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pound per horse-power over the consumption imports were but $4,765,585 in 1880, against of fuel indicated by the builders for the trial $4,900,163 in 1879. Hence the actual increase trip of 6 hours at full speed, £2,000 will be of revenue from the customs department in forfeited; for two tenths, £4,000; for three 1880, as com red with 1879, was but $413,tenths, £8,000; for four tenths, £16,000; for 257. Much more favorable results were exfive tenths, £32,000. The ship is to be inclined, pected by the Government from the tariff and her center of gravity ascertained in the which went into operation on January 1,
Her metacentric height when 1880; but economists foresaw that a measure loaded for sea is not to be less than 3 feet, and so unsatisfactory to the commercial commuunder no circumstances is it to be less than 24 nity could hardly prove profitable to the treasfeet; and by failure in any of these stipula- ury; for, although merchants had been retions the contractors are to forfeit the final in- quested to take part in the work of revising stallment. The other new craft is an iron gun- the former tariffs, their suggestions had only boat to be named Iniciadora, and the king-bolt been regarded as worthy of consideration when of which was struck by his Majesty the Em- favorable to increased rates of duty.* The peror on October 27, 1881, at the national ar new tariff undeniably made some improvesenal of marine. This will be the first iron ves- ments, such as the suppression of unnecessary sel built there. The dimensions and other de- distinctions and the approximation of official tails published were as follows: length, 117 to market value ; but, on the whole, the refeet; beam, 24 feet; depth of hold, 8 feet; vision was performed too rapidly to admit of draught, 5 feet; with a displacement of 200 proper attention to fiscal conveniences. A tons, and engines of 260 horse-power, expected new revision was ordered toward the close of to give a speed of from 9 to 10 knots an hour. 1880, and the work intrusted to a committee The vessel is to be double sheathed with wood composed wholly of government einployés; and Muntz-metal; and the armament to consist but the expediency of submitting the result of of two cannons of 15 caliber at the bow and their labors, when these should be terminated, stern, with 3-inch steel plate casemates for . for examination to a committee of merchants protection against musketry; two machine and another of manufacturers, was strongly guns and torpedo apparatus. Electric light urged by the public press. will be used on board the Iniciadora, which is The amount and branches of the national to have steel-wire schooner rigging, have ca debt of Brazil were reported as follows on pacity for one month's supplies for 60 men, December 31, 1880: and carry coal for 5 days. This gunboat is Foreign loan of 1852, due 1882. £390,300 specially intended for river service.
236,800 The subjoined table of the latest official re
1,871,100 turns at hand from the Finance Department,
5,575,900 being for the year 1877–78, will serve to show
8,028,200 the sources of the revenue and the branches
5,079,500 of the expenditure, but not the real condition Total foreign debt
£16,704,000 = 148,665,600+ of Brazilian finances at the present time: Six per cent internal funded debt..
119,600 Customs receipts..
23,882,000 Imposts on shipping
65,749 Four and a half per cent gold bonds of 1879.. 50,285,000 Internal revenue. 14,155,169 Treasury bills..
762,417 Five per cent private loan. Emancipation fund.. 521,860 Various deposits, about
50,000,000 Receipts extraordinary 8,270,171 Paper money.
189,250,000 Total.... $55,372,840
A new loan of £5,000,000 was talked of in Ministry of the Interior.
$11,207,295 July as probable, and as necessary to permit of Foreign Affairs.
the payment or funding of the existing floating of Finance...
25,526,199 of Justice
debt. of Commerce and Agriculture.. 21,058,020 In a report made in 1879 by the Minister of
7,917,894 of the Navy..
Finance, the total debt stood at 779,116,837
milreis = $389,558,418. Total..
The most recent complete official returns of Deficit..
the foreign commerce of the empire are those In the budget for the fiscal year 1881–"82, the imports were, as stated in our volume for 1890,
for 1878–79, in which year the exports and revenue was estimated at $58,479,000, and the of the total values of $102,029,250 and $81,expenditure, in round figures, at $59,143,380; 762,900 respectively. thus showing a deficit of but $664,380. As
The nature and value of the commodities for 1880, the revenue appears to have been imported from Great Britain in 1880 were as "greater in that year than any of the preced- shown in the subjoined table: ing years." The customs receipts from exports gave a total of $21,425,497, against $20,
* See" Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880 and for 1878. 877,662 in 1879; though the receipts from + $74,332,800.
