annually engaged in the nitrate carrying for the purpose of transmission, as speedily as possible, trade :
1877 1878 1879 1880
Price in Liverpool per cwt. of 112 pounds.
1880. 1831.. 1832. 1833. 1834. 1835. 1686. 1887. 1838.. 1839. 1840. 1841
4 12 15 26 86 89 45 89 81 86
1843, 1844. 1845 1816.
1848. 1849. 1850.. 1851.. 1852.. 1858.. 1854.. 1855.
expedients as the conferences of Arica, which Quintals,
could give no positive result, but by striking Spanish, of
the final blow in the very capital of the enemy." As soon as the army was raised to a
strength sufficient, 26,000 Chilians, commanded 18,700
by General Baquedano, began a campaign which culminated in the complete overthrow of the
Peruvian army, and the occupation of the Pe147,600 140,899
ruvian capital by the victorious Chilian troops. 158,584
Landing at Curuyaco early in January, 1881, 165,369
the expedition at once proceeded to camp in 129,610 149,576
front of the Peruvian army, which occupied
the heights extending from Bella Vista to Mon
terico, under cover of parapets and ditches. 869,817
At five o'clock, on the morning of the 13th, the 880,191
first division, under Colonel Lynch, opened 376,239 890,148
fire, and, the second soon following, the attack 1847.
became general. A fierce fight of four hours 483,089 430,102
ended in a victory for the Chilians. Yet an611,845
other battle had to be fought, for some 8,000 699,406
Peruvians had concentrated in Chorrillos, 562,989 866,241
whence they were “dislodged street by street." 720,465
The town was completely destroyed. An ar
mistice was now granted, at the request of the 1,095,883
foreign ministers resident at Lima, but the Pe1,220,240
ruvians, again in position under cover of the 1,570,248 1,370,248
fortifications at Miraflores, provoked another 1,358,691
attack, and were routed and pursued to the 1,629,017 1,540,963
suburbs of the capital. According to the re1,090,687
port of the Chilian commander-in-chief, 25,000 2,442,459 2,187,685
Peruvians were beaten by half that number of 2,550,827
Chilians at Chorrillos, and the number of the 1,906,503
former at the commencement of the fight at 2,507,052 2,943,413
Miraflores was 15,000. The Peruvian losses in 8,605,906
the first of these two engagements exceeded 4,420,764 6,263, 767
7,000, with 1,500 prisoners, over 60 capnon and 5,583,260
mitrailleuses, and a quantity of arms"; while 7,191,114
the Chilian losses in both battles were esti
mated at but 600 killed and 2,000 wounded. 5,909,213
Lima surrendered unconditionally, and was oc2,065,850
cupied by 4,000 Chilians on the 17th. Callao Totals.... 6,614 81,910,019
surrendered on the same day, and here virtu
ally comes to an end the record of the military Thus the total quantity shipped in the thirty- operations of this protracted struggle. Meanthree years from 1847 to 1879, inclusive, was time Piérola, the Peruvian Dictator, had filed 3,723,182 tons of 2,240 pounds each, at an av to Chocos, from which place be issued a pomperage value of £14 68. 8d. per ton, and an ous proclamation. aggregate value of $264,345, 900 approximate Piérola was credited with the design to proly. The rate of duty imposed on nitrate tract the struggle by carrying the scene of hosshipped from the port of Iquique from 1830 tilities to the mountainous regions, distant from to 1873 was four cents per quintal; from the the coast, and of difficult access for the Chililatter year to the end of 1880 it gradually rose to ans. But these had no desire for the indefi$1.50 per quintal; and at the end of 1881 it was nite prosecution of guerrilla warfare, unprom$1.60 per metric quintal (of 100 kilogrammes). ising of glory or benefit. The main professed
The total length of the twenty-two railway object for which they had pursued the conflict lines open to traffic at the end of 1877 was was not the conquest of Peru, but her destruc2,030 miles. Eleven of these lines belonged tion as a naval power, and her incapacitation to the Government, eight were the property for future intervention in Chilian affairs. That of private companies or individuals, and the object attained, their further desires were lim. three remaining lines were in part owned by ited to two requirements: the establishment the Government, and in part private property. of a permanent peace, and the payment to
As recorded in the article Peru, in our vol- them of a war indemnity. The only present ume for 1880, the Chilians, after their victory at means of securing the latter being the occupaArica, set abont preparing an expedition against tion of the conquered territory, that it was reLima, for the avowed purpose of putting an solved to continue indefinitely. With a view end to the prolonged contest, “not by such to obtain the first, a provisional government
VOL. XXI.-47 A
1857. 1858.. 1869.. 1860.. 1861.. 1862 1863.. 1864.. 1865. 1866. 1567. 1868. 1869.. 1870.. 1971. 1872. 1873. 1874.. 1975.
