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Morrison, of Ashtabula County. The platform all people before the law, equal taxation, non-political declared:

legislation, and a free and pure ballot as the corner

stone of free institutions; opposition to monopolies 1. That the right to make or issue money is a sov- and subsidies of all kinds; the strictest economy in ereign power to be maintained by the people for the national, State, and local administrations, that labor common benefit. The delegation of this right to cor may be lightly burdened ; the maintenance and adporations is a surrender of the central attribute of' sov Vancement of the common-school system. ereignty, void of constitutional sanction, conferring Resolved, That the abuses of the present contract upon a subordinate irresponsible power absolute do system in our State Prison, by which the products of minion over industry and commerce. All money, criminal labor are brought into competition with the whether metallic or paper, should be issued and its products of honest labor, to the great injury of the volume controlled by the Government, and not by or latter, are vicious and unwise, and should be corthrough banking corporations; and, when so issued, rected. should be a full legal tender for all debts, public and

Resolred, That the course of the last Republican private.

Legislature deserves the condemnation of the people 2. That the bonds of the United States should be for its incompetency, hypocrisy, its unnecessary and paid as rapidly as is practicable. To enable the Gov- heavy increase in the burdens of taxation, and for the ernment to meet these obligations, legal-tender cur

passage of unconstitutional acts, and for its reorganireney should be substituted for the notes of the na

zation of the benevolent institutions of the State solely tional banks, the national banking system abolished, for the purpose and as a medium for the distribution and the unlimited coinage of silver as well as gold es

of spoils. tablished by law.

Resolved, That as the humanities are non-partisan, 8. We demand the equal protection of labor and and as the treatment of criminals should be non-politcapital by law.

ical, the management of the charitable punitive insti4. We are opposed to all subsidies by Government. tutions of the State should be free from partisan

5. All lines of communication and transportation change or appointments.. should be brought under such legislative control as

Resolved, That we are in favor of a civil-service reshall secure moderate, fair, and equitable rates for pas

form whereby offices shall be held to be public trusts senger and freight traffic.

to be administered for the public good, not spoils to be 6. We condemn the cruel class legislation of the enjoyed as the reward of partisan zeal or service. Republican party, which, while professing great grati

Resolved, That the Democrats of Ohio, in this year, tude to the soldier, has' most unjustly discriminated as in all years, are in favor of the largest individual against him and in favor of the bondholder.

liberty consistent with public order, and are opposed 7. All property should bear its just proportion of to legislation merely sumptuary: taxation, and we demand a graduated income-tax.

Resolred, That the recent discovery of enormous 8. We denounce as most dangerous the efforts, peculations in high Federal places, and the Republican wherever manifest, to restrict the right of suffrage. attempt to purchase votes by corruption, should con

9. We are opposed to an increase of the standing vince the country that the Republican organization is army in time of peace, and the insidious scheme to ex not worthy of public confidence. tablish an enormous military power under the guise of Resolved, That the power delegated to the General a militia law.

Government “ to regulate commerce among the 10. That the practice of railroads of this state in is- States," as well as the power reserved to the States to şuing free passes over their lines of roads to the mem- regulate commerce within their own borders, should bers of the Legislature and all other officers of the both be exercised to prevent unjust discrimination and State, is vicious and corrupting, and ought not to be unreasonable charges by our railroads, and to secure a sanctioned or tolerated, but should be prohibited by tariff for revenue levied and adjusted in its details with stringent laws.

a view to equity in the public burdens and the en11. That the practice of turning out faithful officers couragement of productive industries without creating connected with the supervision and management of monopolies ; and we favor the appointment of a comthe different institutions of the State upon mere party mission to suggest a method of revision which shall ground, is prejudicial to the best interests of the State, accomplish this result. and ought not longer to be sanctioned by any party. 12. Prison convict-labor should be utilized by the at Loveland, July 20th, and after considerable

A Temperance Reform Convention was held State alone.

13. That we favor the submission by the Legisla- discussion on the propriety of a separate politture to a vote of the people of an amendment to the ical organization, placed a ticket in the field as Constitution prohibiting the manufacture, salo, or use follows: Governor, Abram R. Ludlow, of of intoxicating drinks as a beverage.