1888. 1890.. 1893. 1902. 1909. 1913..
Total national debt..
ing their present vantage-ground in the marLinen manufactures
123,024 Woolen and worsted manufactures.
kets of the United States and of Europe. The Jute manufactures..
152,128 Brazilian coffee-crops have of late years been Hardware and cutlery
274,099 Coal, coke, etc...
abundant. Thus, as has been seen in the table Earthenware.
112,260 last given, the crop of 1878 was 225,500,000 Rails of all sorts.
kilogrammes, or 496,100,000 pounds; that of Cast or wrought iron.
228,408 1878–79 was rather smaller, 222,349,800 kiloMachinery and mill-work.
171,709 grammes; that of 1879-'80, still smaller, was Seed-oils...
174,543,480; while, on account of 1880–81, Total.........
£4,966,188 for the first six months, ending on December = $24,580,690
31, 1880, there had already been shipped 142,Against a total of £3,998,721 (= $19,993,605) for the year 1879.
622,820 kilogrammes, or almost seven eighths The imports from the same source for the of the entire quantity exported in the whole first six months of 1881 were as follows:
of the year immediately preceding. It was re
garded as probable that the crop of 1881-82 Cotton manufactures..
would reach 3,000,000 bags of sixty kilogrammes Linen manufactures.
each, or 180,000,000 kilogrammes = 426,000,
000 pounds." The year 1880 was not favorable Rails..
101,029 to coffee exportation," observes a Rio journal. Machinery
" The European markets remained apathetic Hardware and cutlery
83,661 Cast or wrought iron
79,523 during the first half-year, with prices constantly Earthenware....
86,729 low, while in the United States the presence Coal, coke, etc....
71,603 Beed-oils, etc.
of large cargoes, presumed to be for account of
the Brazilian Government, kept speculators Total.....
away. At home, holders and buyers found it = $7,193,670
difficult to agree, as the latter could not go Judging from the total of the first of these above certain limits in accordance with the two tables, that of the second would seem to' situation of the markets the shipments were foreshadow a considerable decrease for 1881 for; while the sackers, unwilling to sacrifice as compared with 1880.
the article by selling at a low price, endeavOf all the Brazilian staples of export, coffee ored at all hazards to sustain their pretensions. is by far the chief. With her 530,000,000 * of In the last months of the year, when coffee shrubs, producing on an average 260,000,000 fell considerably in the American markets, kilogrammes or 572,000,000 pounds annually, some New York and Boston merchants, unBrazil exports nearly one half of the entire quan- able to meet their losses thereby, suspended tity of coffee consumed in the world, her home payments. But no unfavorable impression was consumption not exceeding 110,000,000 pounds. felt at Rio; on the contrary, the fortnight in Her prodigious superiority over all the other which the news of the failure was received coffee-growing countries individually and col- was that of greatest sales here. In rum, the lectively may be seen by the following figures: production has increased greatly, but the con
sumption has increased equally, and its use in the fabrication of liquors has of late been extensive. New means of transport have also
assisted, by cheapening freight. Of the 15,000 Brazil.
pipes made in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, Dutch possessions... 71,822,000
91,404,800 about 9,000 proceeded from the Campos mar20,800,000
41,800,000 ket. Pernambuco followed Rio in production, Ceylon...
53,422,400 South Africa.
85,890,000 9,000 pipes having been exported from Recife, 6,176,000
2,779,200 and the home consumption being large. In Africa..
4,000,000 Central America.
Rio de Janeiro prices were forty per cent highPhilippines..
3,396,800 er than at Pernambuco, preventing shipments '150,000
thither. In tobacco the year 1880 was unTotal.
