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1872. 1878.



emigration from the valley to Eastern Oregon The number of patients in the Asylum for and Washington. The yield of the latter re- the Insane is rapidly increasing, and was as gion in 1881, in excess of the demands for seed follows: Number of patients on June 1, 1881, and home consumption, is estimated at 100,000 304; admitted during the quarter, 33; re: tons, delivered at the shipping centers in about turned, 3; under treatment, 340; number disthe following proportions :

charged during the quarter, 23; died, 6; numWalla Walla.

22,000 ber of patients in hospital August 31, 1881, 311.

The admissions during the quarter were much Waitsburg..

7,500 Dayton.

larger than ever before, and the sum paid by the Upper Snake River.

12,500 State for their care and treatment during the Milton... Umatilla to mouth of Snake River.


quarter amounted to $20,282.85. Klickitat...

2,000 The total expenditure on account of the Various small shipping points..


School for Deaf-Mutes, for the year ending

100,000 According to the estimates of the Depart- enrolled, 31; average attendance, 27.

May 1, 1881, was $3,619.48; number of pupils ment of Agriculture, the wheat-crop of Oregon At the beginning of the year, the Oregon has been as follows: 1879, 7,486,492 bushels; Railway and Navigation Company owned the 1880, 11,743,420 ; 1881, 13,889,000. The following table shows the canning of ington: From the Dalles to Walla Walla, one

following lines of road in Oregon and WashColumbia River salmon during the ten years hundred and fifty-eight miles; Blue Mountain ending 1880:

extension from Whitman Junction to the State line, fourteen miles; Cascade Portage, six miles.

During the year the company has acquired 1871.. 85,000

429,000 44,000

by a lease of ninety-nine years the following

898,000 103,000

450,000 lines: Narrow-gauge line from Ray's Landing 1874.. 244,000

440,000 to Brownsville, seventy miles; narrow-gauge 291,000


line from Fulquartz's Landing to Airlie, fiftyThe census returns of 1880 show, on the three miles; narrow-gauge line from Sheridan Columbia River, twenty-nine canneries, having Junction to Sheridan, seven miles; narrowa capital of $1,100,000; product, 539,587 cases, gauge line from Perrydale to Smithfield, four and 25,900,176 pounds, in one-pound tins, val- miles. ued at $2,697,930; hands employed, 6,500. The same company has constructed the fol.

The following are the principal towns and lowing lines during the year: From Walla Walcities, with their population, in 1880: Baker la to Texas Ferry, sixty miles; with Dayton City, 1,258; Corvallis, 1,128; Oregon City, branch from Bolles's Junction, thirteen miles ; 1,263 ; Astoria, 2,803; Eugene, 1,117; Albany, grade-work on line from the Dalles to the Cas1,867; Salem, 2,538; Portland, 17,578; East cades, forty-six miles; grade-work from UmaPortland, 2,409; Dalles, 2,232.

tilla to Pendleton, thirty miles. The gold product of the State for the year During 1882 the company will build the folending June 30, 1880, was $1,090,000; silver, lowing lines: From Umatilla toward Baker $15,000.

City as far as possible-probably one hundred The following statement shows the amount miles; from Portland on to a point on the Oreof State taxes due from the several counties in gon side of the Columbia two miles below the State, as levied for the year 1881, together Kalama, forty-three miles ; to extend the Colwith the total amount of taxable property:

fax road from Rebel Flat to a point on the Northern Pacific Railroad, forty miles east of

Ainsworth, fifty miles. property.

The Oregon and California Railroad Com$1,027,542 $5,651 47

pany now owns two lines of road from PortBenton.

2,450,446 18,477 44
2,069,900 11,884 45

land to Roseburg, two hundred miles; from Clatsop

1,448,612 7,967 35 Portland to Corvallis, one hundred miles. Columbia

898,845 2,163 39

During 1882 it will extend the east side line

865,574 4,760 64 Curry.


toward the junction with the California end of Douglas..

