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PERSIA,+ a country of Asia. Reigning sov sia. The Sheik Abdullah was aiming at the ereign, the Shah Nasr-ed-Din, born April 24, creation of an independent Kurdistan, and, it 1831; succeeded his father, Shah Mohammed, was stated, offered the sovereignty to Abbas in September, 1848. The heir-apparent to the Mirza, the brother of the Shah. This prince throne, Muzaffer-ed-Din, was born in 1854, and was the son of a Kurdish mother, and had has two sons.
lived some time in banishment. The Persians The area of Persia is about 1,647,700 square had more than they could do to keep out the kilometres, or 637,000 square miles. The pop- Kurds, who make admirable infantry, and, ulation is estimated at about 7,653,606, of whom armed with breech-loaders, in that mountain1,963,800 are inhabitants of cities, 3,780,000 ous country were a dangerous foe. But the belong to the rural population, and 1,909,800 more efficient Turkish troops were quickly are nomads. The population is divided, ac- brought into the field, and deprived the Ruscording to the religion, as follows: 6,860,600 sians of the opportunity, if one were sought, Shiites, 700,000 Sunnites and other Moham- of occupying that desirable province, on the medan sects, 8,000 Parsees, 19,000 Jews, 43,- pretext of bringing assistance to the Shah. 000 Armenians, and 23,000 Nestorians and The defense on the part of the Persians also Chaldeans. In 1876 the revenue
was esti was much more efficient after the appointment mated at 34,720,000 francs in money and of Ala-ed-Dauleh to the command of the 6,360,000 francs in grain, making a total of troops. By July peace reigned in nearly the 41,080,000 francs, of which 31,000,000 francs entire province. Austrian officers were emare direct taxes and 5,000,000 francs customs. ployed to instruct and lead the troops, and conThe expenditure amounted to 40,000,000 francs. siderable quantities of improved arms were
The first regular postal service was opened brought from Austria. in January, 1877. In 1879 the number of The Shah some years ago announced to the post-offices was thirty-five; of letters sent, powers that he had appointed as his successor 423,608; of postal-cards, 2,400 ; of printed to the throne his second son, Muzaffer-edmatter, etc., 6,430 pieces.
Din, who is Governor of Tabreez, to the excluThe Kurdish troubles in the north of Per- sion of his eldest son, Massud Mirza, the Zilsia seem to have been connected with the es-Sultan (“Shadow of the Shah "), who is Russian advance in Central Asia and Armenia. Governor of Ispahan. This act was in accordThe followers of the Sheik Abdullah, who ance with the Persian custom of making the proved more than a match for the Persian sol son of the mother of highest birth the heir, as diers, were armed with Martini rifles, such as the Shah's second wife was a princess, while were captured from the Turks in the late war the first was of lower rank. The Zil-es-Sultan at Kars and Ardahan. The scene of the inva- has administered the central provinces of Persion was the great province of Azerbaijan, a sia for several years, and by his extortions acportion of which projects in the form of a quired great wealth. A large loan which he wedge between the Russian Trans-Caucasian made to his father recently was given on the dominion and Turkish Kurdistan, reaching condition that he should receive larger powers nearly to Mount Ararat. The defeat of the than before. He is the more resolute of the Persian troops by the Kurds, who captured a two princes, and the enlargement of his annumber of cannon in the engagement, made thority which he obtained is intended probably the Kurdish invasion a serious matter for Per- to enable him the better to dispute his broth
er's title to the throne upon the demise of the * In 1878, from part of Luzerne. + For other statistics, seo “ Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880. present Shah. A conflict between the brothers
would take the form of a civil war between the prosperous town of Tabreez; but the latter connorth and the south of Persia. If Russia took cession—which would bring the Russians close the part of the northern claimant, Great Brit- to the Caspian port of Reshd, or Enzellee, and ain might be impelled to take sides with the the prime provinces of Ghilan and Mazanderan, other, and Persia be divided into two king- and within striking distance of the Persian doms dominated by the two great rival powers. capital, Teheran, and would place Herat within
The governorship of Kermanshah was con- reach-was canceled at the instance of the ferred upon Massud Mirza in addition to his Disraeli Government. A scheme for a Persian other offices, making him the ruler of more railway from Tabreez, through Reshd, Teheran, than half Persia.