380,151,880 490,848,200 profitable, if not, indeed, one of the losses and = 676,811,854 lbs. = 1,006,228,560 lbs. liquidations for all the classes depending on
the manufacture of Minas tobacco. The low A significant fact of another kind is observed on glancing at the foregoing columns of fig. throughout the year, despite a considerable
prices which prevailed almost unchanged uresnamely, that while coffee-culture has decrease in the harvest, were attributed, by the taken an immense stride in the course of twen- parties interested, to the perturbation produced ty-three years, an astounding development is in commercial relations by the new taxes. But, noticeable in many other countries, and par- while it is evident that the taxes contributed ticularly in Central America; and Brazilian to the evils pointed out, it is no less so that planters will do well to reflect that, though the principal cause of the decline in prices to the supremacy is decidedly theirs, no means the point of being unremunerative consisted in can safely be neglected by them of maintain the narrowness of the circle of foreign custom
ers. And thus the three years of abundant
* In 1881.
crops prevented the expected reaction after his intention, as the state of the finances had the suppression of the imperial taxes, by per- improved, to apply to the following Legislature mitting the supply to exceed the consumption.” for an appropriation in the budget for 1882–83
It should here be observed that sugar is for an immigrants' house in Rio, to receive another Brazilian article of export, produced and support for eight days 40,000 spontaneous in all parts of the empire, but particularly in immigrants per annum, for the transportation the provinces of Pernambuco and Bahia. The of 30,000 immigrants from Rio to their destinaquantity shipped, however, is never or rarely tion, for the acquisition of 53,000 acres of land in excess of 140 tons, or about the amount of in readily accessible portions of Southeru Brathe total shipments from the little island of zil, and for the survey of public lands and the Mauritius.
making of roads to colonies. He had also de. There have been no official returns of port clared that the Government would not give furmovements published since those given in our ther aid or make further subsidized immigravolume for 1880, to which volume reference tion contracts.* may be made for details relating to Brazilian The new electoral reformu bill mentioned in railways and telegraphs. On the subject of our volume for 1880 passed the Senate in the the new line of steamers there mentioned as session of 1881. We here transcribe the prinabout to be established between Canadian and cipal clauses of the bill: Brazilian ports, the following particulars were ARTICLE I. The nominations of senators and depupublished in Rio de Janeiro in February, 1881: ties to the General Assembly, members of the Pro
“St. Thomas, at which port the steamers of vincial Legislative Assemblies, and any other elective this line will call, is the distributing point for national or local authority, shall be made by direct the mails and traffic of the West Indies and conformity with this law, may take part. The elecCentral America, and arrangements are in prog- tion of Regent of the Empire shall continue to be ress with the Royal Mail Steam Packet Com- made according to the additional act to the Constitupany for an interchange of traffic by through tion by the electors treated of in this law. bills of lading at that port for the West Indies, Articles VI, IX, and XCII of the Constitution of the
Art. II. Every Brazilian citizen, in accordance with British Guiana, and Central America, and at empire, having a net annual income of not less than Rio de Janeiro for the republics of the river 200 milreis from realty, trade, business, or employPlate, thus bringing all these countries into ment, is an elector. direct communication with Canada. The di
The exclusions of said Article XCII include the rect trade of Canada with these countries for workmen of the public departments and establish
men of the army, navy, and police corps, and the the year 1879 has been as follows: Imports, ments. value $1,256,817; exports, value $4,242,112 ; Art. III. The proof of the income referred to in but it has been carried on entirely by sailing- the preceding article shall be made : vessels, and will necessarily be further devel
SECTION 1. As to income arising from realty :
(1.) When the realty lies within the bounds of the oped by the establishment of this company. Imposto Predial or Decima Urbana, by certificate from It is proposed to employ four steamers in this the fiscal department that the realty is assessed at a service, each of 2,200 tons burden, which will rental value of not less than 200 misreis, or by a rerun monthly between Canada and Rio de Ja. ceipt of the same department for payment of that tax. neiro, touching at St. Thomas, Pará, Maranhão, Predial or Decima Urbana:
(2.) When not within the bounds of the Imposto Ceará, Pernambuco, and Bahia, between which
If consisting of premises situated where neither of ports the coastwise traffic in passengers and those taxes is levied, of rural establishments, or of goods is very important. The contract with lands occupied by the owner, then by computing the the Canadian Government is for three years resents, verified by a legitimate deed of ownership or
income at six per cent upon the capital the realty repcertain from 1st of May next, thereafter being holding, or by a judicial sentence recognizing either. terminable by six months' notice, as is usual If not occupied by the owner, then by reckoning in the Dominion. The Brazilian contract is the incoine in the same manner, or by the exhibition for ten years, and it is understood that nego- books a year before, with express declaration of the
of a contract of lease of the realty entered in notarial tiations are in progress for additional subsidies
price of the lease. to the company in respect of intermediate ports Sec. 2. As to income derived from trade or profesof call. The company has the advantage of sion: being introduced to public notice by a strong
(1.) By certificate showing inscription, a year preand influential board, and, in view of all the viously, in the “ Commercial Register,” as merchant, circumstances, it is reasonable to anticipate that broker, auctioneer, chief clerk of a commercial house,
master of vessel, pilot, or administrator of a factory. the capital will be at once taken up by those (2.) By certificate from the respective fiscal departwho are in search of a favorable form of in- ment of ownership of a factory, workshop, or comvestment."