2,426,820 18,847 51 the line as far as possible.
1,436,417 7,900 27

The Oregon Pacific Company during 1882 Josephine


propose to build a line from Yaquina Bay east768,085 4,224 46 3,896,849 18,679 90

ward toward Boisé City as far as possible, Linn..


probably one hundred and fifty miles. 4,462.994

The relations of the Northern Pacific Rail13,909,205

2,408,279 18,245 51 road and the Oregon Railway and Navigation Tillamook..

Company are set forth in the report of PresiUmatilla

2,941,625 Union


dent Villard to the stockholders of the latter, Wasco

3,221,200 17,716 60 dated September 15th, in which he says that his Washington

2,585,400 18,944 70

operations “resulted in the concentration of a 8,476,892 19,120 09

controlling interest in the stocks of the two comTotal ....

$59,256,175 $325,903 75 panies in an association of individuals, includ



Total tax.




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1,522 56

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2.804 4.594

6,408 9,260 7,222



863 1.614

501 6.066


ing the principal stockholders of our company. ii, 26, 27). The sect was founded by M. H. This control over both corporations is now G. Spafford, formerly a ruling elder in the transferred to a third corporation, the Oregon Presbyterian Church, who was engaged in the und Transcontinental Company, with an au- revival meetings that were held in Chicago thorized capital of $50,000,000, of which, how a few years ago under the preaching of Mr. ever, only $30,000,000 is to be issued at pres- D. L. Moody. Mr. Spafford was led, by the ent, and is now in process of being paid in. studies which his participation in the revival The large proprietary interest of this company meetings incited him to make, to the acceptin the other companies is the very best guar- ance of the doctrine, which was at variance antee to the latter that its power will only be with the confession of his own church, that exercised to promote their legitimate develop- only those who "overcome, ," or wholly conment to the fullest extent. Or, in other words, verted Christians, are immediately saved, while the new company can only promote its own all others, including the mass of the persons interest as a great holder of Oregon Railway regarded in the Orthodox churches as “conand Navigation and Northern Pacific stocks by verted," are “hurt at the second death," and taking the best care of every other stockholder cast into the lake of fire, where they remain in both companies.”

and suffer till they are purified; and that The State elections and the sessions of the punishment is not eternal, but “age-abiding," Legislature are held biennially. The next occurs and lasts only until the purification is accomin 1882. (See " Annual Cyclopædia" of 1880.) plished. He was excluded from his church

The population of the State by counties in for heresy, when he, together with a number 1880, as compared with 1870, was as follows: of other church-members who, having adopted

his views, had withdrawn from their churches, organized a new congregation. The Over

comers believe that the Scriptures are the in4,616

spired word of God, and accept the doctrine of 5,993

the Trinity; and they claim that their church Clatsop..


was organized with Abraham, and has since 4,834

that time been buried away as a church, but Curry

that the religion to which it testifies has been Douglas

2,251 represented by sanctified persons in the cor

porate Church throughout the intervening ages. Josephine.


At the same time, they renounce church orLane

6.426 ganizations, and teach that the true children ot 12 676

God, who constitute the “Bride of Christ," 25,203

are called to step out and show the world in 6,601

their lives—in every movement of their lives *1991 amook. Umatilla..


2,916 -a higher type of absolute holiness, urging a Union..


2,552 complete and entire consecration of the whole

2,509 Washington.



being to the service of God. They hold that 7,945

all souls will finally be restored through the

atoning blood of Christ, but that, if a soul is 174,769


not entirely consecrated to the service of God OVERCOMERS. A new sect of Christian

in this life, it must suffer severe purgatorial believers has sprung up near Chicago, Illinois, lieve that they possess a degree of inspiration

punishment. Some of the sect are said to beand has made a considerable number of conversions among persons who are described as

and gifts of healing, such as were exercised by belonging to the “comfortably situated and

the apostles on the day of Pentecost. A conmore intelligent classes of society." It is

gregation of Overcomers has been organized commonly known as the sect of the “Over

at Lake View, near Chicago, Illinois, and comers," the name being derived from the

another, a larger one, at Valparaiso, Indiana.. application of the word "overcome.” as it is started during the summer of 1881 for Pales