and Ispahan, to Bushire on the Persian Gulf, Six great schemes for railroads in Persia was proposed by Baron Reuter, but encounhave been proposed. The British scheme of tered the opposition of both the English and an international railway from Scutari to India the Russian Governments. does not seem as near accomplishment as it did The Russians and the British are already a few years ago. This ronte wonld lead through rivals in Persia. The latter are attracted by Bagdad, Ispaban, Yezd, and Bunder Abbas, the valuable trade of the country, and by the and thence along the coast of Kurrachee. The consideration that the overland routes to India English have proposed also to merely connect lead through Persia. The English political India with Persia, and Russia and Turkey have thinkers who have not lulled themselves into a each planned to extend their railway systems restful security, which even the blunt acknowlinto Persia. The Persians have projected a edgment that Russia will meet British opposirailroad net-work of their own, with inter- tion in Europe with diversions on the side of national connections under their own control. India does not disturb, are now more than ever In all of these projects the strategic and polit- eager for the establishment of British control ical aspect is of not less importance than the in Persia. Since the attempt to guard the commercial, and the two can not be discon- road to India by way of Herat and Candanected in railroad enterprise in the East. Four þar, the only practical military route, ended of the projected routes were to enter Persia in a fiasco, the voluntary submission or forcifrom the west, and two from the east. The ble subjection of Persia to a British protectBritish operations in Afghanistan led to the orate seems the only safeguard against such discussion of a new route from India, which diversions and their consequences. If the would have some advantages over the one. Russians obtain the ascendency in Persia, they along the coast of the Persian Gulf from Kur can establish themselves in Herat and march rachee. From the same port, at the mouth of at any time into India ; whereas, if the British the Indus, it would pass through the Can- obtain the military control of Persia, they dahar-Herat depression and reach Ispahan by would possess a line of impregnable natural the route north of the plateau of Iran via fortresses which command the Russian routes Meshed. The Afghanistan section of this rail- all the way from the Caspian. road was begun during the British invasion of The English have a preponderant interest in Afghanistan, and the line was completed to the commerce of Persia, and would soon acSibi, half-way to Candahar. The Turks have quire the political control which follows upon a line built from Scutari to Ismeed, and undermercantile supremacy if they were not opposed construction to Angora; while they are pre- by the more astute, vigilant, and aggressive paring to extend it to Sinope and Samsoon on political policy of Russia. When Russian and the Black Sea. The British or anti-Russian British influences are brought into contact and scheme of an intercontinental railroad would antagonism in Oriental courts and nations, the have this line extended to Bagdad, and con- former seem destined always to prevail. The nected with a road from India. The extension Russian policy, if less truthful and square, is of the Austrian railroads to Salonica, and the oftentimes more humane, generous, and subconnection of Vienna and Pesth with Con- stantially just, and is guided by a perfect stantinople by rail, would join this trans-Asian knowledge of the mind and character of the line to all the capitals of Europe by means of Oriental peoples, which centuries of contact a ferry across the Bosporus. The strategic can not give to the English. Persia is divided necessities connected with the defense of India, between English and Russian counsels, but the which constitute the main argument in favor geographical position of Russia, as well as her of the Euphrates Valley scheme with the active spirit of encroachment, and the intellectBritish, are now fully met by the Suez Canal. ual affinity between Russians and Orientals, The Russians are more active and sagacious give to her a decided advantage in the contest. than either the British or the Turks in their The Russian railroads already extend into the efforts to obtain railroad connection with Per- Persian dominions. Russia has acquired Ashusia, which is the key to both commercial and rada, the most commanding Persian port on the political supremacy. The road from St. Peters- Caspian, and has obtained the complete mariburg into the Caucasus, which has been built time supremacy on that sea. The military domsome time as far as Vladikavkas, is advancing ination and commercial primacy which Russia to Erivan, and a concession was obtained from now possesses in the northern provinces, which the Persian Government to extend it to the are the richest part of Persia, the abode of the
government, and the center of power of every horses and given no rest until they reached kind, more than counterbalance the commercial the Turkoman tents. There they were heaviinterests which connect the rest of Persia with ly ironed with a ring around their neck and a India and Great Britain. The acquisition of chain fastening it to a tent-peg, and with rings the freedom of Ashurada port destroys the around each leg, joined by a short chain. Their value of the mountain frontier abutting on Kara market was in Khiva and Bokhara. Until the Kum Desert, which might otherwise have been slave-trade was suppressed in those places by the fortified and held against all the armies in the Russians there were as many as 100,000 slaves world. Russia, from that port, dominates the kept in the khanates and among the Turkowhole interior. The court at Teheran already mans themselves. The trade is still carried on bows to the will of the Czar.