mercial, manufacturing, or rural establishment, with a The Telephone Company of Brazil had re- provincial annual tax of not less than 24 milreis in
capital of at least 6,800 milreis, paying an imperial or ceived, by decree of April 17, 1881, anthori- Rio, 12 milreis in other cities, and 6 milreis in towns zation to operate in the empire, and it was and other places of the empire. hoped that contracts would at once be made The taxes referred to in this provision confer electfor the establishment of telephonic communi- oral capacity only when paid for at least a year before cation between Rio de Janeiro and the neigh
No taxes but those mentioned in this law can serve boring town of Niotheroy.
for proof of income. The Minister of Agriculture had announced
* See “ Annual Cyclopædia " for 1850.
(3.) By certificate extracted from the book of bank eligible es senator, deputy, or provincial member, companies or commercial or manufacturing associa- within the region over which their functions extend, tions, legally authorized, proving the citizen to have and the ineligibility includes engineers, contractors, been employed, for a year previously, at a salary not furnishers, and others interested in public, guaranteed, less than the legal income.
or subsidized works, or deriving pecuniary profit from Sec. 3. As to income derived from public or pro- state, province, or municipality works. Shareholders, vincial stocks, by authentic certificate that he has held however, are not included. in his own name, or, if married, in that of his wife, Art. XI. No remunerated public functionary can for a year previously, stock yielding annually at least hold his office during the session, if he accepts the the required income.
legislative mandate; and if he accepts a senatorship, SEC. 4. As to income derived from shares of legally he must at once be superannuated. authorized banks and companies, or from deposits in Excepting ministers and secretaries of state, coungovernment savings-banks or others authorized by cilors of state, bishops, embassadors and envoys exthe Government, by authentic certificate of holding, traordinary on special mission, presidents of provinces, for a year before enrollment, in his own or his wife's military and naval officers, as to seniority and pay, and name, shares or deposits yielding at least the said senators, etc., obtaining license from their respective annual income.
chambers. Art. IV. The following are considered to have the Art. XII forbids the election of ministers of state legal income, independent of proof:
as senators while holding office, and for six months (1.) Holders of scientific or literary diplomas of any afterward, unless the vacancy occurs in the native legally recognized faculty, academy, school or insti- province or that of domicile. tute, Brazilian or foreign. The proof will be tho Art. XIII forbids the acceptance by, senators, and diploma itself, or any authentic document replac- by deputies and members of provincial assemblies ing it.
during the session and six months after, of any paid (2.) Clerks in holy orders.
government or provincial employment or commission, 3.) Citizens who have, for upward of a year before except of councilor of state, president of province, enrollment, been directing houses of education or embassador or envoy extraordinary, bishop, and comteaching, or have been public teachers, by effective or mander of sea or land forces. It also forbids their life-long nomination, or have been teaching in private obtaining concessions, privileges, contracts, etc., but schools or colleges attended by at least twenty schol- not patents. Two years of residence in the province ars.
is required for election as provincial member. A certificate from the inspector or director of public Ants. XIV and XV treat of the elections in general. instruction in Rio or in the provinces shall serve as Art. XVI treats of elections of senators, which proof thereof.
must be by separate triple lists for each vacancy. (4.) Ministers and councilors of state, senators, Art. XVII treats of elections of deputies to the deputies to the General Assembly, members of the General Assembly, which will be in districts of one Provincial Legislative Assemblies, the effective verea- deputy. Rio is to have three districts, Bahia and dores and the justices of peace with number.