A party of seventeen persons of this sect used in the following passages in the second chapter of Revelation and in other parts of the mission to gather the Jews into the land of

tine, where, they believe, they had a divine New Testament: “He that overcometh shall not be hurt at the second death” (Rev. ii, 11);

their inheritance, and rule over them. "To him that overcometh will. I give to eat of failure of the oyster-beds of the New England

OYSTER-BEDS, DETERIORATION OF. The the hidden manna, and will give him a white and Middle States, the deterioration of those stone, and in the stone a new naine written, lying in Southern waters, and the necessity of which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it” (Rev. ii, 17); “He that overcometh, some efforts, either upon the part of the State and keepeth my words unto the end, to him the supply of oysters in sufficient numbers to

governments or by individuals, to maintain will be given power over the nations : and he satisfy the large and increasing demand of the shall rule over them with a rod of iron ” (Rev. consumers, bave of late excited much atten* In 1875, from part of Jackson.

tion. There is no doubt that the natural beds

1,205 9,596 4,803 8,154 2,183 2,804 9,411





8.717 9.965 11,510 4,701





Yam Hill


The State.

of the North are practically exhausted, and diminish the number of oysters? A bed is that the production of the Southern beds (of extended naturally by the drifting “spat," Maryland and Virginia) is greatly diminished. or young brood, attaching themselves to any It is not probable, however, that the area of appropriate “cultch" contiguous to the bed. the latter has decreased, notwithstanding vari. This extension is greatest in the direction of ous estimates to the contrary, arising out of the currents, and unless some substance is inthe increased price of oysters, and the lack of terposed between the soft bottoms (which are care and protection to the oyster-beds. Ad- destructive to young broods) and the drifting mitting that the Northern beds are practically" spat," they will sink into it and be destroyed. exhausted, and have become mere fattening. Nature offers very little help in the way of places for the transplanted Southern oyster, preventing this destruction, and hence the it is still open to question whether the beds of great expansion of the beds must be assigned Maryland and Virginia are deteriorating. to other agents than natural causes. The dim

It being impossible to speak with perfect inution of the number of oysters might have accuracy of the entire area covered by oysters been effected by deposits of earthy or vegetain these States, it may safely be assumed that ble matter, so as to bury both old and young the condition and peculiarities of beds in one oysters; but there is no evidence of any such district will serve, approximately at least, to deposits ever having been made. Again, a express the condition of all the rest. The only change in the character of the water and botlocality which has been thoroughly studied lies tom might deprive oysters of their proper food, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, oppo- and cause their deterioration and destruction; site the mouth of the Potomac River. This but such a change would act suddenly, and was done in 1878-79, and includes the survey impair the flavor and vitality of those that esof the beds of Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds, caped. Inasmuch, however, as no such imand ascertaining the depth of the water over pairment has taken place, but on the contrary the beds, the direction and force of the cure the oysters are larger and finer than formerly, rents, the character of the bottoin, the effect no force can be attributed to this as a cause of of gales, ice, and freshets, and also of fishery the diminution of the oysters. These, then, bewith dredges or tongs.