81 89 95 124 101 121
98 123 124 140 120 118 147 144 163 200 174 199 184 183 226 255 808 417
was, as already recorded, organized, with PERU, CHILI, AND THE UNITED Señor García Calderon at its head, and under STATES. After the failure of the peace conthe protection of the Chilian authorities, Cal- ference held on board the United States steamderon “ pledging himself to conduct his gov- ship Lackawanna at Arica, on October 22, 25, ernment upon principles not opposed to the and 27, 1880, in pursuance of the offer by this fundamental conditions demanded by Chili for Government of its good offices as an arbitrator the final arrangement of peace.” The failure between the belligerents, there is nothing of of this and other efforts to the same end is note to record on diplomatic relations with briefly stated in the following extract from a the Republics of Peru and Chili, until June circular which the Minister of Foreign Affairs 26, 1881, when, in accordance with instrucof Chili addressed to the diplomatic agents of the tions from Secretary Blaine, Minister Chrisrepublic abroad, under date December 21, 1881. tiancy formally recognized the government
Thus it is that Chili could not conclude a peace with of the Provisional President, Señor García Piérola, who, after his defeat at Miraflores, proved Calderon. In July Minister Christiancy prehis inability to form a serious government outside of sented his letters of recall, and on the same Calderon and the rebellion of his soldiers ; nor with day the new Minister, General Stephen A. García Calderon, who, lacking authority in the first Hurlbut, presented his credentials to Presiperiod, and who, when beginning to acquire it, per- dent Calderon at the little village of Magdaverted it in the name of an intervention * irreconcila- lena, Lima being then in the hands of the Chible with the honor and the sovereignty of nations such lians. On the 23d of August, Aurelio García y as Chili and the United States. The last acts of Cal- García, Minister of Foreign Affairs under Piéditions of peace, and the abuse against Chili and Peru rola, addressed to Minister Hurlbut a letter of which he was guilty in encouraging a supposed for- dated “The Ministry, Ayacucho," a town in eign intervention, obliged our military authorities to the interior, where Piérola had set up the semmake an end of the attempt at government made by blance of a government after his flight from García Calderon in February last.
Lima. The purpose of this letter was to perOn learning that Montero had adhered to suade General Hurlbut to recognize Piérola as the Arequipa and Puno declaration in favor of “the constitutionally proclaimed President " Calderon, the Chilian Government ordered the and lawful head of the government in Peru. arrest of Calderon and his minister, Galvez, In reply our Minister assured Señor García y who accordingly were taken to Valparaiso in García that it would scarcely become him to enNovember. Piérola, abandoned by Montero ter into a discussion upon the internal affairs of (then in Cajamarca in the north), and probably Peru,“ but,"continued he," as in your letter to also by Cáceres, who had been appointed by me you have opened the road to such discussion, the Arequipa Congress second Vice-President I propose frankly to express my opinion, so of the Republic, Montero being the first, re- wording it as to wound as lightly as possible.” turned to Lima, and publicly declared' his He then points out that in seizing the supreme intention to renounce all further pretensions to power and assuming an authority unknown to power (December). Señor Don Adolfo Guer- the Constitution, Piérola committed revolutionrero, late secretary to General Lynch, had been ary and lawless acts. The resolution he carappointed political chief of Lima. As an- ried out was “a crime against liberty"; the nounced in President Arthur's message to Con- dictatorship was “a tyranny which was autogress in December, special envoys were sent to cratic and despotic in its construction, its title, Peru and Chili “with instructions which it is and its acts.” Minister Hurlbut's letter conhoped will bring these powers into friendly tinued as follows: relations." These envoys, Messrs. Blaine and Trescott, arrived at Callao on December 22d. mitted to that autocracy in the belief that it would
Oppressed by an invader, the populace of Peru subIt was presumed that Mr. Blaine would, on conduct to victory. Foreign nations recognized it as reaching Santiago, take charge of the United a de facto government, but they never recognized its States legation left vacant by the death of origin or its system. Under the Constitution the AyaGeneral Kilpatrick.
cucho National Assembly has no right to exist, and The part played by Bolivia in the long con- the opinions uttered by an equal number of private
its resolutions possess no legal power beyond that of test is little short of inexplicable. The decla- citizens. Consequently, its confirmation of the full ration of war was the outgrowth of a quarrel and autocratic faculties of the ex-dictator, under his between Chili and Bolivia, about the owner- new title of President, gives no greater legal weight ship of a strip of desert. Peru not only took to his authority or pretensions.
For this reason, and much to my regret, I find mysides with Bolivia, but actually threw out the self compelled to inform you that the decrees are barchallenge to Chili, and, with little effective aid barous and inhuman which have been recently issued from Bolivian contingents, has borne the brunt in Ayachuco with respect to the persons and propof the war, and expiated her folly with her erties of those who do not recognize Señor Piérola, ruin; while Bolivia, save the almost inevitable and they place the government which adopts such
measures beyond the pale of the law. These untiatsacrifice of her sea-board, undoubtedly damag- ural decrees, in my opinion, afford conclusive proof ing to her commercial interests, will have sus- that the government with which you are connected tained no serious losses, territorial or financial. owes existence entirely to force and not to public
opinion. The government presided over by Señor * See the article Peru, CHILI, AND THE UNITED STATES, Garcia Calderon does not pretend to be regularly and in this volume.
perfectly established. It is provisional. It is sup