Recite two each. (5.) Employés of the diplomatic or consular corps. ART. XVIII treats of elections of vereadores and
(6.) Officers of the army, navy, and police corps, justices of the peace. including the active and reserve, retired and honorary Arts. XIX to XXI, of penalties.
Art. XXII postpones all elections, except as pro(7.) Imperial, provincial, or municipal functionaries vided for in Article XXIX of the Constitution, until having pay of over 200 milreis, with right of super- the conclusion of the first general enrollment, and the annuation.
Government may delay to the last working day of De(8.) Serventuarios for life in office of justice, with cember, 1881, the gencral election of deputies to the allowances of at least 200 milreis per annum.
next Legislature. Art. V. Any citizen unable to prove the legal in Art. XXIII provides for collecting, in a distinct come by any of the modes laid down in the preceding part of the instructions to be issued for the execution articles will be permitted to do so by the rental value of the law, all existing provisions and decisions in of the house or houses he has lived in, with his own harmony with it, to be submitted to Parliament for earnings, during at least a year before, the rental value approval. paid by him being 400 milreis in Rio; 300 milreis in Art. XXV revokes contrary provisions. the cities of Bahia, Recife, Maranhão, Para, Nicthe A novel event for Brazil was that of general other cities; 100 milreis in towns and other settle- elections by a free constituency, untrammeled ments; also by rented farms, etc., paying 200 milreis by government pressure and unbiased by gora year rent.
ernment interference. It was apprehended, (This proof must be made before a judge.)
All certificates and other documents required for lowever, that electoral reforms may not prove enrollment of electors are exempt from stamp and any to be an unmixed blessing for Brazil just yet, other taxes.
it being doubtful whether the masses are suffiARTS. VI to VIII treat of the enrollment by the mu- ciently enlightened to see the necessity of nicipal judges, with revision by the juiz de Direito, breaking with traditional evils and allowing and appeal to the Relaçao. Art. IX. Excepting restrictions hereafter enumer
themselves to be carried along by the current ated, every citizen included in Article II is eligible as
of modern progress. The late elections threw senator, deputy to the General Assembly, member of a Liberal majority into the Chamber of Deputhe Provincial Legislatures, vereador, justice of the ties, while in the Senate the Conservatives were peace, and any other charge created by law.
Only section. A special condition of eligibility is: and still remain in majority ; hence the position
For senator of the empire, to be over forty years of of a Liberal Cabinet must needs be embarrassage, and have 1,600 milreis income.
ing, particularly so when hampered by the For deputy to the General Assembly, member of the parliamentary requirement of an absolute maProvincial Legislature, to be over twenty-five years of jority in the formation of a quorum. The presage, and have 800 milreis income; and, as to natu
ent Cabinet has little to fear on that score; ralized persons, have resided six years in Brazil.
For vereador and justice of the peace, that of resi- but, in the case of a successor, the difficulty dence for at least two years within the municipality. would at once arise, unless the Liberal major
Art. X enumerates a long list of functionaries in- ity in the Chamber of Deputies should give
proof of unprecedented assiduity, disciplined of his service as Secretary of the Interior, Mr. union, and abnegation of self-interest.