ing dismissed as inadequate, the real cause is Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds are arms of to be sought in the agency of man. Chesapeake Bay, and lie opposite the mouth of The oyster-fishery in these localities is carthe Potomac, on the eastern side of the bay. ried on chiefly loy the process of “dredging." The former 'extends about thirty-six miles This is performed as follows: A dredge or north, is separated from the bay by a chain of scrape resembles a large iron claw, the nails low, marshy islands, and receives the waters representing the teeth of the dredge. To the of several creeks and rivers. The shoals on back of this is fastened a bag of iron mesheither side of the channel are covered with work, large enough to hold two or three bushoyster-beds, and, where there are no beds, oys- els. Dredges vary in size from two to five ters are scattered in groups or singly. They feet across the mouth, and of greater or less are also found as continuations of the beds, weight. Dredging-vessels vary in size from and, generally speaking, oysters may be taken five to thirty tons, and all use two dredges. in varying numbers throughout Tangier, in These are dropped one from each side, and the depths of between one and six fathoms. Poco- vessel being kept under easy sail, they fill and moke Sound is twelve and a half miles long are hauled in by a small winch. They are and about nine broad near the middle. The then emptied, and the process repeated. The channel is narrow and tortuous, and the main mud, sand, sponge, etc., are separated from the body of the sound is shoal, and these shoals oysters, and, together with the oysters unfit covered with oysters, singly or in groups, or for market, thrown back into the water. As in large, well-defined beds. Several creeks and the limits of the dredging-grounds are not dethe Pocomoke River empty into this sound. fined, the vessels frequently drag quantities of The beds were located and marked off, and the shells and oysters beyond the boundary of the area ascertained approximately. The entire beds. After “culling" the oysters, or separatarea in both sounds upon which oysters were ing them from the old shells, these shells are found amounts to fifty-four square miles. The thrown back again, and many young oysters area of the beds proper, where the vessels for with them. If these fall on suitable grounds, dredging mostly work, amounts to six square sufficient to support them, they form a small miles in Tangier and four in Pocomoke Sound. colony, which soon after, by the action of the From the examination made in 1878 it appears dredges, becomes attached to the main bed, and that the number of oysters on the beds has thus increases the area of the latter. greatly diminished during the last thirty years, A further question presents itself. Will the that the area of the beds has greatly increased, dredging also account for the diminution of and that there has been no change of the usual the oysters? Without discussing here the natural conditions to which oysters are sub- question of propagation, it may be stated that jected.

the male and female of the American variety The question then arises, What natural cause of oyster expel the generative matter into the or causes would both expand the beds and water, where the eggs must meet the male

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fluid in order to be fertilized. Hence, the Stronger evidence, however, is afforded by inmore compact the bed, the greater the chance vestigation, made in 1879, in regard to areas in of the ova and spermatozoa coming in contact. Chesapeake Bay where oysters existed in a If the mature, spawn-bearing oysters are very locality known to very few fishermen. Here much diminished in number, or widely sepa- the oysters were found in clusters of from rated from each other, the chances of contact three or four to twelve or, fifteen, with clean, are slight, and there is a failure of reproduc- white shells, and the spaces between the larger tion. But the removal of brood-oysters is not ones filled with the young growth and barnathe sum total, by any means, of the effects of cles. The mature oysters were long and narthe dredging. Millions of young oysters, unfit row; whereas, in beds worked for some time, for market, are carried off sticking to the shells oysters are usually single, or in clusters of two of the mature oysters, and nearly as many or three, the animals are fatter and thicker, and young are destroyed by being thrown from the the shells are dirty, with much mud or sand dredging-vessels upon soft or unfavorable bot- clinging to them. These new beds were found toms. As, then, theoretically, dredging would to be hard, and the clusters more firmly atextend the beds and destroy their fecundity, it tached to the bottom, while the beds in the may be asked whether this has been, practic sound were soft, and the oysters easily obtained cally, the case.

by means of the dredge. All the oysters exThe testimony of the fishermen is unani- amined during the season of 1879 were measmous as to the extension of area, some of the ured and distributed into four classes, the first beds having donbled in size during the last two the mature, the last two the young growth. thirty years. They also testify that the beds Over twenty thousand were measured and clashave materially deteriorated during this period. sified, and the ratio of the young growth to

the mature was found to be as three to two. ture would probably outnumber the young, Over 100,000 oysters were taken from the beds and the ratio be abnormally small, as it was in the sounds, and measured and classified in abnormally large. With this large number of like manner, and the ratio of young to mature mature oysters there would be increased prowas found to be as three to six. Thus on the duction, and at the end of three years, again, the new beds the young outnumbered the matare, ratio would change, while the number of oyswhile on the worked beds in the sounds the ters will constantly be diminishing. In time, matnre outnumbered the young growth. however, the brood - oysters will become so