secretly in Bokhara to a small extent, and the The magnificent provinces of Ghilan and Ma- Turkomans still capture slaves in some parts of zanderan are not only the richest part of Per- Khorassan to work them in their own country sia, but one of the most fertile belts of country or hold them for ransom. The Russians are in the world. The northern slopes of the El- said to have liberated 40,000 slaves in Khiva burz Mountains, which traverse them, are cov. alone. Great numbers were killed when reered with forests of teak, oak, walnut, and box. turning to Persia, but in all parts of Khorassan On their southern plateau are mines of coal and there are emancipated captives, of all ranks, iron. These are the scene of Russian mercan who are full of gratitude toward their delivertile enterprise, and may in the future be merged ers. The place where the Turkomans formerin the Muscovite Empire. The oasis of Merv, ly captured the most valuable slaves was on the at the northeast corner of Persia, which has caravan-road from Teheran to Meshed, in the been conquered by the Russians, is a fertile neighborhood of Miandasht, which is far in the tract, ninety miles in circumference, which interior and not far from the middle of the bears three crops a year, and once supported route. The Shah pays a reward of five tomans a million inhabitants. This acquisition brings (about ten dollars) for every Turkoman killed Russia into contact with the great province of while raiding in his dominions, upon the delivKhorassan, and, though the Merv country is not ery of the scalps. likely to be occupied, and affords no means of The nominal strength of the Persian army is commercial communication, the Russians have 100,000 men; but it is doubtful whether more won the undying gratitude of the inhabitants than one fifth of that number are ever in camp of this section of Persia by their subjugation of at one time, or would be likely to obey a call the Akkal Tekke Tarkomans.
to arms. The army is not recruited from the The tent-dwelling Turkomans of the Kara Persians, who are not warlike nor habituated Kum are of the same race as the civilized Ka to the use of arms, and who, by influence and jar tribe, from which the Persian royal family bribery, manage to evade the conscription. It sprang. Fearless, capable of extraordinary is mainly drawn now, and probably was in exertions and endurance, mounted on the ancient times, when the Persian conquests exbest horses in the world, and cruel beyond tended from Egypt to China, from the Toorks conception, the horrors which they have of Azerbaijan, the Kurdish mountaineers of committed are well calculated to cause the Kurdistan, and from the Loor, Bukhtirgar, and Persians to tremble at the mention of their Eliant tribes inhabiting the mountain chains name. For three or four centuries they have south and east of the Zagros range. The standbeen the scourge of the country. The Belochee ing ariny, with the exception of the Shah's marauders who infest the southern parts of body-guard, is entirely composed of these tribePersia, and travel several hundreds of miles men, who still keep up much of the tribal orinto the Salt Desert on their plundering expe- ganization, and whose chiefs and khans are ditions, carried by their wonderfully fleet and appointed to the commissions in the regiments enduring camels, are simple robbers. They composed of their hereditary followers. The drive off the sheep and camels which they find organization of the army is according to the in their way, and lurk in ambush behind the European model, but it is only so in name. It sand-hills of the desert to fall upon passing car was introduced by British officers, who have avans. They treat their victims rudely and twice been employed by the Shah to organize plunder them thoroughly, but seldom commit and instruct his army. Austrian officers have murder. The Turkomans, on the other hand, recently been called to Persia as instructors, would lay whole villages waste, carry off into but only a few remained there. There are 77 slavery those whom they selected, and slay all battalions of infantry, with an average strength the rest. When hotly pressed in pursuit they of 800 men each, and 79 regiments of cavalry, were accustomed to cut off the hands and feet consisting of eight troops of 50 sabers each. of their captives and leave them by the way. The officers are without military education, side. The more aristocratic captives were pref- and the men are devoid of drill or discipline. erable for sale or ranso!n. Women slaves were Bribery and favoritism govern the promotions. valued the most. Their inroads were as swift There is often, however, a strong attachment as they were daring, and, unless there were between officers and men, and an esprit de military to oppose them, always successful. corps partaking of the clan feeling. Many of The prisoners were lashed on the backs of the officers are devoted to their profession, and