Springfield; Lieutenant-Governor, Jason McThe Democratic State Convention assembled Vay, of Columbus; Judge of the Supreme Court, at Columbns, July 13th, and put in the field Gideon T. Stewart, of Norwalk; Attorney-Genthe following candidates: For Governor, John eral, Levi Mills, of Wilmington; Treasurer, FerW. Bookwalter, of Clarke County; for Lieu- dinand Schumacher, of Akron; Board of Pubtenant-Governor, Edgar M. Jobnson, of Hamil- lic Works, Abner Davis, of Mercer County. ton County; for Supreme Judge, Édward F. The following platform was adopted : Bingham, of Franklin County ; for Attorney Whereas, The liquor-traffic is going forward in the General, Frank C. Dougherty, of Hardin Coun- State of Ohio with increasing power, devastating our ty; for State Treasurer, Alonzo P. Winslow, homes, corrupting public morals, and controlling legisof Ouyahoga County; for member of the Board lation; and, of Public Works, John Crowe, of Defiance have put into their platforms principles which, if car

Whereas, The two great political parties of Obio. County. The platform was as follows: ried out, will result in a still greater increase of the

liquor-traffic and of its dreadful consequences : thereThe Democrats of Ohio, proud of their citizenship fore, in this great State, for the purpose of maintaining the Resolved, That the time has fully come when temprosperity of the Commonwealth and to promote the perance men should unite in a political organization welfare and happiness of the whole people, submit whose leading object shall be the suppression of the the following declaration of principles upon which liquor-traffic, and therefore we are in favor of nomithey ask the suffrages of the people: The equality of nating a State temperance reform ticket.

FOR GOVERNOR.

16,597

and

Resolved, That our ultimate object shall be the con- bling in gold, stocks, agricultural products, and all stitutional prohibition of the liquor-traffic, the manu- forms of money and property. facture and sale of intoxicating liquors, including 5. The prohibition of corporation grants, Crédit wine, ale, and beer, and we demand that our next Mobilier and ring speculations with public lands, and Legislature shall submit to the voters of Ohio such the substitution of homesteads for the people to be constitutional amendments.

secured to actual settlers there, and to be encouraged Resolved, That as a measure leading to constitu- and preserved throughout the nation. tional prohibition, we are in favor of local option, and 6. The protection by law of laborers against the demand of our next Legislature the passage of a oppressions of unjust capital, and a lien on the property stringent local-option law.

and earnings of corporations for the wages. Resolved, That we do not deem it important to an 7. The equal rights and civil equality of the people, nounce definite principles on other political issues, as including the right of suffrage, irrespective of race, all these are of minor importance when compared with sex, or color. those great measures which we advocate and propose 8. The reduction of salaries of public officers in a to secure-constitutional prohibition of the liquor- just ratio to the decline of wages and market prices ; traffic.

the reduction of taxes; the abolition of all sinecures Resolved, When either of the dominant parties puts and unnecessary offices, of subsidies and Star Route in nomination candidates for the General Assembly swindles; the frequent and rigid investigation into and county officers distinctly pledged to the principles the whole system of Government contracts and the acherein set forth, we will not put opposition candidates counts of public officers, and the prompt payment of in the field ; but when they tail to do this we will put the public debt by retrenchment and reform in the in nomination our own tickets, as in the case of State Government expenses. officers, and press their election with energy: Resolved, That we recommend the organization of

The election took place October 11th, and county and township organizations as auxiliaries to the resulted in a complete Republican victory, the Ohio Anti-Liquor Alliance.

whole of the Republican State ticket being Resolved, That we recognize the great moral power elected by majorities over all the other candiof the Women's National Christian Temperance Union, dates combined, and large majorities secured the success which has crowned its efforts, and we earnestly ask the co-operation of the noble Christian in both branches of the Legislature. The folwomen of our State in our efforts to forward the fore- lowing shows the votes on each candidate: going objects.

Resolved, That we hereby tender to James A. Garfield, President of the United States, and his family, Charles Foster, Republican..

312,735 our profoundest sympathies in his sore amiction, and John Book walter, Democrat.