Browning resumed his profession in Quincy, Nevertheless, and in face of all opposition, where he continued to reside in active practice the spirit and letter of the emancipation law * up to the time of his death. His State laments of September, 1871, continue to be observed, his decease as the loss of an able public serand every measure is taken that, directly or vant. indirectly, contributes to the accomplishment BULGARIA, a principality of Southeastof the great work of abolition. In December, ern Europe, which was created in 1878 by the 1880, the Provincial Legislature of Rio de Ja- Treaty of Berlin, as a dependency of Turkey. neiro imposed a tax of $500 on each slave Reigning Prince, Alexander I,* elected in 1879; brought into the province, except in the case area, 63,972 square kilometres (1 kilometre = of slaves already owned when the law was 0.386 square mile); population on January 1, passed, and merely transferred from an estate 1881, 1,995,701. The population of the prinoutside the province to another within the cipal cities on the same date was as follows: province, and the property of the same plant- Sofia (the capital), 20,541; Rustchuk, 26,867;
A tax of $15 was imposed on the register Varna, 24,649; Shumla, 22,921; Widdin, 13,of slaves moved from one municipality to an- 602; Tirnova, 11,500; Sistova, 11,438. The other. A bill, signed by the majority of the only railroad in operation was that from Rustmembers, was brought into the São Paulo As- chuk to Varna, 224 kilometres. The number sembly, imposing a fee of $1,000 for the regis- of post-offices in 1879 was 35; the number of ter of every slave, not inherited, brought here- letters and postal-cards sent, 337,600; of printafter into the province. Half the fee was to ed matter and packages, 2,060; of newspapers, be applied to emancipations. Thus São Paulo 402,454. The length of the government teleand Minas-Geraes have followed the course of graph lines in 1879 was 2,057 kilometres, and the province of Rio de Janeiro to stop, by of the wires 3,021 kilometres. The number of prohibitive taxes, the further introduction of offices was 31, and of dispatches 99,350. The slaves.
National Assembly consists of the Exarch or There were reports that the question of Chi- head of the Bulgarian Church, of one half of nese labor would be brought to test before the bishops, one half of the presidents and long, “ an eminent American contractor have members of the Supreme Court, one half of ing undertaken to forward to Rio de Janeiro a the presidents of the district courts and of the number of coolies, under contract to serve five commercial court, and of deputies of the peoyears on plantations, at five dollars a month, ple—one member representing 20,000 perwith rations."
BROWNING, Orville H., born in Harrison The people of the principality were in 1881 County, Kentucky, 1806; died August 10, 1881, deprived of the Constitution, which, in accordat Quincy, Illinois. Early in life Mr. Brown- ance with the Treaty of Berlin, they had formed ing removed to Buckner County, where he went to suit themselves. The change from a constithrough a course of classical studies at Augusta tutional monarchy, with exaggeratedly demoCollege, while officiating as clerk in the county cratic popular rights and guarantees, to an auand circuit courts. He afterward studied law tocratic state, was accomplished by a virtual and was admitted to the bar. In 1831 he went act of usurpation on the part of their elected to reside in Quincy, Illinois, where he practiced prince, Alexander. On the 9th of May the his profession. Having served through the Prince dissolved the National Assembly, and Black Hawk War, he was elected in 1836 to declared the Constitution suspended. The inthe Illinois Senate, and four years later to the competency of the administration, and the misLower House, in which he served two years. takes of the majority, whose alleged follies At the Bloomingdale Convention he co-oper- and short-comings bad prompted the arbitrary ated with Abraham Lincoln in organizing the course of the sovereign, were in a measure Republican party of Illinois. In 1860 he was confessed by the chief members of the Liberal a delegate to the Chicago Convention which party themselves. Their parliamentary leader, nominated Mr. Lincoln for the presidency, and the Minister-President Zancoff, proposed, induring the war he was an active supporter of stead of the total revocation of the Constituthe Government. In 1861 Governor Yates tion, as demanded by the Prince, its suspension appointed Mr. Browning to fill a vacancy for three years, during which time the Prince caused by the death of Mr. Douglas, United should govern with the assistance of a Cabinet States Senator from Illinois. In this position and of a Council of State, composed of foreign he served for two years with distinction. While experts, selected by the Assembly. in Washington he engaged in the practice of The draft of a constitution made by Prince law with Hon. Jeremiah Black and Hon. Dondoukoff-Korsakoff was constructed in harThomas G. Ewing. President Andrew John- mony with the liberal views of the popular son appointed Mr. Browning Secretary of the party, who have all along carried with them Interior, and he also acted as Attorney-Gen
* For a biography of Alexander I, see " Annual Cyclopæeral for a brief time, upon the retirement of dia" for 1879, article Alexander 1; for an account of the Henry Stanbery, of Ohio. At the expiration history of the race, of the progress of education, of newspa
pers, of industry, and of the Bulgarian Church, see “Annual * See “ Annual Cyclopædia” for 1871.
Oyclopædia " for 1878, article BULGARIA,