need only instruction to make good soldiers of driven, when not assigned to duty, to ply the their men. The army is raised by conscription, not very respectable trades of drug-selling and which falls very unequally on different districts usury, and even the sentries on guard have and tribes. The War-Office does not even little tables covered with wares which they sell pretend to levy the troops in proportion to the to passers-by. population of the different districts. Many
PERU (REPÚBLICA DEL Perú). For details towns escape the conscription entirely. The concerning territorial division, area, populanomad tribes, which are without court influ- tion, etc., reference may be made to the “ Anence, and are too poor to bribe the officials, are nual Cyclopædia” for 1873, 1875, 1878, and to required to furnish far more than their rightful the article Bolivia in the volume for 1879. share. The men are supposed to be discharged The home of the ancient Incas, and afterafter a short term of service, and replaced by ward a Spanish viceroyalty, it was not until fresh annual contingents; but oftentimes the 1824 that Peru became an independent repubdischarge can only be obtained by bribery, and lic, although her declaration of independence many are kept in the service all their lives. dates from July 28, 1821. By the terms of the Their physique is excellent, their nature patient latest Constitution, proclaimed on August 31, and cheerful, and their disposition toward their 1867, and modeled after that of the United commanders obedient and tractable. Their States, the legislative power resides in a Senpowers of marching are celebrated, but the ate, composed of two members from each provsystem which enables them to get over the ince; and a House of Representatives, whose ground so rapidly is fatal to good discipline. members, at the rate of one for every 20,000 Most of the soldiers possess donkeys, which inhabitants, are nominated by the electoral they ride on the march, carrying also the arms colleges of provinces and parishes. The paof their comrades who go on foot. They do rochial electoral colleges send deputies to the not form, or make any attempt to march in provincial colleges, and these in turn send reporder, but each one takes his own pace; still, resentatives to Congress. In the session of by means of their beasts they accomplish à 1876 there were 44 Senators, and the members longer march in a day than any infantry can of the House of Representatives numbered make on foot only. They wear a tunic of the 110. The executive power is vested in a European pattern, and a black, lamb's-wool President, assisted by a Vice-President, both busby, with a brass ornament representing the elected by the people for a term of four years. emblems of the lion and the sun. The effect The last constitutional President was General of the uniform is entirely destroyed, however, Ignacio Prado, who, despairing of a successful by the long frocks which they generally wear resistance against the victorious Chilian inunder the tunic, and the cloths wound around vader, left his country in December, 1879. their heads in the summer-time, on the top of From that time until the fall of Lima, in Janwhich they set their caps. They are partly uary, 1881, the government was in the hands armed with breech-loading rifles, which have of the Dictator, Don Nicolás de Piérola. After been lately furnished; but the majority carry the decisive battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores, muzzle-loading, smooth-bore muskets, of French and the occupation of the capital by the Chimake. The cavalry are equally wanting in order lian troops, Piérola fled to the mountains with and discipline, but adapted, if well led, for good the débris of his army, and for several months service of the irregular kind. They are mounted maintained a warlike attitude toward the conon strong, stanch horses of all sizes. They are querors. uniformed in long, dark-blue frocks, sheep-skin In March a number of leading men of Lima busbys, and brown-leather boots, reaching half- met in council, and elected, as Provisional way to the knee. They carry a rifle and a President, Señor Don F. García Calderon, with saber, which is very much curved and has no a Cabinet composed of the following ministers: guard for the hand. The cartridges for their Foreign Affairs, Señor Arenas; Interior, Señor carbines are carried in their brown-leather Torrico; Finance, Señor Elguera; Justice, Sebelts. To the bridle is fastened a camel's-hair ñor Paz Soldan; War, Señor Carillo. This rope, with an iron peg at the end, for picket- election was afterward ratified by a Congress ing. The artillery is the best disciplined branch convened under the direction of the Chilian of the army.