288,426 we, in common with the people of this whole country,

A. R. Ludlow, Prohibitionist.. rejoice in the prospect of his speedy recovery,

John Seitz, Greenback.

6,830 Scattering...

138 devoutly pray God that he might be spared to this nation to accomplish the great hopes that have been

FOR LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. centered in him.

R. G. Richards, Republican..

314,100 The Prohibition Reform State Convention Edgar M. Johnson, Democrat.

258,266 Jason McVay, Prohibitionist.

16,127 was held at Columbus, August 4th, and nomi

Charles Jenkins, Greenback

6,360 nated the following State ticket: for Governor, Scattering ... Abram R. Ludlow, of Clarke County; for Lieutenant-Governor, Jason McVay, of Franklin

Nicholas Longworth, Republican.

816,005 County; for Judge of the Supreme Court, Edward F. Bingham, Democrat.

256,650 Gideon T. Stewart, of Huron County; for

Gideon T. Stewart, Prohibitionist.

16,090 Joseph Watson, Greenback....

6,495 Attorney-General, Henry Camp, of Coshocton

Scattering..

71 County; for State Treasurer, Ferdinand Schu

FOR ATTORNEY-GENERAL. macher, of Summit County; for member of

G. K. Nash, Republican..

315,655 Board of Public Works, Abner Davis, of Mer

F. C. Dougherty, Democrat.

287,470 cer County. The candidates are the same as David W. Gage, Prohibitionist.

15,612 G. N. Tuttle, Greenback.

6,482 those nominated previously at Loveland, with

Scattering....
the exception of Attorney-General. Levi Mills
having declined the Loveland nomination, the
place was given to Henry Camp. On his de-

Joseph Turney, Republican,..
A. P. Winslow, Deinocrat..

286,091 clination the committee substituted the name Ferdinand Schumacher, Prohibitionist. 15,842 of David W. Gage, of Cuyahoga County. The

William F. Gloyd, Greenback...

6,487

Scattering.... following platform was adopted:

Resolved, That the Prohibition Reform party of
Ohio, in this thirteenth year of its history, with con George Paul, Republican..

815,459 gratulations to the friends of the cause on its present John Crowe, Democrat..

237,645 Abner Davis, Prohibitionist..

15,255 great and rapid progress, repeat and affirm the follow

H. L. Morrison, Greenback..

6,438 ing principles and measures:

Scattering 1. The prohibition in the State and national Constitution and laws of the liquor crime, being the The Republicans elected 22 Senators and 70 manufacture, importation, sale, and supply of intoxi- Representatives, and the Democrats 11 Sencating liquors for use as a beverage.

2. The abolition of executive and legislative patron- ators and 35 Representatives, thus giving the age, and the election of President and Vice-President, Republicans an exact two-thirds vote in each United States Senators, postmasters, and all civil branch of the Legislature. officers, so far as practicable, by direct vote of the The following table gives the population of people.

3. The universal and enforced education of the Ohio by counties, as finally returned by the youth of the State and nation.

census of 1880, and as compared with the cor4. The prohibition of speculative and other gam- responding figures for 1870:

34

FOR JUDGE OF SUPREME COURT.

67

FOR TREASURER.

316,282

125

FOR MEMBER OF BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS.