The action of the dredge is very destructive scarce that the fertilization of the eggs will be to the oysters remaining on the bed, by not more and more improbable, and the young reonly roughly detaching them from different main in the minority; so that, if the fishing objects to which they cling, but also leaving continue, the entire destruction of the breeding them in such positions as to prevent their open- power will be but a matter of time. ing the valves without letting in mud or sand. It was estimated, from careful investigation, Thus the dredge causes the destruction indi- that the number of oysters removed, in 1878, rectly of a large number of oysters that remain was over 1,500,000 per day, and in 1879, over after its passage, and hence the number of old, 700,000 per day. In the sounds the dredging empty shells should be greater upon a bed that continues throughout the year, though little is has been dredged than upon one that has not; done in the summer months. The law sanctions and if that number is very large, it shows that the working of the beds from October 1st to the population of the bed has been destroyed. May 1st. If confined to this period, with only The quantity of matter brought up by the three full working days each week, the dredging dredge was measured during the season of season would be about 120 days, and in that 1879, and also the quantity of oysters and of time there would be removed, by the estimate débris. On the unworked beds, this latter of 1878, over 184,000,000 oysters, and, by the amounted to 30 per cent of the whole quantity estimate of 1879, over 89,000,000 oysters. The of matter brought up; while in the sounds the number of young growth would be, by the first débris was much greater, and in Pocomoke estimate, 148,000,000; by the second, 36,000,Sound it amounted to 97 per cent.

000. The statistics of 1879, compared with During the season of 1878 a method was those of 1878, show that there were twice as devised by which the number of oysters to the many vessels at work in 1878 as in 1879; and square yard could be determined approxi- the difference of young growth is due to the mately; and in accordance with this the num- fact that the summer of 1879 was a bad one ber to the square yard should be greater upon for the "spat," and consequently there was a the old beds than the new. If, on comparing failure of" young."

.” The mortality among the the results of successive seasons on the same young after attachinent is about 50 per cent, bed, it is found that the number of oysters to and consequently only about 74,400,000 of the the square yard is decreasing, it may be con- young removed in 1878–79 would have atcluded that too large a number is annually tained the age of one year. If none of the oysremoved. Investigation showed that, on 60 ters had been removed from the beds, there per cent of the beds in Tangier Sound, there would have been about 259,000,000 more on was a decrease in the number of oysters in the beds than was actually the case, and of 1878–79, and that on 60 per cent of the beds that number 71 per cent were mature and the number of oysters to the square yard spawn-bearing. Now, as 65 per cent of those was less than on the newly discovered beds in in the beds are mature, the addling of 250,000,the bay, and in no case was the number much 000 would increase the percentage to 68, or the greater. In Pocomoke Sound, on every bed the young growth would be in a more hopeless minumber of oysters to the square yard was con- nority than before. siderably less than in 1878, and also much be There are, then, three indications of the delow the number on the new beds in the bay. terioration of the beds: The number of the

It is evident that, if the number of the young young is either much smaller or much larger growth falls below the number of the mature than the number of mature oysters, and in the oysters, the fecundity of the bed is impaired; latter case is so large as to be abnormal; the yet it does not follow that, if the young out- amount of débris found on the beds is much number the mature, it is a sign of increased greater than in the newly discovered areas; production. From the beds in question many and the number of oysters to the square yard millions of oysters are annually removed, of not only falls below what it should be, but has which a large percentage is mature, and, if decreased since the first examination in 1878. this removal of one class is excessive, might Considering the testimony of persons living in show itself in the increased ratio of young to the vicinity of Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds, mature. Supposing this to be the case, the and the results of the comparison of the worked young would greatly outnumber the mature beds in the sound with the unworked ones in for about three years, or the period to pass the bay, it may be concluded that the former from youth to maturity. During this period areas are much impaired in productive power, there is a constant removal of the brood-oys- and, the same reasons continuing to operate, ters, so that, at the end of three years, the ma- there will be a constant deterioration until that

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