Their armament, however, is commander-in-chief, at Chorrillos (July 10th). defective, consisting mainly of old smooth-bore But the end of the year found Peru in the denine-pound guns, though a considerable number plorable situation of a country without a govof Uchatius rifled cannon have recently been ernment of its own, without any regular armed imported. Not over 20,000 troops are kept un- force by land or by sea, and deprived of the der arms, garrisoning the principal towns and chief sources of national income:-President guarding frontier posts. The remainder are Calderon deported to Chili; the remnants of with their flocks and herds, or engaging in the army scattered far and wide in the train of their agricultural or commercial occupations. reckless guerrilla chiefs; the navy annibilated; The pay is nominal and never reaches them. the nitrate and guano deposits in the possesTheir rations are liberal, according to the regu- sion of and controlled by the invader; and the lations, but usually there are no rations given proceeds of the customs applied to support out at all. The soldiers are consequently the Chilian army of occupation. The peace
strength of the Peruvian land forces seldom of which £17,829 had been distributed among exceeded 6,000, including some 1,200 gen- the bondholders.* darmes, and about an equal number of vigilantes, The Chilian authorities having, shortly after constituting the organized police force. After the capture of Lima, established a tariff of the declaration of war against Chili, the mili- customs duties on imports and exports, Mr. tary strength was raised to 40,000 (May, 1879), Christiancy, late United States Minister to and the number of men under arms in the Peru, presuming that said tariff would prob.summer of 1880 was reported at 70,000, a ably be adhered to during the continuance of tigure apparently very much exaggerated. Of the Chilian military occupation, and “thinkthe navy, but a few years ago accounted one of ing it might be well that our merchants and the finest in America, destruction in engage- ship-owners should have information upon the ments with, and capture by, the Chilian fleet, subject, inasmuch as it might affect their achad, by the end of 1880, left nothing to tion in questions bearing upon commercial Peru.
ventures with Peru," forwarded to the DepartThe national revenue for 1873–74 was 62,- ment of State at Washington a copy of the 753,903 soles ;* that for 1875–76 was 66,601,- decrees concerning the new tariff, and an ex664; and the expenditure for the same periods tract of which is bere transcribed: amounted respectively to 65,500,836 and 65, Patricio Lynch, Rear- Admiral and General-in-Chief 063,122 soles. There was no direct taxation in
of the Army of Chili. Peru, and the revenue was for the most part Whereas, I have on this date decreed the following: derived from the sale of nitrate and guano, and Considering that it is just that the Government of from the customs, the yield of which latter for Chili should obtain from the territory occupied by the years 1873–77 having been 8,400,000 soles, the interest of its commerce and industry—I decree : 7,097,000 soles, 17,082,000 soles, 5,541,664 soles, and 4,005,689 soles, respectively. As for
DUTIES UPON IMPORTS. the sale of guano,t before the war, the average
ARTICLE I. All merchandise imported into the port annual exportation of that commodity for the of Callao shall pay an ad valorem duty of 25 per cent, decennial period 1868–177 has been set down with the exception of the following, which shall pay:
Art. II. A duty of 15 per cent: Tar and pitch for at 400,000 tons, valued at $23,000,000. Of the use of ships; animals alive or slaughtered; quicksildisposal of guano under Chilian administration ver in jars ; charcoal and mineral coal ; oakum for mention will be made hereafter; and, for infor- calking; woolen felt (barred) for use of shipping; mation on the same subject, reference may be pig-iron in bars, unwrought, square, round, or in made to the “ Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880 printing-presses and utensils; machinery for agri
plates ; iron axles or champs (or hoops); fresh prints; (page 624).