477

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OPIUM-TRAFFIO IN INDIA AND CHI- known, but it is believed to have been indulged NA. There have been indications during the in to some degree as a luxury by the mandayear of a renewed effort on the part of the au- rins of Canton. It was after this that the thorities of China to suppress or at least to cir- taste for the drug was revealed in a marked cumscribe the traffic in opium, with a view to degree among the official classes in China. restricting its consumption in that empire. At After 1767 the traffic rapidly increased to the same time the agitation has been continued about 1,000 chests annually, and the profit in England in favor of the policy of discour which accrued from it, notwithstanding heavy aging the exportation of the drug from India. import duties, induced the British East India The difficulties in the way of this movement Company to enter into competition with the arise from the fact that both the Indian Gov- Portuguese in supplying the Chinese markets. ernment and China derive no inconsiderable Its first venture was made in 1773, and was part of their revenue from this trade, and in- followed by another on a larger scale three dulgence in the opium-habit among the Chi- years later. By this time the traffic had been nese has become so prevalent as to suggest an made contraband by imperial edicts, and two almost universal resistance to measures calcu- vessels were left at anchor in Larks Bay, to lated to interfere with it. Originally the prod- the south of Macao, to serve as depots through uct of the opium poppy, which was cultivated which it could be carried on. At this time, it most successfully in Asiatic Turkey and Persia, is said, the drug, which cost 500 rupees a chest was used exclusively as an article of medicine. at Calcutta, was sold in China at a profit of There are evidences of the practice of opium about 100 per cent. The trade increased until eating and smoking among the Persian mag- in 1794 the importation of Indian opium nates of some centuries ago, and the example through English agents had risen to 1,500 seems to have been imitated by some of the chests. Hindoo princes of Rajpootana, and a few of the It was about the end of the last century that later emperors of the Ming dynasty in China; the practice of indulging in opium had made but the habit was not at all common until such progress as to be regarded as a national within a comparatively recent period. During evil, and to evoke vigorous efforts to suppress the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the total the trade in what was officially called "the supply in the East was very small, and derived flowing poison.". In the year 1800 Hea King, chiefly from Asiatic Turkey and Persia. A who had recently succeeded his grandfather, small quantity of an inferior grade was pro- the illustrious Keen Lung, issued a formal procduced in the Chinese province of Yunnan, which lamation, not only forbidding the importation was either consumed locally or sent abroad for of the drug, but absolutely prohibiting its culmedicinal purposes. The Portuguese were the tivation in Yunnan. This was followed by sefirst to introduce Indian opium into China, vere edicts against all who cultivated, importwhich they did in small quantities through their ed, or consumed opium ; but the mandarins of possessions of Goa and Macao. The amount Canton, for whom the trade was a prolific up to the year 1767 did not exceed 200 chests source of revenue, continued to connive at it, annually. The use to which it was put is not and it went on increasing. In 1827 it had risen

uen.

to 10,000 chests annually, and ten years later puted that the state derived from it a net profit amounted to more than 40,000. This progress of nearly £8,000,000, about one half of which had been made under all the difficulties, incon- came from the Bengal monopoly. Perhaps a veniences, and dangers of carrying on a purely million pounds in value of the product was contraband traffic. More vigorous efforts for destined for Burmah and the Malay settlements, its suppression led to the so-called “Opium but nearly eleven million pounds' wortb was War” with England in 1840, which ended with sold to the Chinese. The difficulty of reinthe treaty of Nanking in 1842. This and the stating the policy of prohibiting or materially subsequent treaty of Peking presented the first restricting the opium-traffic is manifestly renrecognized basis of traffic between the English dered very great by its importance for revenue and Chinese, and gave opium a place among purposes to both the Chinese and British Indian the legal imports into China, thereby removing Governments. So far as it depends on negothe obstacles to the development of the traffic. tiations with Great Britain, the difficulty is The importation from India had reached 70,- further magnified by the fact that that nation 000 chests in 1856, and is now computed at does not share, to any appreciable degree, the about 90,000. Meantime the cultivation of the evil consequences it is desired to check, while poppy-seed had continued in Yunnan, and ex- its share of the financial benefit is very great. tended to the neighboring province of Sech- To strike opium from the sources of revenue

Even after the treaties which followed for the Indian Government would necessitate a the “Opium War," the Emperor of China re- difficult readjustment of the finances of India. fused to recognize the traffic as a legitimate Another obstacle which the Chinese Governsource of national revenue. He said: “It is ment is likely to encounter is to be found in true that I can not prevent the introduction of the remarkable increase in the home producthe flowing poison; gain-seeking and corrupt tion of opium in the provinces of Yunnan and men will, for profit and sensuality, defeat my Sechuen, and the almost universal prevalence wishes; but nothing will induce me to derive which the habit of opium-smoking has attained a revenue from the vice and misery of my peo- in a large part of the empire. While it is eviple.” This sentiment controlled the avowed dent, from recent utterances of the minister policy of the Government until after the second Li Hung Chang, that negotiations are likely to foreign war, which closed with the treaties of be opened with a view to restricting the imTien-tsin and Peking in 1858, after which a portation, there is little prospect of immediate party gained the ascendant which took a prac- success, either in the effort to suppress the tical view of utilizing the inevitable traffic as traffic from abroad or that within the empire, a source of revenue. The new tariff issued at or to circumscribe the use of the drug which that time recognized opium as a legal import, is regarded as so pernicious, so long as such and subjected it to a tax of 30 taels per picul, powerful interests and such wide-spread popuor about £10 sterling per chest. It was also lar tastes are arrayed against the policy, and made subject to transit dues after being re the means of enforcing it are so inadequate in moved from the port.

consequence of the character and attitude of a Not only has imported opium become a fruit. large part of the official and influential classes ful source of revenue to China, but it is a very in China. important article of taxation and profit for the OREGON. The Oregon State Woman SufBritish Indian Government. The poppy is frage Association met in Portland on the 8th grown and the drug manufactured chiefly in of February. The following resolutions were two special districts, the valley of the Ganges, adopted: about Patna and Benares, and a fertile table

Whereas, The social relations between men and land in Central India, which corresponds to women are mutual, their individual needs equal, and the old kingdom of Malwah and is for the most their conjugal interests identical ; and, part still under the rule of native princes, fore Whereas, Man, by virtue of the law-making power, most among whom are Scindia and Holkar.

as expressed through the ballot, has supreme advanThe cultivation of the poppy in the Malwah in providing for his individual needs, and in control

tage over woman in reaching exalted social positions, district is free, but a duty of £65 per chest is ling the individual interests of mutual conjugal relaraised on it as it passes through British terri- tions; and, tory. In Bengal, on the other hand, the pro- both unwise and unjust, and not to be continued ;

Whereas, This advantage of one over the other is duction of opium' is a government monopoly. and, Outside of these two districts, with the excep Whereas, The era of physical force is rapidly givtion of Rajpootana and a few places in the ing way to the era of intellectual and moral influence Punjab, the cultivation of the poppy is pro- between men and men: therefore, hibited in India. The manufacture of the abolished wherever it exists between men and women.

Resolved, 1. That this same era of force should be opium of commerce from the juice of the pop

2. That the ballot is the key to men's advantage py grown in British territory is performed at over women; and women, who are by nature equal Patna and Ghazepoor, while that from the prod- with men, ought by right of law to be equally free and uct of the Malwah district is made at Indore independent with men in all things pertaining to their and Gwalior. In 1878–79 the total product domestic, civil, and political rights,

3. That what the ballot has done for man, native was 91,200 chests, of which the export value or foreign-bom, it is equally capable of doing for was £12,993,985, and it was officially com woman, and we demand it for her as a means of self

women.

WHEAT.

FLOUR.

YEAR.

Bushels,

Value."

Barrels.

Value.

improvement, social advantage, and moral power, as receiving consideration from the political parties : well as political equality.

therefore, 4. That the present phase of the woman movement Resolved, That while in the judgment of this Allidoes not arise from domestic grievances, but from ance no separate political party should be formed, yet governmental injustice.

we should be consolidated in political action. 5. That woman suffrage is a question of human Resolved, That a balance-of-power party should be right, in exact accordance with the fundamental prin- now formed, whose members shall be pledged to conciples of a republican form of government.

certed action not to vote for any but temperance men. 6. That we demand the ballot as a practical appli Resolved, That a committee of twelve men be apcation of those principles of liberty and justice which pointed to outline and organize this work. are taught in every district school-among girls as Resolred, That we will unite our efforts, and we call well as boys.

upon all the friends of temperance in Oregon to unite 7. That the present phase of the woman movement with us in petitioning the next Legislature at Salem is practical, and it is woman's duty to assume the re (1892) to enact a stringent civil damage law at that time. sponsibilities of citizenship whenever possible. 8. That the Executive Committce shall have the held in the same city, on the 30th of July, it