culture and mining; flower-seeds and garden-seeds ; As stated in our volume for 1880, the na printer's ink. tional debt of the republic in July, 1879,
Art. III. A duty of 10 per cent: amounted to upward of 246,000,000 soles, ex
Sub. 1. Chilian products, and merchandise free, or
on which duty has been paid in Chili. clusive of a floating debt variously estimated Sub. 2. Peruvian products coming from ports occuat from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000. Of the en- pied by Chilian arms. tire indebtment, 20,000,000 soles represents
Art. IV. A specific duty: the home debt,' and 226,340,516 the foreign per dozen ; brandies, 42 cents per litre; coffee, 15
Sub. 1. Brandies, bottles of the common size, 84 debt, made up of loans contracted in Eng- cents per kilogramme; beer, $1.25 per dozen bottles ; land in 1869, 1870, and 1872. No payment of beer, 12 cents per litre ; cigars, $3 per kilogramme; interest on these loans has been made since alcohol (pure), 50 cents' per litre; gin, $3 per dozen the commencement of the war, and the British bottles ; gin, 32 cents per litre ; sweet liquors, $4.50 bondholders were for some time in a state per dozen bottles; sweet liquors, 48 cents per litre ;
fard, 5 cents per kilogramme; snuff, $8 per kiloverging on despair. The bonds at the end of gramme; burning rum (or burning alcohol), $4 per 1881 were quoted very low, scarcely higher dozen bottles ; burning rum (or burning alcohol), 42 than in the darkest days of the war." In cents per litre; Havana tobacco, 82 per kilogramme; March, 1881, the 6 per cents railway loan of other tobacco, 81, per kilogramme ; tea, 75 cents per 1870 were worth 26, and the 5 per cents of wine, $3 per dozen bottles ; red wine, $2.25 per dozen
kilogramme; white wine, 32 cents per litre ; white 1872 sold at 21 ; in December of the same bottles ; red wine, 25 cents per litre; Paraguay tea, 6 year the quotations of the latter were given at cents per kilogramme. 191-201. That they have any value at all is
Sub. 2. Products of Chili and articles on which, owing to Chilian generosity, the Chilian Gove being subject to specific duties, duty has been already ernment having consented to the shipment, for pajasir Chili, shall pay 25 per cent of those established the benefit of the bondholders, of guano from Sub. 1. Peruvian products coming from ports occuthe deposits secured by conquest, on condi- pied by the Chilian arms shall pay the same duties as tion of the payment of a royalty of £1 10s. Chilian products subject to specific duties.
Art. V. The appraisement shall be according to the per ton to the Chilian Treasury. The sales are Peruvian tariff of 1880. in the hands of Messrs. Gibbs & Co., of Lon Art. VI. The collector of customs will prescribe don, who, from April to December, 1881, had the special rules and modes of proceeding in the case sold 16,442 tons for the gross sum of £120,000, of documents presented for dispatch.
Art. VII. All other import duties in force at the • The sol is equivalent to about ninety cents of United States money.
* See the articles Chili and Pers in the Annual Cyclo† For nitrate exports, see page 737.
pædia" for 1680, and Chili in the present volume.