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, power to appoint picked men and women in every county as committees upon political action, whose was determined to circulate petitions and take duty shall be to attend primary meetings and nomi- other measures to induce the Legislature at its nating conventions, and secure woman-suffrage planks next regular session to adopt the following conand resolutions in party platforms. 9. That it is the sense of this convention that uni

stitutional amendment: versal suffrage is both a civil and a natural right, ARTICLE I, SECTION 1. That the manufacture, sale, and as such it recognizes neither sex nor previous or the giving away, or the offering to sell or give away, condition of servitude.

of any or all kinds of spirituous, vinous, malt, or any 10. That as universal suffrage is a civil as well as other intoxicating liquor, within the State of Oregon, natural right, it carries with it the duties and obliga- is prohibited, except for medicinal, scientific, or metions of citizenship.

chanical purposes. 11. That it is the sense of this convention that God Sec. 2. The Legislative Assembly shall enforce this made it a law of this universe that justice is the high- article by appropriate legislation forth with after the est expediency.

adoption of said amendment. 12. That we heartily concur in the recent act of the State Legislature in granting equal property rights to and flour from Portland, for the last four calen

The exports to foreign countries of wheat 13. That we thank the Legislature of 1880 for its dar years, have been as follow: just and generous act in passing a resolution for so amending the State Constitution that it may be legally possible for the next Legislature to submit the proposition for a constitutional woman-suffrage amendment to the vote of the people in 1884.

1,885,566 14. That we will use all honorable means to elect

$1,976,772 102,943 $491,199

2,414,716 2,789,115 161,141 805,885 men to the Legislature of 1882 who are pledged to

1,762,515 1,845,587 180,663 sustain the woman's suffrage resolution passed by 1881.. 4,076,508 8,765,282 874,480 1,484,811 the Legislature of 1880. The Oregon State Temperance Alliance met 503. From Astoria there were exported dur

The value of all-exports in 1881 was $5,324,in Portland on the 16th of February. The ing the year 474,336 centals of wheat, valued following are the resolutions adopted:

at $739,170; 49,652 barrels of flour, valued at Resolved, That the Oregon State Temperance Alo $248,752; and 342,149 cans of salmon, valued liance takes this the earliest opportunity afforded of expressing its profound disappointment and regret at

at $1,736,993. The total value of wheat and the course the Legislature of this state pursued in flour exported from the two ports was $6,312,refusing to pass a civil damage act for this State, or 425; and of all articles, $8,124,368. The imany act whatever to check the growth of the terrible ports to Portland amounted to $639,316; and scourge-intemperance. Resolved, That we renew our pledges never to cease

to Astoria, $220,218; total, $859,534. The enour work and labors until the organic law of the State tire shipments from the Columbia River for of Oregon is so amended as to for ever banish all kinds the year amounted in value to fully $14,000,000. and classes of intoxicating liquors from the State; and Adding to foreign exports shipments to San to the end that this object may be attained, we fayor Francisco, consisting of wheat, flour, wool, as possible, an amendment to the Constitution provid- salmon, and other products, the value of which ing for the entire prohibition of the manufacture, im- at a moderate estimate would be $6,000,000, portation, sale, or giving away as a beverage any in we have the total above indicated. Salmon toxicating liquor whatever.

alone shipped to San Francisco reached a total Resolved, That as an efficient means to the accomplishment of all the ends had in view by this alliance; of 222,000 cases, valued at $1,100,000. Wheat we look to and rely upon the assistance of the Chris: shipments to that city were about 400,000 centian Church and Christian people, as well as the united tals, valued at $600,000; and flour shipments, and hearty co-operation of all other organizations of 320,000 sacks, valued at about $400,000. Of the State whose object is to reclaim and reform the wool, 27,762 bales were shipped, having a value inebriate, and build up a strong and healthy temper- of about $1,400,000. Oats, flaxseed, potatoes, ance sentiment among the people.

Resoloed, That we invite all lovers of temperance hides, hops, etc., would make up another half and sobriety, of all political parties, and all branches million of value. of the Christian Church, to join in the grand work of The Willamette Valley yields an average of redeeming our State and nation from the curse of 150,000 tons of wheat in excess of the demands strong drink.

Whereas, The liquor interest in Oregon is organized for seed and home consumption. There has and consolidated as a political force, demanding and been little gain for four or five years, owing to

VOL. XXI.-45 A

1878.. 1879.. 1880..

891.872

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